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The 

[lementary School 
Teacher 



September, 1904 

Vol. V. No. 1 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 



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ALONE CONTAINS THE. QUALITT Tl" 

MAKES Womanly Beauty radian! 



n The Elementary School Teacher 






THE 



Elementary School Teacher 



VOLUME Y 



JULY, IQ04— JUNE, 1905 



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BOOKS m TEACHERS 






The Place of Industries In 
Elementary Education 

By Katharine Elizabeth Dopp 

3o8 pp., 1 2ino, cloth, gilt top; j»^/, ^i.oo; post- 
paid,, ^i.io 

One of the most stimulating and 

thoughtful books published in recent 

years. The neglected opportunities of 

the elementary and primary teacher are 

specifically pointed out in every chapter. 

All teachers should read the book and 

have it available for constant reference. 



The Psychology of Child 
Development 

By Irving King 

With an Introduction by John Dbwby 
280 pp..i2mo,cloth; k^/,^i.oo; postpaid, |i. 10 

This book is an attempt to present a 
consistent and intelligible outline of the 
mental development of the child from 
the standpoint of mental function. Read- 
ing the consecutive chapters will give 
one a point of view from which much of 
the chaotic material of child-study will 
assume a new significance. The inter- 
pretation of the child is here the prime 
prerequisite for successful teaching. 



The Possibility of a Science of Education 

By Samuel Bower Sinclair 

Vice- Principal Normal School, Ottawa, Canada 
130 pp., i2mo. cloth, net, ^i.oo; postpaid, ^i.io 

In this book the author proves that a science of education is possible, after the 
necessary emphasis is placed upon the functional or dynamic phase of science. This 
educational science is quite independent, with a technique of its own; its aims are 
formulated mainly upon an ethical basis, its means upon a psychological basis. A 
strong plea is made for professional training of the teacher. 



The Educational Situation 

New Edition 

By John Dewey 

104 pp., 8vo, cloth; 75 cents, net; 
postpaid, 81 cents 

The problems of elementary, second- 
ary, and college education are discussed 
in their twofold relations: to the past, 
which has determined their conditions 
and forms; and to the present, which de- 
termines their aims and results — their 
ideals and their success or failure in 
realizing them. The school, more than 
any other social institution, is the living 
present as reflection of the past and as 
prophecy of the future. 



The Mental Traits of Sex 

By Helen Bradford Thompson 

196 pp., Svo, cloth; nef, ^1.25; 
postpaid, ^1.32 

This monograph contains a great deal 
of accurate information bearing on the 
question of the psychology of the sexes. 
The data was obtained in a series of ex- 
periments conducted in the psychologi- 
cal laboratory of the University of Chi- 
cago, and the results are discussed in a 
scientific and entertaining manner. Nu- 
merous diagrams and charts explain the 
text. 



AT ALL B00K8BLLBR8, OR ORDBR DISBCT FROM 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

CHICAOO, ILUBTOIS 



Decennial Publications 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, 1892-1902 



F 
I 
R 

T 



R 
I 
£ 



No^w Ready 



Quarto, SilK Cloth 



VOLUME I 

cxliv+574 pp., 14.50, net 



The Pretident'a Report, covering the administration of the 
University during the first ten years of its existence. The his- 
tory of the institution is presented in an exhaustive introduction, 
and the body of the work contains many valuable statistics 
bearing on the first decennium. 



VOLUME II 

185 pp., I3.00, net 
(In paper, ^2.50, net) 



The PretideBt'a Report, containing a detailed and classified 
list of the publications ol the members of the University during 
the period 1899-1902. 



VOLUME III 

244 pp., ^3.00, net 



Including papers on Theology, Church History, Philosophy, 
and Edttcation. A volume of great interest to theologians, 
students of philosophy, and teachers in high schools, normal 
schools, colleges, and universities. 



VOLUME IV 

353 PP-. 5400, net 



Devoted to Political Economy, Political Science, History, and 
Sociology. The papers makmg up this volume are invaluable 
to those who would know what progress is being made in the 
several fields represented. 



VOLUME V 

(Ready August) 
250 pp., I4.00, net 



An interesting series of writings on the Semitic Languages and 
Literatures, Biblical and Patristic Greek. Of especial value 
to theologians and students of Orientalia. 



VOLUME VI 

288 pp., 13.50, net 



Treating the Greek and Latin Languages and Literatures, 
Sanskrit and Indo-European Comparatnre Philology, Classi- 
cal ArcluDology. A book that should be in the hands of 
every student of the classics. 



VOLUME VII 

347 pp., I4.00, net 



Includes a series of papers on the Romance and Oermanic 
Laneuages and Literatures, and on the English Language 
andl/iteratore. All students of modem languages would read 
this volume with profit. 



VOLUME VIII 

414 pp., ^6.00, net 



The papers and plates in this volume are essential to the 
student of Astronomy and Astrophjrslcs. The results of 
some of the latest researches are here published for the first 
time. 



VOLUME IZ 

206 pp., I3.50, net 



A series of thirteen papers on HathematicSf Chemistry, Phys- 
ics, and Geolos^ that will prove of immediate interest to stu- 
dents of the saences. 



VOLUME X 

396 pp., Iro.oo, net 



The most interesting collection of papers and plates on the 
Biological Sciences now available within a single cover. Every 
paper is a distinct and valuable contribution to the literature 
of biology. 



The VniTersity of Chicago Press: 

Please send me your special Decennial Cat- 
alogue containing information about reprints 
and Separates of the papers in the First Series, 
as here advertised. 



All of the contributions to these volumes are 
issued as separates in paper covers and are now 
available in that form. Full information in 
our special catalogue, sent, on request. Simply 
detach and mail the adjoining coupon. 



At an booksellsrs, or'order direct fmn 

The University of Gliicago Press 

(aiCAOo, nxiHOis 



Clubbing' Offers 

THe ScHool Review 

has during the past summer made arrangements with a number of educational papers whereby com- 
bination rates enable new subscribers to get two journals at a very considerable reduction in price. 
In the case of two important periodicals, the terms are so favorable that new subscribers obtain 

Tviro journals for tKe price of one! 

One of these, Educaiion, is published in the East ; the other, Midland Schools^ in the West ; and 
both are so favorably known that we need only mention their titles. At the following rates all 
teachers in high schools, normal schools, and colleges should subscribe to The School Review 
and get one journal free. Note these prices: 



E^dUCCitiOnf Pubn&hed monthly in Boston. Mass. 

I)es Moines, Iowa 



Midland S^cKools, ?•">>'«'-'■"?«'<■"■' 



Annual 
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You will note that western subscribers to The School Review get Midland Schools free and 
eastern subscribers to Education get The School Review free. Cash should accompany the 
order and subscriptions must be sent to the publishers direct. Besides the above rates, very favor- 
able terms are made new subscribers in these 

OtKer Combinations 



The Educational Review, ColumHa university. New York 

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Moderator TopiOt Lansing. Mich. 

Western Teacher, Miiwauice*. wis., or 
American Journal of Education, Milwaukee, wis. 
Educator Journal, itKUanapoiis. ind. 
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PRUDENTIAL , 

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VOLUME V NUMBER I 



The Elementary School Teacher 



SEPTEMBER, 1904 
DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.^ 

NICHOLAS M. BUTLER, 

PRESIDENT OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

The building of a great university is one of the noblest tasks 
ever committed to the hand of man. To watch its roots strike 
ever deeper into the nourishing soil of favoring public opinion, 
and to watch its results spreading over an ever widening area, is 
an inspiration; but to participate in the building of such a uni- 
versity gives a supreme satisfaction, perhaps appreciated only by 
those who have personally felt it. 

In the Middle Age it was the great cathedral which most fully 
embodied and symbolized the ideals and the aspirations of civil- 
ized man. All over Europe they were rising for centuries, those 
great, solemn, stately piles, whose pointed windows and arches 
and towering spires marked the aspirations of man for the things 
of heaven, and stood almost as if they might draw down from the 
unseen depths beyond the clouds something of the divine inspira- 
tion that lingered there. Into the building of those great cathe- 
drals were poured the wealth of prince and potentate, and the 
labor of pauper and of peasant. They were the embodiment of 
the faith of a Christian people for centuries, and, representing as 
they did the dominating ideals of that faith, they pictured out in 
permanent and material form the aspirations of those people. 

In otu" own time the university has succeeded to the place once 
held by the cathedral as the best embodiment of the uplifting 
forces of the modem time. We still find place for the cathedral, 

*The oration delivered at the dedication of Emmons Blaine Hall, School of 
Education, University of Chicago, May 14, 1904. 



2 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

but we place by its side, as more distinctly our own and as more 
distinctly representative of everything that has entered into our 
modem life, the great university as it is found in every nation of 
the civilized world. 

When the history of the last century comes to be written, it 
will be seen that, after the fall of Napoleon and the rise of the 
democratic movement in Europe^ the great impulse that was 
given to the founding and development of universities represented 
the very best thought and the best and highest ideals of the time. 
Those universities, striking root in a democracy, have become 
particularly popular institutions. They have put oflF one by one 
the marks of privilege and of exclusiveness, and under the shelter- 
ing care of the modem democratic state they have become the 
pride of a democratic people. There are gathered together those 
devoted bands of scholars, men and women who are giving their 
lives to the pursuit of truth in its every form, and who are bring- 
ing together for the service of mankind the results of their search 
in every slightest department of letters, of science, or of art. 

From the very beginning the essential element in the univer- 
sity has been no plan of organization, no great scheme or provi- 
sion of endowment, no magnificent pile of stately buildings; the 
essential thing has been the presence of the great, inspiring, 
devoted teacher, who could draw to himself those who hungered 
and thirsted to learn. So it was with those who gathered at the 
feet of the Arab physicians about the healing springs of Salerno ; 
so it was when the students of civic law flocked to Bologna to 
learn from Alericus; so it was when the thousands of students 
crowded the hilltops that now are Paris to hearken to the eloquent 
dissertations of William de Champeaux and Abelard; so it was 
in the quieter cloisters on the banks of the Isis and the Thames. 
There is, and there can be, no university built out of stone. 
There is, and there can be, no university made of wealth. The 
university is a thing of the spirit, and that spirit will surely find 
in the gratitude of a democratic people the body it needs for its 
existence. 

As the university developed and touched democratic life at 
ever more points, the old seven liberal arts began to break up; 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 3 

not that they were tcx) many, but that they were tcx) few to keep 
pace with the new-found knowledges of man, and that older 
classification no longer sufficed to give us the material out of 
which culture and character could be had and made. One science 
pressed hard upon another, one language came on the train 
speedily of its predecessor; and before long not seven liberal arts, 
but seventy times seven, were included in the prog^ram of studies 
of the great universities. 

Why was it, do you suppose, that it took the university so long 
to study itself? Why did century after century go past before it 
turned its eye inward and made its own process a subject of analy- 
sis, of investigation ? I do not know, unless it be that introspec- 
tion of a scholarly and analjrtic kind comes late in the history of 
human activities. It is true of man himself that he was first 
absorbed in the study of the external world. He was oppressed 
by it, overcome with it, stupefied at it. He peopled it with gods 
and demons because the forces were impossible for him to under- 
stand: and really it was only when Socrates came that the eye 
of man was turned in, and man's own mental processes, his own 
power of knowledge, his own intellectual conquests, were them- 
selves studied and related to this vast content that lay without. 
Whatever reason there may be for introspection coming late in 
the history of the race, there is, I suppose, substantially the same 
reason for introspection coming late in the history of universities. 
It took a long time to turn the university eye in upon its own 
process. And when it first turned the eye in, as it began to do in 
the eighteenth century, tinder the guidance of professors of phi- 
losophy in Germany, it was absorbed in theoretical discussions 
peculiar to the stage of advancement in which the pupil found 
himself when he came within university quarters. 

It took a still longer time for the university to grasp the fun- 
damental truth, now so simple and so axiomatic, that the educa- 
tional process is one, and that no human power can break it into 
parts. You may deal with it in part, you may cut it up for 
theoretical purposes into divisions, but no man can draw the 
point or line at which the division takes place. We have agreed 
upon certain classifications for purposes of practical administra- 



4 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

tion, and it is well that we should. That is convenient, it is help- 
ful. But the moment we attach any great metaphysical reality to 
those elements of classification, we have departed from the one 
fundamental truth in all human life and human nature, viz., that 
growth and development are continuous and unending. 

Finally, under the guidance of the psychologists this time, not 
the philosophers as at first, the university came to see that this 
entire process was one, and that the system of education from 
birth to adulthood was as important for the university as any 
other subject that it had taken for its own. Then it left off 
sneering at the kindergarten and the elementary school, and it 
embraced them in its program as elements of human life to be 
studied and dealt with in the light of their fundamental and far- 
reaching importance. 

We have been slow, no doubt, to see all this. We have been 
slow to be catholic about education. We have been slow to be 
scientific. But thanks be, in these great universities of America 
the fight for catholicity and the fight for scientific study of edu- 
cation has been won. There is no self-respecting university in 
this land today that would attempt to repeat the statements about 
education as a process and an art and a philosophy that were com- 
mon twenty-five years ago ; and it is a matter of supreme signifi- 
cance, it is a matter of the supremest significance, that we are 
met today formally to dedicate these magnificent buildings that 
are to stand, let us hope, so long as stone will endiu'e, as a monu- 
ment to the catholic educational ideals of the University of Chi- 
cago and as a monument to the far-sighted benefaction of those 
who have made them possible. 

Now, what is it that we are to do? We are to do more, mem- 
bers of the University, than merely to train teachers. The train- 
ing of teachers is of supreme importance, to be sure; no one 
would dream of denying that. But beyond training teachers we 
are to study education itself. We are to remember that we are in 
the presence, not of something new, but of something almost 
eternally old that we have neglected to study and observe. Away 
down for twenty-five hundred years there have been the voices 
of seers and philosophers crying in the wilderness, urging man- 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 5 

kind to take some interest in this great human institution. But 
only now, only in oiu" own time, are we ready in our universities 
— ready philosophically, ready psychologfically, ready perhaps 
physiologically — to take up the serious and determined study of 
an educational process itself. And then we are going to find how 
closely these bind our universities together by a study which 
relates itself with almost, if not quite, everjrthing else they do. 

In my judgment, we are going consistently to approach edu- 
cation on these converging lines. We are going to approach it 
along the line of physiological inquiry, along the line of psycho- 
logical inquiry, and along the line of social or sociological 
inquiry. We are going to make ourselves familiar with the laws 
governing the growth and development of the human body. We 
are going to know the relation, more intimately than we do now, 
between the physiological and the earlier and slighter pathological 
states. We are going to lay continued emphasis upon the physi- 
cal basis of education. And we are going to emphasize year by 
year health as the comer-stone of the educational structure. 

We are going to approach education along the psychological 
line, and there we find much already done for us in certain fields. 
The science of psychology has proceeded by leaps and bounds 
since Fechner's time. Immense masses of material are at our 
disposal regarding the adult man, but we are still strangely 
unfamiliar with the growing mind and with some of the com- 
parative mental stages which must enter into our comprehension 
of the educational process. We are going to deal more and more 
in the university with the study of the genetic and comparative 
aspects of psychology. We are going to ask how it is that these 
powers of ours take their rise, what contributes to their first mani- 
festations, how do those manifestations alter in quantity as they 
progress. Do they reach a maximum of perfection and then fall 
away, or are they able to maintain themselves upon a common 
level of ability? Then, in the light of that information, we are 
going to ask searching questions about the food that the growing 
mind should have, and when and how that food should be applied. 
You say much of this has been done. Yes, much has been done. 
The trouble with it is that it has not been brought together, it has 



6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

not been correlated, it has not been tested ; and we are still with- 
out, let me remind you, any such exposition of the scientific pro- 
cess of education as we have of chemistry or physics or zoology. 
We are without any such scientific exposition of the principles of 
education as we have of the scientific principles of the law. Not 
that the material does not exist ; but we have been slow in mas- 
tering it, slow in organizing it, slower still in stating it in tones 
which carry conviction because they are consented to by those 
who have made the test under scientific auspices. 

Then we are going to approach this g^eat field of study along 
the sociological side. This is one of the fields now most actively 
cultivated. It was cut off for years by false philosophy, which 
regarded the individual as something complete in himself. We 
are now happily convinced of the truth of the philosophy that the 
individual can only complete himself as he completes himself in 
and through the social whole of which he is a part We have been 
having that dinned into our ears by psychologists and sociologists 
until we have come to see its practical importance. We have 
seized hold of it, not only as a theoretical principle thoroughly to 
be believed in, but as a working principle of government and 
education and morals. 

As we proceed along these three converging lines, we are then 
going to relate all this subject-matter to the content of education. 
We are going to see what the scientific test of today has to say to 
the experience of the ages as to the material of education. We 
are going to ask what it has, if an)rthing, that we have been 
passing by ; what it has, if anything, that we have been putting 
in that should not be there ; what it has, if anything, upon which 
we have been laying too little or too much emphasis or impor- 
tance. And out of all this, as the years go on, we are going to 
come to a reasonable doctrine in which we can believe because 
it has passed through the crucible of science, because it has been 
tested by philosophic principle, and given to us as something 
co-ordinated that we can take as a working h)rpothesis. 

It is extraordinary how long we have waited for the settlement 
of some fundamental questions of principles, while the nations of 
the earth have been spending treasure lavishly in the pursuit of 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 7 

the ideal, the terms of which they have disputed; but there are 
some things which hiunan instinct is very sure about, even when 
human reason lags behind. 

I have searclied in vain through the history of philosophy 
and the history of education for any educational theory put for- 
ward by a responsible authority, that was based either upon 
necessitarianism or pessimism. I have been unable to find any 
philosopher who, whatever his theoretical principles have been, 
has not, when he spoke of education, assumed freely an optimistic 
view of the world. Now, if we are believers, as I take it we arc, 
in the fundamental principles of a philosophy of evolution — 
evolution spiritual as well as evolution material — then we are at 
bottom optimists. We do not believe, we cannot believe, that the 
world is perfect, or that the world in its present state is the best 
possible world ; but that it is a good world progressing toward a 
better end is the fundamental assumption of every schoolhouse in 
the land. 

No community would dream of wasting its treasure upon 
training for something that was to be continually worse. The 
very hopelessness of the outlook would paralyze our endeavors 
materially, intellectually, and morally. 

And so it is with freedom. So it is with freedom — the 
rational use of liberty — the one gfreat end of individual existence, 
the one great end of the existence of the state. We have been 
taught formulas, we have learned the sentences and the phrases 
from the philosophers of the eighteenth century; but do they 
really know what it is to be free — not only free from the thrall- 
dom of kings, grants, and despots, but free from the thralldom 
of low and petty ideals, from mean and selfish and narrow 
motives, from ungenerous attitudes toward our fellow-men ? 

The one great desire of every university is the search for 
truth — truth in every form and every phase, truth as revealed in 
the annals of Greece, Rome, and the Orient ; truth as revealed in 
the physical world in all its phases ; truth as revealed in human 
history, in the study of human nature. Why are we anxious for 
truth? What can truth do for us? Truth shall make us free. 
We are in search of truth because we are in search of freedom ; 



8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and we are in search of truth in educational theory and practice 
because we are in search of free men and women — really free, 
liberated from their thralldom, be it external or internal, and 
permitted to g^ow as God meant that human beings should grow. 

Something over four years ago it was my fortune to be asked 
to a gathering in a little town on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. 
I went down into a company of a thousand people in the little old 
stone church at Quincy, and I listened to Frank Parker tell the 
story of the regeneration of the Quincy schools. Simply as a 
child, that great man stood out before the men and women who 
were once children at his feet, and told them, without a word of 
boasting, how twenty-five years before he had come to that town 
and tried to set them free. It was one of the most beautiful, one 
of the most precious, memories that anyone might have — to hear 
from the lips of a great spirit the simple recital of the beginnings 
of a great achievement for humanity. 

Quincy is a little town with few schools, few teachers, a hand- 
ful of pupils; but out from Quincy went a spirit which has 
worked to use every moment to regenerate the elementary schools 
of this country. Why? Because a g^eat spirit, with his eye 
fixed on freedom and with a consuming zeal in his heart for free- 
dom, set himself the task. 

Here you knew and loved him well. Over in yonder school 
he served this community and his country for the most active 
years of his life. Tender as a child in dealing with children, he 
was finn as a rock of adamant when faced with a question of 
right or wrong in education. I have seen him storm and rage 
when confronted by the forces of ignorance and corruption who 
were trying to undo his work and to tear down his ideals, and to 
stand between those helpless children and freedom. I have seen 
him stand in their presence and draw them to a consciousness of 
themselves, and with that to a consciousness of what he meant, 
by the simplest, most artless, and most affecting teaching pro- 
cesses that I have ever seen. 

That great spirit has gone to his eternal rest across the silent 
river, but it must be that that spirit is with us here today. He 
knows, and this University will always know, what it is that has 



DEDICATION OF THE SCH90L OF EDUCATION g 

happened that has given such significance to this event. He 
knows, and this University will always gladly remember, what 
part he played in the beginnings of these great things. And it is 
fitting, as we look hc^fully toward the future, as we dedicate a 
great building which is to serve this nation long after those within 
the sound of my voice today are gone — it is fitting that we should 
remember that his spirit, like all spirit, cannot and does not die. 
He went through life doing the best he could to draw things as he 
saw them for " the God of things as they are." And now when 
the veil is rolled away and he himself sees things as they are, the 
companionship, the inspiration, and the beneficence of that great 
spirit are with this company and with this splendid School of 
Education we so gladly and so hopefully dedicate. 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.^ 

MRS. EMMONS BLAINE, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

When the dedication of the buildings of the School of Edu- 
cation was planned and I was invited to make some utterance, I 
declined, deeming the honor thus tendered to me one for which 
I was hardly fitted. 

It has occurred to me, however, that there is one word I should 
like to say about myself, on this occasion, which perhaps no one 
else could say. And thus it comes about that I thrust myself 
into the place where I am permitted to stand. This has its merit, 
however, in being more truly illustrative of my connection with 
the School than otherwise it would be. 

What I should like to say is for the sake of clearness and cor- 
rect understanding of fact, in the summing up of the schools that 
have been for the school that may be — that in the giving of these 
first buildings of the School of Education to their work of use- 
fulness every stone may be in its own place and no other. 

The term " founder of the school " has been used in my hear- 
ing as describing my connection with some phases of the School's 
history. I should like to correct that, if I might be permitted. 
I did not found it — I simply found it; and those who find this 
School ever in some measure belong to it. 

The founders, I take it, were the men who set in motion the 
educational forces which here meet to flow in one mighty stream : 
Francis W. Parker, who saw the ideal, and out of his own soul 
set on foot the effort to realize it, with whatever means were at 
hand — his own unbounded faith in the end and his clear vision 
of it, though afar off, being his great reservoir of power whose 
depth was never reached ; John Dewey, who, likewise seeking his 
ideal, started his stream of effort, which stream still winds on 
before us, so that we may happily not pass upon its entirety, but 

^ Address delivered at the dedication of Emmons Blaine Hall, School of Edu- 
cation, University of Chicago, May 14, 1904. 

ID 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 1 1 

only predict its greatness ; Henry H. Belfield, who for years has 
fought the fight for the practical training of youth, to the uplift- 
ing and strengthening of education in our whole city; and all 
the others whose initiating work is here represented. 

Finder is the only claim that I can make to a status in this 
school. But by virtue of that — and to just the extent found — 
owner, possessor; and by necessity of that, worker — though 
among the workers who wrought to this result I was the least. 

But on these claims I rest. I beg exemption from any status 
as donor, for I count it the least; and would not be ranked by 
the sous given, but by the wealth received. 

Happily in this School one is not marked by figures — unless 
it has departed from the old way ; and the dollars were the inci- 
dents, where they could be found but the accident, of the work. 

Since the joy of creating it cannot be mine, I ask no better 
place than a Finder of this School, or rather of one of its fore- 
runners, the old Normal School, which still exists, through its 
transmigrations of soul, in the School of Education. 

To be a finder with satisfaction one must be first a seeker; 
and a little searching for relative values and proportions in 
this confused civilization of ours makes a good preparation for 
discovery. 

And what was the thing one discovered in the scheme of the 
old Normal School ? Was it a method of teaching ? A system 
of instruction? Not to me, primarily. It was a scheme of life. 
It was the human picture — so confused about us, so distorted 
— beginning to take shape, beginning to find its proportions and 
values, beginning to resolve itself into harmony. 

As an artist, in forecasting his work, sketches in his mind or 
on his canvas the anatomy of his thought, giving each element its 
true proportion, so we must do in our plan of education ; else the 
picture of Hfe we are trying to draw from each individual, like the 
pcunted one, would be a jumbled mass. 

And as in the one case, this work must be done in the begin- 
ning, so, in the other, it is the foundation work that must be so 
laid; else the whole will be but a patchwork. And if important 
and recognized in every work we know, how much more impor- 



1 2 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

tant in that subtle, delicate, and vital work — the construction of a 
conception of life in the growing mind — is the settling of values 
and proportions? 

And in this process the first step is the selection of the central 
theme, the decision as to the next in importance, and so on to the 
last detail of finish. But without the anatomy all loses worth; 
and the last detail ranks with the fundamental drawing. 

It was this work — it always seemed to me reconstructive 
indeed — that Colonel Parker had so well under way. He had 
chosen his central theme for the work of his human pictures — 
and it was character. 

And therein lay his greatness — in his unerring vision of this 
as the prime principle of education ; and then in his unswerving 
sureness in holding to it among all the claims and counter- 
demands of an age that does not recognize this principle in edu- 
cation, and amid all the perplexities of overlaid custom built up 
with prejudice. He struck through all to the root, and held all 
to the bar of his prime demand ; and what did not hold there was 
left aside, while from the foimdation was being built, bit by bit, 
the harmonious whole, consonant with this central essential 
principle. 

Some of the world criticised that work as caring nothing for 
learning. One who knows cannot but feel that they were the 
unseeing ones. One might as well say that because Michael 
Angelo's lifetime did not suffice to complete all his work fully, 
and he left us those great figures still in part unchiseled, he cared 
naught for finish. One might as well, while gazing at their great 
symmetry and proportion, refuse to see the intention, and, not 
even observing the Moses, denounce all as crude. 

This is the spirit of carping criticism which, in applying a 
foot-rule to measure great works, loses sense of the whole, and, 
in omitting the would-be from the is, cuts the ideal out of 
the actual and loses the essence of some of life's best gifts to 
humanity. 

It was not that Colonel Parker loved learning less, but char- 
acter more. Every brain that worked for the children would have 
had the training of a logician, the stores of the savant, if he could 



DEDICATION OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 13 

have willed it so. He longed for these himself and only for that 
purpose — that he might give them. Every hand that taught 
would have been the hand of an expert. 

But no savant, no expert, by virtue of that claim, could with 
his consent injure the soul of a child. He with the tongues of 
men and angels, he with the informations of the encyclopaedias, 
would each have had to stand and deliver his claim to the right 
to mold the nature of the child with his tools, however wondrous 
they might be. 

It was not that he undervalued the finest instrument, but that 
the mind should wield the instrument, not the instrument the 
mind. It was not that he imderrated a complete equipment, but 
that he who possessed such must still show what he would do 
with it to that little child. And all who know, know how, when 
that was shown and seen, he longed for the full measure of learn- 
ing to complete the whole; and to find such teachers, and so to 
train them, was his life's ideal. 

In a choice clear and simple — shall it be character or shall it 
be learning that we give a child? — no one would hesitate. So 
much the Christian light that has penetrated has done for us. 

But while we utter the choice, and feel safe in the words of it, 
the subtle and deadly temptations that assail the life of education 
come in a thousand forms; deadly, because, while we describe 
character in terms of action, these strike at the root of all, being 
selfish ; subtle, because hidden in many difficulties. 

The edifice of attainment being once constructed, and the per- 
petual question from the first being not, " What can you do with 
what you possess ? " but, " How much more have you gained than 
your neighbor?" — ambition takes hold; and to ambition is 
added arrogance, when the top is reached. Then the last state is 
worse than the first; and some saving grace must come in to 
undo all. 

Then comes the problem immet as a rule. Is the educational 
institution to take note of the individual as a human being or only 
as a machine? Can it be that the affirmative answer is to be 
given to the latter, when the enormous weight of the influence of 



14 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

the schools on the individual from the first to the last in time and 
value is considered ? 

These are the questions that are at stake for the world in our 
education ; and these are the thoughts that make one rejoice that 
the elements that have produced the School of Education have 
joined hands with' the University of Chicago. And though the 
School must lose its valued Director, it still has the upholding 
strength of the President of the University and of the University, 
to enable it to help to demonstrate the possibilities from the 
kindergarten through the academic life, and to filter out strength 
into the nation. 

These visions make us glad that the truths sought in these 
schools may be still sought and found in the University, where 
the search may ascend into the clear light of learning, in the spirit 
that is free of selfishness and pride; where learning may be seen 
to be but new outposts into the vast unknown; and where, when 
we earthbound creatures dig a little deeper or pierce a little 
higher, it will not be in the spirit of a race to get ahead, but in the 
comradeship of an advancing army. 

And so shall be found the force making for righteousness, for 
freedom, for community brotherhood, which our country and the 
world have need of. 

In conclusion, I would say one word for Emmons Blaine. 

The President and the University of Chicago have graciously 
proposed to honor my connection with the School of Education 
by naming one of its buildings for him. 

In that fact I find great honor ; and for him and for myself I 
wish to thank the University and its President. This University 
just came within his earthly ken, and his mind seized upon its 
great possibilities at once with all the interest and eagerness of 
his nature ; and it would have been one of his deepest satisfactions 
to do for it in his own great way. I thank the University that his 
name may rest upon a place that is the home of so much that he 
would love. 



THE FINE ARTS.^ 

ERNEST F. FENOLLOSA, 

NEW YOKK, N. Y. 

It was about a year ago that Professor Dewey and I were 
discussing the question whether it is possible to demonstrate that 
the order of progress in getting the power for an artistic creation 
in the mind of a single individual — and therefore the psycho- 
logical order of development of the artist's powers — is practi- 
cally identical with the historical order of the development of the 
art powers in the human race. If that could be shown — that the 
very steps in which in our education today we are training our- 
selves to get power, mastery, more and more creative ability, are 
practically identical with the order in which the various races 
of men have attained that power — we then should get the broad- 
est possible inductive basis for something like a scientific view of 
education. 

I know, of course, that it requires a great deal of material, 
so that I can merely hint at the line of argument; but what I 
wish to show is that there is such a parallelism. Of course, when 
I speak of historical order I do not mean only one order, but that 
among the several artistic races which have had centuries in which 
to develop their powers there is practically a unity — among 
the Europeans in their development from the Middle Age, or the 
Chinese or Japanese in the order of developing their own powers. 
I think we shall find substantially the same steps; and just the 
most general aspect of that is what I am going to try to show, 
not especially of technical problems of just what we should do, or 
the application of problems to any school, but a general theo- 
retical foundation, if it can be established, which gives us a valu- 
able starting-point in all special lines of education. 

It has been held by some people in America, and I think it is 
held by the majority of the public, that the real root of art 

^Address, illustrated by stereopticon views, delivered at the dedication of the 
School of Education, May, 1904, before the Conference on " The Arts." 

15 



1 6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

development and of art power lies in representation. That was 
the old view. That is the old orthodox view. It is not the view 
of the newer school of educators in art in America, and of course 
and naturally not my view. But it is the general view that it is 
the problem of representation to present facts to the eye, which is 
the key to the develojmient of art. All the histories of art that 
exist assert that it is the development of more and more perspec- 
tive, more and more elements of realistic impression, that con- 
stitutes the arts in our time. What I wish to say is that that is 
not true in the history of human art. 

In the art of primitive ages, among the North American 
Indians and among the Polynesians, we find the first attempt at 
symbolic representation, which is the sort of drawing done by 
our little children of six and seven years today. This is in the 
historical order of representation generally. Out of this art 
itself grows. Here we get wliat you might call typical repre- 
sentation of the beginning of art among all peoples. This is an 
Eskimo drawing. These are figures of men carrying things in 
their hands, figures sitting about, etc. It is this sort of drawing 
that we find upon stone and leather, done by the North American 
Indians, Polynesians, and South Africans. The question I raise 
is whether from this as a starting-point of representation we can 
go on, whether we can go on in a steady line from this beginning 
to the masterpieces of Raphael. Is there a definite line of develop- 
ment out of this? Of course, I have to make my statements 
rather dogmatic in order to cover the ground in the time allowed. 
What this leads to, in fact, is not art, but literature. It is litera- 
ture because, although of course it is symbolically a statement of 
fact, it is done through the very elements out of which our 
hieroglyphic languages have developed. For example, these are 
forms of Chinese hieroglyphs ; this is an eye, a tree, etc, the form 
in which you find them now on a Chinese page of print. We can 
trace it all back to this. If we could stop to examine the Egyptian 
hieroglyphs, we should find that the pictorial representation comes 
from the foniis of birds and animals. This is a root of literature, 
and it is identical with the place from which the North American 
Indian started. 



THE FINE ARTS 1 7 

Here, for instance, is another Eskimo drawing, a representa- 
tion of harpooning a whale. This is quite parallel with what our 
children do in the lower grades. Children will* often give us 
simple dramatic representations of incidents from story or from 
life, and we marvel at the work. I was looking at an exhibit 
yesterday at Milwaukee, and it was quite remarkable what the 
younger children do in this line. But, as you know, and as Pro- 
fessor Dewey himself has pointed out, when you come to the 
next grades, you do not find continued development. The work i 
done by the children in the first grade is generally not approached 
in natural power until they come to the fifteenth or sixteenth year, 
and then they begin to come back, if they have right training, to\ 
something like the same power they started with in the sixth and i 
seventh years. 

Is it because we have not found the way, or is it that there is 
no way ? My position is that from this beginning there is no way 
depending merely on imitation or representation to find an 
orderly development of power. The mind of the primitive peo- 
ples could not wish for a realistic prospect, as we do; conse- 
quently to them the symbol — the man with arms and legs — 
gives all the idea of a man that is required. You must find some 
other form of attack, and what does that come from.'* What it 
comes from we can see when we look at primitive Polynesian art. 
Here we have the primitive beginning of literature used as the 
elements of power. When you apply this to the structure of 
design, when it is a question of spacing, the question of arrange- 
ment, of quantification of your areas, all that is fimdamental, is 
what makes it art. The fact of its being a representation of men 
does not make it art; that is literature. The setting is what 
makes it art. What difference does it make what they represented 
before they became conventionalized? That may be of interest 
to the scientist, the archaeologist. To the artist they are of inter- 
est as they take on order. Take this example of the primitive 
Peruvian textile. You have, of course, the figtire of a man. The 
fact that this is a man is of interest to Peruvians; it is of no 
artistic interest to us; but it is a question of spacing, of how the 
pattern is worked out, that interests us. 



1 8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Now, the proposition I am going to make — the only proposi- 
tion — is that the real power of man over the elements of art 
structure comes, not from the representative element, but from 
the structural element. That is, it comes from what we do with 
material things in their actual human and social uses — textiles, 
I clay, wood, metal, stone, all of these substances; and what ren- 
I ders them in their useful forms agreeable to us is the application 
of pattern to them, if you like. Now we want to see how far this 
is going to carry us. 

This example is a reproduction from the very primitive Assy- 
rian or Mesopotamian tablet of pressed clay of possibly several 
thousand years before Christ. You have here some form of deer, 
and here the lions stuck full of arrows. Now, while there is 
representation here, is there art? No, no art that gives us the key 
to anything else, because there is no spacing. It does not itself 
produce anything or give us anything, or give us the key to the 
development of structure. But if you look at the later form of 
art, you find upon the facades of buildings, upon stone panels, the 
rimning form of the lion, the horse, the hunter, worked into a 
system of lines which give force to the panel itself, diversifying 
it into the whole attractive rhythm of lines. 

Here is a very interesting drawing from South Africa. It is 
a Bushman drawing. It represents men driving wild cattle. You 
might think, and it would be a natural conclusion, that from this 
the negroes — Egyptians — passed by realistic impression up to 
the great works of art we know. But there is no such thing. 
There do not exist any links between this primitive beginning 
and the great works of art we know. 

What we want to know is what the elementary steps are by 
which progress was made. Now, what shall we contrast it with ? 
Fortunately iwe can trace Greek art back to the North American 
and South African plane. Here we have Greek art in the primi- 
tive form. Take these forms of men; they are almost as crude 
as those of the North American Indian, of the Eskimo, or of the 
Pol)mesian, and the horses even more so — much cruder. But 
the question on which ever)rthing hinges is here given very 
clearly; it is a question of spacing. How shall the lines of the 



THE FINE ARTS 19 

horses' backs and the reins contribute to the idea of motion ? In 
that the whole key to Greek art is involved ; and if we have the 
time to study it in detail, we shall see that with such an idea 
applied to the problem of structure there is by steady steps a rise 
to finer and finer and more and more delicate solutions of these 
problems. And, to state my proposition, what has made the finer 
and finer line from the realistic side of the drawing is not the 
realistic motive, but the desire to find finer and finer space rela- 
tions and line relations. In other words, I would hold that the 
realistic development grows out of the desire for the finer and 
finer decorative motive. 

There are numerous examples ; we get them all through the 
arts of the world — the oriental, the North American, and the 
African. Here, for example, are some pieces of pottery, from 
the point of view of texture and decoration not imlike those of 
the earlier Greek work. But when we come to aggregate this and 
take a number of examples from the early pottery, we shall see 
many interesting things In the first place, zigzag patterns 
which go back to the basket work of the North American Indians 
— exactly on a level with the art we are studying in basketry. 
The whole question of the line here is only a development into 
the decorative form of the primitive elements we see in the 
earliest of the Greek designs. 

Here we get the volute in the Peruvian form. Take this 
example. What do you suppose this is? Certainly, as a matter 
of decoration, extremely fine ; this working up of primitive lines 
into something complex — the interlacing of all these lines. You 
can see the leg of the flamingo here. How beautiful it is; and 
yet, what is it ? It might be Greek, but it is Peruvian ; just to 
show how through taking bird forms they work out details. The 
Greeks largely confined themselves to animal and human forms. 
In doing that they utilized the lines that we see in nature. 

Take another example — from the Greek. We find here all 
these forms of spirals, and the great patterns upon the shields used 
as a matter of spotting, and the figures themselves spotted in, 
used to diversify the other forms of lines. 

Now, to take, for example, an oriental specimen. Take an 



20 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

early form of Japanese bronze. Here is a decorative background 
of the Japanese trinity, made in the seventh century of our era. 
See how it has utilized lines here in this fine open-work bronze. 
How strong and full and ctear the lines are! It is not easy to 
trace the relating pattern, it is not too obvious, and yet there is 
harmony between the curvature in every detail. 

Here is an example of what? It might be Greek, because I 
can show you Greek bronzes of the fifth century B. C. similar to 
this. This is a Buddhist bronze statue made in Japan in the very 
beginning of the seventh century. Although it be a detached 
statue, it had its place in the temple. It keeps the lines of drapery 
down tightly to the solid substance, not working out the realistic 
details, but keeping itself within a certain scheme of structure, 
keeping the lines flowing into each other. 

Here we will take an example of Greek work. Here you 
may say, if anywhere, you get realistic work; but, after all, this 
figure of the bronze charioteer was no doubt used in some form 
of architectural background. The long lines, parallel lines, the 
simplicity of them contrasted with the conventionally aesthetic 
form of the Greek — this has virility. 

In this Corean statue you will see at once the structural form. 
These lines of drapery swing oflF in a severe curve to the right ; 
then the working out of the figures into the sharp-cut profile, the 
expression of the profile entering the scheme of total beauty — 
all being treated as decorative problems. 

I do not like the word " decoration." It seems to imply too 
much artificiality, a superficial prettiness. The word we ought to 
use is " structural." The lines, the spaces, the proportions, lie in 
the structure of the thing itself. The large spaces are given, and 
then we create upon the background of those the smaller spaces, 
and we call them patterns. Unless those spaces grow one from 
the other, they are vicious. I like the word "structural" as a 
substitute for " decorative." 

Now, if we take a Greek form of an evidently decorative panel 
of the well-known tombstones, we find three figures, the lines 
flowing from one figure into another through the beautiful cross- 



THE FINE ARTS 21 

ing of the hands. Here the lines of the drapery work up into the 
hand and down across the neck. 

I do not mean to say that we do not draw the motives from 
nature. The reason we have worked up so much of nature into 
our beautiful forms of art is that we have structural, useful, social 
matters to attend to and to make beautiful, and so we have been 
drawn along to realize all these subtle lines of beauty. 

Take an example of this early stage of Japanese art. Here 
we have three figures entirely detached, the central figure very 
beautiful and graceful, altogether four or five degrees of relief, 
being a wonderful interplay of motives of line. To find another 
such harmonical and rhythmical work of line we should have to 
go to almost the greatest work of the Greek itself; and yet this is 
in the earliest centuries of Japanese art. 

Of course, when we come to the Parthenon itself, the struc- 
tural use is perfectly clear. We finally come to the power to take 
a rectangular panel like this, and set in the center a figure with 
all these lines of action, and yet with all the beauty of curvature 
and the distribution of repeating lines that we find in the earlier 
Greek art. We get here something more delicate than we have 
had before. But, after all, this is only a working together of two 
or three systems of lines. We find a system of lines correspond- 
ing with the main figure. 

We now come to such a form as this — this detached statue 
which is set against a fagade. What is this? It is Japanese. We 
have great delicacy in the sway of the whole figure and the 
modeling of the face. 

When we come up to this form of Praxiteles, we get the 
broader line. There is great grace and beauty, there is propor- 
tion, but there is possibly just a little bit too much pride upon the 
human working out, too much pride upon the power to express a 
fact and the skill to express that fact ; and from this time on there 
is great danger that the realistic motive shall take the place of the 
structural one. 

And so it is. Let us take just a few examples. If that 
upward progress of art was comparatively short, there was a long 
downward fall. Of course, I am not going to say that the only 



2 2 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

cause of the fall was a desire for realism, but I am going to say 
that one of the most important was a desire for realistic impres- 
sion. In such an example as this you have not anything of that 
primitive simplicity of building, of lines; no order, no meaning, 
no harmony, no large expression. It is clearly a representation 
of a violent case of action, but I venture to say without much of 
the original architectural beauty. Try if you can to draw a line 
from head to head of these lumpy figures of children ; see what 
kind of spaces it makes. It could not be used as a beautiful decora- 
tion upon the fagade of anything; the main lines are entirely 
cut. It is in art as in music, you should get a single tone- 
impression. You cannot get it there. Even when you come 
down to portraiture in the late Graeco-Roman period, you do not 
get the sand-papered effect of the face that you might think would 
go with the forms of gods and goddesses. This is symbolic. 
You have eyes there; you have the nose; you are getting back 
to the primitive symbol of realism. Unless it be a visual effect, 
it is not art, but literature; and literature deals with thought 
material, abstractions. But when you come to visualizing, then 
to be art it must be one single impression. 

Here is European art at its lowest stage. Centuries after the 
Parthenon it fell gradually down to this. How can it rise again ? 

The history of European art contains two distinct periods — 
that culminating four hundred years before Christ, and that which 
began in the twelfth or thirteenth century. Our art books would 
lead us to believe that in this revival there was an effort to return 
to the old art; but here it was the idea to set the forms of these 
frescoed angels at the back of this Gothic colonnade, the long 
lines of the wings making a beautiful cutting of the space. Here 
we get back to the same key. We started with the primitive 
structure of material, useful things. We find that, after all, from 
the beginning it was mural work — the question of treating archi- 
tecture as if it were a utensil. It is a useful utensil, and to put 
fine line, whether of graving or color, upon it, is after all only 
a higher grade of the same kind of structural problem we find in 
the Greek and Japanese work. 

The development of art from Cimabue to Raphael is the 



THE FINE ARTS 23 

development of mural painting. The opposite view is that forced 
upon us by our modern art galleries. So far as these are old 
masters, they are only fragments. They have been pulled away 
from the places for which they were originally designed, which 
is to set aside their relation to such an architectural surrounding. 

When you sit down to paint an abstract panel, you have no 
key. You have abstraction, you have generalization; you have 
affinity with no special center by which you should make this 
space rather than another space, imless your mind is filled with 
the beauty, the pure musical beauty, of spacing and proportion. 
The art collection is the dead bones of the older art ; it does not 
show the key which led to their creation. But when you take an 
example of mural work, that of Raphael on one of the walls of 
the Vatican, you see the key is given in the architectural arch 
which is to be filled. You find the figures working up to the 
particular space; you see the arch of every brow, the swing of 
every piece of drapery reverberates with the form of curvature. 
The whole of it is vibrant with the principle of curvature which 
is already started for you there. And Raphael was perhaps one 
of the most sensitive of all European artists to the problem of the 
structure of curvature. 

I wish to point out the fact that even in Japanese art mural 
work is the key. William Morris in one of his lectures said that 
Japanese art was an inferior form of art, because it had no archi- 
tectural root. He probably referred to the petty little decorations 
upon teacups ; he could not have meant the older forms, for they 
are based upon the mural design. For instance, the work on the 
sliding doors when moved together and shut, the lines of rocks 
and trees, animals and birds, work across the whole just as struc- 
turally as they do in our own work, but using that side of nature 
for building up great space structures. In this example see the 
grandeur of the line — how nearly the sweep of line is like the old 
Greek; how. large the spaces, like the old Corean; the simplicity 
of the line, just like the old Japanese bronze; the massing of the 
heads together at the top; and then the great cool spaces of the 
drapery of the main figure below. This is a specimen parallel to 
the work of the old Japanese. But when you come to look at that 



1 



24 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

in marbles of low-relief cutting, for the fagades of buildings, or 
for interior panels, you find here a very primitive and naive repre- 
sentation of the classic form made into the renaissance by a new 
decorative treatment of these lines of drapery, by the filling in of 
the space by a wonderful system of rhythmic lines. Right side by 
side with this I like to give the figures of the bronze screen 
enlarged. In this low-relief work, these Buddhist angels, child- 
like figures, seated upon lotus leaves — the Nirvana — you get a 
wonderful working out in forms, just as Donatello worked out 
child figures. However, the point is that the realistic element 
here comes out of the desire to make the deeper structural or 
decorative effect. 

Let us go back to Raphael. In our time Raphael has been 
somewhat decried, and from some points of view rightly. He 
was no master of light. The questions of line and light are not 
the same. I am not speaking of quantification of light, only of 
areas. Raphael was not a master of light in the sense that 
Velasquez was. But as a master of line he stands at the top. If 
you were to enlarge any one figure, it could be mathematically 
shown that the amount of curve is exactly the same, is rhyth- 
mical, all through his work ; we have perfect sympathy in all the 
structure down to the finest degree. He first thought of the whole 
structure, the main spacing, the system of rhythm, and then 
worked out the details. 

The other great master of structure was Michael Angelo. 
You might suppose that Michael Angelo, because he worked for 
twelve years or so upon anatomical studies, was governed by the 
motive of realism, and that you have got to stuff your mind with 
facts, and then, peradventure, when you have got hold of facts 
you may begin to create. That would be like requiring a candi- 
date for literature to learn the dictionary. To learn to write is 
to express yourself as would a child. The artist today of the 
academic school in New York or Chicago will tell you that it is 
useless to attempt to teach children any serious art until they are 
about sixteen years of age. But the natural expression of a child 
which begins in his sixth or seventh year can be carried on to fit 
his desire to space and create rhythms therefrom; and if you give 



THE FINE ARTS 25 

him that, he will carry it on to greater development. In Michael 
Angelo we can see that never did he take these facts of anatomy 
and abuse them by using them to state facts. As you see here in 
one of the figures from the Medici tombs — this individual odd 
attitude of the awakening body, the drowsy head, how all the 
various forms of lines in it are sympathetic and related to and 
vibrant with the meaning of the line given below. And it is so 
with the work of the frescoes upon the ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel — each having the greatest fidelity to anatomical fact 
used to express a structiu^l unity. 

Going back from Michael Angelo, the culmination of the 
second European period, to the Parthenon^ the culmination of 
the first period, let us look at this example. Here is a system of 
lines passing from the upper left-hand corner down to the lower 
right ; but between these two main systems of lines there are the 
transition points. The lines of one pass up into the lines of 
another, twist about, and return. Everywhere spacing is con- 
sidered — the question of this space as a solid mass against this 
other space ; the large relations of line are not in the least inter- 
fered with by the lesser lines. 

I gather that I am regarded as a " Japanese " man, and some- 
times I have heard students at a imiversity say : " Oh, where is 
the Jap?" I certainly believe that Japanese art has an immense 
amount to teach us. To treat landscape as if it were a very seri- 
ous way of building, and a splendid way of building, with the 
Japanese is centuries old. This is a very rich example indeed. It 
seems at first odd to you, because you are not accustomed to it. 
The aggregate structure is composed of two main systems of 
lines, then we have a curved system of lines working up without 
confusion, all being built up in an orderly way. In another way, 
there is just as much rhythm of angular and curved relation, of 
spacial unity and proportion, in this work as in the figure work 
of the old bronzes, or nearly as much as in the great Greek 
examples. 

One of the greatest of all masterpieces of great structural 
work is this of Michael Angelo ; how in the first place the stems 
of this mass of writhing members come up, and then swing out 



26 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

into lines which have the double curvature. Perhaps this is one 
of the most complex examples^ combined with unity of dramatic 
motion and spacing in relation to the architectural problem, that 
we have. 

But from the day of Michael Angelo, what became of Euro- 
pean art? Why didn't they do more of this? They had the 
buildings — why didn't they do it? Well, just about this time — 
a little before — there came in the desire for realism, just as in 
the Greek art seventeen hundred years before, and we find artists 
in Florence and other parts of Italy undertaking the study of just 
the natural muscles of the ordinary figure. This is purely a study 
of muscles and of the emaciated human figure, and just how to 
represent it as a realistic fact. 

Michael Angelo even in his grandest moments never lost 
sight of the structural key. The other, lesser artists branched off 
in the desire to represent. If you take a bird's-eye view of Euro- 
pean art of the sixteenth century, you will not find the architec- 
tural stnictural key with which European art was vital one 
hundred years before. How inferior it is to the old Greek and 
even the Peruvian ideals ! Excrescences are allowed to interfere 
with the main line ; so that the key to two things is lost : the key 
to the real representation of the figfures is lost, on the one hand, . 
and the key to mural decoration is lost, on the other. 

What we come to is this realism in modem French and 
American art. Is there order here, is there interplay of line? 
The artist who did this has not the vaguest conception of tlie 
principles out of which the art power of the early Greek and 
Renaissance periods grew. Nine-tenths of the artists have not 
the least conception of the elements out of which true art grows. 
But a change has come into our American art within the last 
twenty years — a return to the mural, structural idea. I remem- 
ber John Le Farge, about twenty years ago, in speaking of the 
art schools saying that there is only one chance for art in 
America ; if it were possible to divert the faculties of American 
artists into mural work, we might have a revival of art. Robert 
Blum was sent out by the Harpers to make little representations 
of Japanese effects for illustration. Incidentally, while in New 



THE FINE ARTS 27 

York, he had the chance given him to make a great fresco, and at 
once he leaped into his right place — forced to drop his little 
delicate spotting, and treat the questions of line and space as the 
very elements out of which he built his structure. 

Now we come again back to the Old World. We are here 
back with the great masters of Japanese, Greek, and Renaissance 
art, because the whole problem of line — the space-proportioning 
and unified line rhythm — those two things work together. 

This is just the work of a modem art student You see there 
is no attempt to show where it should be put, to treat the whole 
thing as a real rhythm. We have traced Greek art back to 
basketry. Now those might be Indian baskets, but they are not. 
They were made in Minneapolis. They are the product of the 
school children in Minneapolis. I am sorry to say they were 
burned up last year in the state exhibit, but they can make others 
as good. But here we are right back at the primitive root of art. 

I had people in Minneapolis come to me, people from the 
newspapers, and they wanted to interview me on the question, 
because they called tliis a fad — all this sort of woric. They said : 
Why should we, who are civilized people, today go back to bar- 
barous art? I should say at once, because this is the backbone of 
structure. If you have mastered the main relations — even in the 
lines of such a pattern as that in two tones — to a structural 
problem, you have got the foundation on which to build; and 
from that upward to the Parthenon and to the Sistine Chapel is 
only a question of steps. But if you do not begin with that, you 
will lose that which gives the force and vitality to your work. 
If you attempt to begin with the complex without learning the 
simple, you will dally all your lives in confusion. 

I want to go back to the beginning of European art, to the 
decorative work done in bone. What a wonderful work it is I 
They have taken the lines of animal forms and worked them in 
the form of handles and bodkins. All this is exactly in accord- 
ance with the line of structure, the principles upon which the art 
of the world has grown. Between this and the Parthenon we can 
trace almost every step of the growth. Between the Eskimo and 
North American drawings and the realistic drawings, the treat- 



a8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

ment of the modem school, we cannot find any lines of transition 
or a normal growth. 

Take this example of a bronze head. This is a Greek frag- 
ment. You have the line of the horse's head worked out into a 
more beautiful structure than ever before. All these lines, the 
whole setting, the character, comes from the spacing and the 
lines. Between this extreme piece of Greek work and the work 
of primitive man working on bones we have a line of transition. 

This is the upper part of a painting by Georgione. How 
grandly he has given us open spaces ! llie Japanese love the open 
space. Mr. Whistler loved open spaces. It is the actual vibra- 
tion of an area that is the groundwork of visual art. 

Landscape is a comparatively modem thing. It is hardly 
given its full rh)rthm except among the Japanese. One might 
spend hours and hours, and yet not exhaust all the stmctural 
details in such a work as this. Of course, it is not a work of our 
day, but it is a work we might do well to study. It is a hobby of 
mine that there is nothing to prevent our artists today from doing 
just as serious work, just as good, as far as line is concerned. 
The problem of dark and light, of color, require a different 
faculty. You may begin with spotting — a formless treatment of 
line and color — if you choose, but it is not an orderly way to 
develop. Whatever you may do with your quantification of light, 
you cartnot get rid of the necessity for spacing. If you have not 
fine spaces, no matter how you may trick them out with color 
and light, they are not strong art. 

Now, from this point of view today I have tried to take you 
over all sides of human art, to see something of the unity that 
underlies all art. Perhaps you may not allow all that I have 
claimed, but I thank you for the attention you have given to this 
argument. 



LIONEL OF ORKNEY — A ONE-ACT PLAY. 

JENNIE HALL. 

tRANCIS W. PAKXER SCHOOL, CHICAGO, ILL. 

The following play was written by an eighth grade at the 
close of nine months' work in literature. During the preceding year 
this class had made a study of chivalry and of other mediaeval 
institutions. For its eighth-grade work such literature was chosen 
as would complete and beautify the imagery resulting from 
that historical study. We read in class Tennyson's "Coming 
of Arthur," " Gareth and Lynette," " Sir Galahad," and " The 
Lady of Shalott." The teacher read to the pupils Malory's ver- 
sion of "Launcelot and Elaine," and of the Gareth story. At 
the same time each student was reading at home two or three 
books of the Arthur stories retold for children — Frost's 
Knights of the Round Table, Radford's King Arthur and His 
Knights, Pyle's Story of King Arthur, Bulfinch's Age of Chi- 
valry. As a result of reading these different authors there arose 
the question of the sources and treatment of the stories.. The 
study necessary in answering this question created among the 
class a new feeling of imaginative freedom in story-telling, and 
an appreciation of the artistic qualities of a tale and of the possi- 
bilities of the craft. 

As a direct preparation for the writing of this play we spent 
two months in training ourselves in literary composition. After 
the pupils felt some confidence in their power to write a readable 
thing, we set to work directly upon the play. Different members of 
the class submitted the skeletons of plots either original, or tran- 
scribed from stories read, or partly original and partly suggested 
by reading. We worked these plots over in class, and finally 
compounded into one some ideas of Tennyson's, of Malory's, and 
of our own. Malory's quaint English had caught the pupils' 
fancy, and they decided to try to imitate it. This entailed a more 
careful reading of parts of La Morte D' Arthur, with attention 

focused upon the diction. 

29 



30 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The class made a distinct effort to have this play simple. We 
spent some time discussing means to this end. Plays are frequent 
in our school, and as a consequence the pupils had sufficient 
experience to make the discussion valuable. They decided to 
have no change of costume or of scenery. They had just seen a 
French drama in one act. This plan was the solution of their 
problem of simple staging, but it added to the difficulty of the 
composition of the play. The whole plot had to be reconstructed 
to occur in one place and at one time. This simplicity of plan is 
to one the best point in the drama. It very much pleased its 
authors, also, at the final working-out. 

The play is a class composite. Sometimes parts were written 
at home, read in class, accepted, rejected, combined, changed, to 
please the social opinion. Sometimes the composing was done at 
first-hand and red-hot during the recitation — z bit from one 
person, an addition by another, a change by a third, a general 
expression of acceptance. The prologue was written in two parts 
by two pupils. It will be found to savor strongly of the prologue 
to Henry V., which captured the imagination of one of the boys. 

The story was acted on a stage bare of scenery, with only a 
rough table and a few old-fashioned cooking utensils for proper- 
ties. The costumes were simple. They were used, not with the 
idea of correctly presenting a time so vague and so inaccurately 
known, but with the purpose of making the stage picture beautiful 
and sufficiently unusual to cause the auditors vividly to realize 
that we were representing an olden time. 

The play is presented here because it is thought that any sug- 
gestion toward simplifying and pruning school plays will be of 
some use. 

PROLOGUE. 

If this poor stage were but a kingdom with kings and knights to act, then 
could with all his glory, Arthur, the mighty king, come forth and do deeds 
of knightliness. But here one person must take the place of hundreds. Sup- 
pose within this stage is Arthur's mighty kitchen, with fires blazing and 
spits of meat sputtering gaily, with hundreds of kitchen knaves at work pre- 
paring the great feast of Pentecost. Table after table stands surrounded 
with knaves rolling, kneading, and slicing food for the feast. 

Outside this royal kitchen is Arthur's castle, the center being his hall, 



LIONEL OF ORKNE Y—A ONE ACT PLA Y 3 1 

around which stand the keep and other buildings. Surrounding these is the 
castle wall, with huge towers which seem to loom up to the very sky. 
Inside the great hall throng the knights in shining, long-skirted armor of 
chain; the ladies in splendid gowns; and the many subjects, seeking justice 
and receiving it from their noble king. 

He is seated on his throne of golden dragons, garbed in a robe of red 
samite broidered with golden dragons, and the dragon crown is on his head. 
But here, with all this glory and this splendor, the most glorious of all is 
Arthur's noble manner, and his kindly face that seems to look down upon his 
people and bless them, as the sun blesses all on which it shines. Here, truly, 
is the glory of the land — a king who wishes his knights to reverence and 
honor their sovereign, to live a pure life, to speak the truth alway, to right 
the wrong that comes within their paths, and to do ladies, damsels and gentle- 
women help whenever it is needed. And so strong is Arthur's influence that 
all the knights of the Table Round strive to gratify their noble king's desires 
that they may be well worthy of knighthood. 

LIONEL OF ORKNEY. 

\.Scen€: Arthur's kitchen. Lionel telling story. Servants listening,^ 

Lionel. And forward rode a knight, all clad in rusty armor, and threw 
down his glove at the Sparrow-hawk's feet, saying: "Thou shalt repent thy 
insolence to Queen Guinevere." To this the Sparrow-hawk replied: "Thou 
art the one that shalt repent." Thereupon they withdrew to their stations 

and dressed their spears. Then with a mighty shout (Kay enters; stamps 

his feet.) 

Kay. Idle knaves ! Get ye to work ! You do naught but talk. (Servants 
scatter.') And you. Sir Fair-hands, is it not enough for you to lumber the 
kitchen without keeping the others from their work with your silly tales? 
(Enter Gerdnt.) 

Kay (turning to Geraint). By my troth. Sir Geraint, I came unto the 
kitchen and found this young knave telling one of his fairy-stories. What 
think ye of it ? 

Geraint. Be thou not too hard on them. Is not the work done? 

Kay. I do believe it is. 

Geraint. Shall these poor knaves, then, have no leisure? Speak gently 
to them. A kind master makes a willing servant. (Exit Lionel.) See how 
he carries himself. I think. Sir Kay, this Lionel is of noble birth. He tells 
the tales rightly and he knows all the events of chivalry. 

Kay. Bah! The listening knave hath merely caught the manner of his 
betters. 

Geraint. Time will prove. (Exeunt Kay and Geraint. Enter Lionel 
worrying stick as a lance. Servants laugh.) 

First Servant. Behold! Sir Lionel of the crooked stick! 



32 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Second Servant. Doth any weak-heart here dare to meet yon noble 
knight? If so, let him stand forth. 

Third Servant. I, the conqueror of Arthur's kitchen, do here, in way of 
challenge, throw my gauntlet at your feet (Throws dish cloth.) 

Lionel. Do you so hunger to bite the dust? Prepare, false knight! 
(They rush together and wrestle. Lionel wins.) Behold the conqueror of 

Arthur's kitchen laid low. Who next will (Clash of arms outside. 

Servants rush out. Noise of conflict. Shouts.) 

Kay (outside). Niccon! Lionel! Safir! (Appearing in door.) Lionel's 
doing ! (Servants enter shouting, with Lionel on their shoulders.) 

Servants. Lionel, defender of the helpless! Victor of the courtyard! 
Sir Lionel of the baking table ! 

Kay. Fools ! What mockery is this ? 

First Servant. Go ask yon knight who lieth in the courtyard. 

Servants. Most noble Lionel! 

Kay. Niccon, get you to the forester. Bring me back the peacocks for 
tomorrow's feast. Lionel, to the peat-bogs! (Niccon and Lionel exeunt.) 
(Kay. Turning to others.) Now, tell me with goodly haste the cause of all 
this stir. 

Second Servant. Two knights were at a bout in the courtyard. 

Third Servant. And one was unhorsed and lay on the ground in a 
swoon. (Geraint enters and stands in door listening.) 

Fourth Servant. The coward Modrcd heeded not his helpless plight, 
but rushed upon him with lowered lance. 

Fifth Servant. When forward Lionel sprang. He seized the bridle and 
with mighty force sent the horse back upon his haunches. 

Sixth Servant. And Modred rolled in the dust. 

Geraint. What! Is Modred down? Methinks the lad hath done right 
well. It is a sore shame that a knight of the Table Round should so demean 
himself. There speaks the lad's noble blood, meseems, Sir Kay. 

Kay. Mayhap, but I doubt it. (Enter Niccon and hows to Kay.) What 
wouldst thou? 

Niccon. I come from King Arthur. He would see Sir Geraint and Sir 
Kay in his chamber. (Exeunt Kay and Geraint.) 

Fourth Servant. Geraint is sore loving unto this Lionel. 

Fifth Servant. Yea! Is he better than we are that he should be thus 
over-praised ? 

Sixth Servant. Natheless he is wonder ly strong. 

Third Servant. Ay, but he knows it.. 

Fourth Servant. Yea, truly! How doth he strut up and down like a 
peacock with its tail spread ! 

Fifth Sfjivant. How like a beggar he looked a few months back when 
first he came to Arthur's court! (Enter Lionel). 

Lionel. Cowards! Stint your noise! What say ye of beggars behind 



UONEL OF ORKNEY—A ONE-ACT PLAY 33 

my back? For wit ye well I am no beggar. I am a king's son. (Servants 
laugh.) 

Second Servant. List how he plays the overlord t 

Thibd Servant. A king's son ! Marry, but he looks it. 

Fourth Servant. Methinks your father nc^er saw a knight. 

Fifth Servant. I will tell 3rou this Lionel's cognizance. It is a frying 
pan with a dish clout rampant. 

Lionel (striking the speaker). Dog! So be to all insulters of King Bors 
of Orkney! 

Sixth Servant. How comest thou here, then? Thy fame is naught 
more than mockery. Yea, it seemeth me that my father is Leogrant, king of 
Northumberland. (Enter Lady Blanche.) 

Lady. I seek Sir Launcelot. Pray, is he here? 

Second Servant. Nay, but here is Sir Lionel, knight of the crooked 
stick. Will he not serve? 

Lady. Knaves, be quiet ! Tell me where the noble Sir Launcelot abideth, 
if ye wot it. But who is this Lionel of the crooked stick? . 

Third Servant. A noble knave of scullion blood. (Enter wounded 
knight.) 

Knight. What seekest thou here, fair lady? The kitchen is all too 
rough a place for thee. If it were not for this young Lionel that hath saved 
my life, I would not myself be here. 

Lady. I seek the most pure knight in all the world. Only such an one 
can serve me. Yonder in her castle bideth my fair sister, imprisoned by 
three wicked knights, who guard the castle-gates. Before she can be free, 
these robbers must be slain by this sword. It was girt to my waist by the 
charm of a wicked enchanter and cannot be drawn save by a stainless knight 
Many years have I traveled on this quest. From Charlemagne's dominions 
to the land of the Holy Sepulcher have I wandered. Many a knight hath 
assayed, and one and all have failed. Much mockery have I sustained. I 
pray you. Sir knight, make trial. 

Knight. Ay, that I will. But if I succeed not, will ye let yon kitchen 
knave try his skill ? For wit ye well he deserved it. He served me right nobly 
this day, when I was unhorsed. 

Lady. It is passing strange to see a knight set store by a kitchen knave. 
Yet did I hear that I should see wonders in Arthur's court. 

Lionel. Ay, noble lady ! But not in the kitchen bide the wonders. Saw 
yc not King Arthur throned and crowned? There standeth the great glory 
of our land. 

Lady. Soothly have I seen him, and my heart shook at the sight. Verily 
I thought I looked into heaven and beheld Sir Michael or Sir Gabriel or other 
archangel. But I marvel to hear such knightly words upon the lips of a 
scullion. 



34 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Knight. It all betokeneth some mystery about this Lionel, I wist He 
hath the marks of knightly blood, meseems. 

Lionel. Oh, the lady with whom I dwelt erstwhile hath been kind to me. 
I companioned with her sons. 

Lady. Ay? Lieth knightliness, then, in the friends a man keepeth and 
not in the blood? (Turning to wounded knight,) But now. Sir knight, make 
thine assay. (Knight tries to draw sword and fails.) 

Knight. I am not the knight for thine adventure, and sore it shameth me. 

Lady. Nay, be not so heavy. All the knights of the Round Table have 
made trial but now, and no one hath stirred it a whit. 

Lionel. What? King Arthur? Hath he tried? 

Lady. Ay. 

Lionel. And Sir Perdvale? 

Lady. Ay. 

Lionel. Then art thou doomed to wear it all thy life, I fear me. 

Knight. Yet do thou try. It is the day of Pentecost, the day of miracles. 

Third Servant. Beware t His greasy hands will soil the hilt. 

Lionel. I wot well I am hot worthy, but I fain would try. Sure no harm 
can come of it 

Lady. Yea, set thy hand to the hilt, good youth! (Lionel draws sword 
as King Arthur enters.) 

Lady. I am free! Behold, Sir King! I have found my knight 

Arthur. Most noble Lionel, this day hast thou proved thyself worthy of 
knighthood. And thy rank, too, well deserveth it ; for hither hath come but 
now a messager from thy lady mother. Queen Bellicent of Orkney. She 
hath told me of her sore heart and of thy disguise. Little wote she that the 
love of knightliness was so strong in thee that thou wouldst stoop thy head 
beneath the kitchen roof to become a knight. 

Lady. Art thou the son of Queen Bellicent of Orkney? Then must thou 
be of noble blood. What meanest thou by that tale of the kind mistress and 
her sons that thou hast told us of? 

Lionel. Now let me prove you that this tale is true. The mistress is my 
mother, and her sons my brothers. I vowed unto my mother ere I came here 
to keep my name a secret for a twelvemonth and a day. 

Lady. And thou didst guard a favor as thou didst guard thy vow, it 
would honor any noble maid to put one in thy keeping. 

Lionel. I have not yet a casque wherein to set it; yet if of thy grace 
thou wouldst grant me thy favor, mayhap I might sometime win to a helm. 

Lady. Here, then. Sir Lionel! Guard it well. And here do I gird thee 
with this sword that thou didst free me from. 

Lionel. Fair lady, I am not yet a knight, though I fain would be. Yet 
this I will vow, that as soon as I become a knight I will undertake thine 
adventure. 

Arthur. As for that, it is in my heart speedily to amend thy case. 



LIONEL OF ORKNEY— A ONE-ACl PLAY 35 

Kneel down and lay thy hands in mine, and swear to reverence the king, as if 
he were thy conscience, and thy conscience as thy king ; to break the heathen 
and uphold the Christ; to ride abroad redressing human wrongs; to speak no 
slander, no, nor listen to it ; to honor thy own word as if thy God's ; to lead 
sweet life in purest chastity; to love one maiden only, cleave to her, and 
worship her by years of noble deeds ; to love the truth and all that makes a 
man. 

Lionel (drawing his sword). On this holy rood I swear to take upon me 
and to keep all these vows of chivalry. 

Abthur (giving him the accolade). In the name of God, of St George, 
and St. Michael, I dub thee knight Arise, Sir Knight ! 

iCuriain.l 



WORK WITH MINERALS FOR LITTLE CHILDREN. 

ELSIE A. WYGANT, 

THE UNIVBRSITY OF CHICAGO SCHOOL OP EDUCATION. 

The woric which is here reported was chosen primarily 
because of children's pleasure in collecting and owning stones, 
and because the recognition of the common minerals is an essen- 
tial basis for intelligent work in geography. Several different 
kinds of woric contributed to the better realization of the subject- 
Reading, writing, mathematics, and manual training aided in the 
development of the children's plans in much the same way that 
these subjects would be utilized by an adult in doing a piece of 
work. When an architect plans a building, he makes his draw- 
ings, estimates his strains, writes his letters^ gets his information 
from books; and because he is not in the process of being edu- 
cated, these parts of a piece of work are unclassified ; he is mak- 
ing a house plan. The group of children whose work is reported 
were trying to classify a collection of pebbles from the lake shore. 
They made boxes from cardboard to hold the stones ; they wrote 
records of experiments and compared notes; they read to find 
what c^er children had done in play similar to theirs, and to get 
directions for carrying out experiments which they themselves 
could not plan. Because they are in the process of education, 
their work is divided, and this part is called manual training, that 
part number ; this recitation reading, and that one writing. 

The work was done by a group of children in the University 
Elementary School, half of whom were beginning first grade, the 
other half beginning second grade. The series of lessons occu- 
pied, approximately, one hour daily for six wedcs. The first 
stones to be classified were quartz, since they were most attractive 
on account of their sparkling whiteness. Each stone was tested ; 
if it would scratch a piece of glass, the children identified it as 
quartz. Regarding those which remained, questions arose as to 
what they were called. A series of experiments was made to 
determine this. Most of the children were familiar with lime as 

36 



\ 



WORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 37 

the chief ingredient of mortar. At the teacher's suggestion, they 
put some acid on pieces of lime^ and discovered that in every 
instance this caused effervescence. They tested the mortar with 
acid, and found that it too effervesced. Thus they established a 
means for discovering the presence of lime.* When they tested 
one of their stones and found effervescence, they understood that 
it contained lime, and they were given the name "limestone." 
They proceeded to sort out the limestone in their collection. 

The next step was to label both the quartz and the limestone. 
The older children wrote the labels for themselves and for the 
younger group. This necessitated a writing of the words " lime- 
stone" and "quartz" some twenty times, and for the yoimger 
group it required frequent recognition of the written words dur- 
ing the process of labeling. 

Another day, as work to be done alone at their desks, the older 
group were given a glass rod and a shallow dish containing a little 
hydrochloric acid; also a plate on which were substances con- 
sisting mainly of lime. They were left to test these materials and 
write their results upon the blackboard. The new words which 
they would need in writing were the names of the materials 
tested| and a list of these was put upon the blackboard for refer- 
ence. At the end of the period the record was examined with the 
children, and both subject-matter and written form were dis- 
cussed. Any differences of opinion r^arding results were settled 
by trying the experiment again. These details in regard to tmsuper- 
vised occupation are given simply to illustrate a type which 
in its nature is adapted to independent work. The result desired 
was independent judgment of each child; hence it was reasonable 
to work alone rather than in a group. The training in skill and 
carefulness which comes from the handling of materials in experi- 
mentation is very great; therefore each child should have his 
own set of materials and time to do the work alone, while the 
writing of the result summarizes the experiment in the child's 
mind. In this case the seat work was more valuable than a recita- 

* The effervescence, of course, is not conclusive evidence of lime, but of some 
carbonate ; the general appearance of the stone taken with the fact of effervescence 
was sufficient in most cases to enable them to identify the stone as limestone. 
— [Editoe.] 



38 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

tion. The distinctive value of seat woik needs recognition. It is 
too often looked upon as an unmitigated evil to be endured only 
because of the necessity for economizing the teacher's time. 
However, to make unsupervised work most effective it must be 
followed each time by intelligent criticism. 

After their own experimentation, the children read the printed 
record of another group who had tested the same substances : 

We went hunting. 
We did not take a gun. 
We took acid. 

Guess what we were hunting for. 
We found it in marble and limestone. 
We found it in bones, shells, and chalk. 
We found it in lake water. 
We found it in the soil in our school yard. 
"Lime seems to be in a great many places," said 
Charles . 

The children were shown some beautiful specimens of coral 
as typical products. They were much interested in them, delight- 
ing in their beauty and their resemblance to ccnnmon things. The 
group made the following accotmt of coral in order to tell the 
third grade what ftm they were having : 

CORAL. 

(written by first-grade children to send to the children of the 

UPPER primary grade.) 

We are studying coral. 

We wanted to tell you something about it. 

The coral is the skeleton of an animal. 
This animal is called a polyp. 

It lives down in the sea. 

Often it is about as big as a pinhead. 



fVORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 39 

Sometimes it is much larger. 

It fastens itself to a rock. 

The polyp's children grow on top of the polyp 
or the side of it. 

They grow together in bunches. 

After a while the animals in these bunches die. 

The hard inner part is left. 

This is the coral. 

We had some coral that looked like trees with 
snow on them. 

Some people think this kind looks like the horns 
of deer. 

There is some coral that is round with funny 
little veins. 

Some people say this looks just like a man's 
brain, only it is white. 

There is a kind that is yellow. 

It looks like cauliflower. 

The red coral looks like firecrackers. 

All the coral has lime in it. 

The children began to make the account collectively, but at the 
end of fifteen minutes, when it was time to go home^ the result 
was haphazard and incomplete. At home two of the children 
dictated an account of the coral without help or suggestion. 
These accoimts were written upon the board and criticised by the 
children wherever they thought them not intelligible. This criti- 
cal reading by the children of what they have written is urged as 
valuable training, not only in English, but also in clear thinking. 
The child holds in mind his audience, and there is a stimulus to 
complete expression similar to that which is lent to oral expres- 
sion by the presence of a listener. 



40 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Much self-consciousness and the ensuing timidity may be 
avoided by making the very first writing an expression of opinion 
rather than a test of skill in reproducing a word which is not a 
genuine expression of thought This was illustrated by the 
younger group as follows : One of the older children asked what 
coral was made from. In answer, both the older and younger 
groups were sent to the blackboard, and after a piece of coral had 
been tested with acid, they were asked to write the name of its 
material. The older children wrote at once the word " lime," and 
one of the younger children attempted it. He was helped to write 
the word, and a second piece of coral was tested. This time all 
the children, with one exception, attempted to write it. The 
results were crude, sprawling, and often unrecognizable ; but the 
attempt was freely made. The testing of the coral was repeated 
with each of the seven varieties, and each time the child wrote 
what he inferred from the result of the test. Thus every repeti- 
tion in writing was an expression of individual opinion. It was 
the first time they had been asked to write anything, and this 
word they had seen many times both on their labels and upon the 
blackboard. When an opinion is the matter in hand, the writing 
becomes incidental to it, and the child is conscious of trying to 
say something rather than to produce an effect 

Among the pebbles we found some geodes containing quartz 
crystals, but these were so small as to be unrecognizable in form. 
Therefore large and more perfect crystals of quartz were brought 
to the class. These included smoky, rose, and milky quartz, 
topaz, and amethyst. Because these all scratched glass the chil- 
dren identified them as quartz. 

They read the following reading-lesson printed for a former 
group of children and partly composed by that group : 

QUARTZ. 

I. 

One day some children went to the lake shore. 

They found many kinds of pebbles. 

Some of the pebbles were white and smooth. 



WORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 4 1 

They sparkled in the sunshine. 
They were harder than glass. 
They scratched glass. 
These were quartz pebbles. 
All quartz is hard, but not all quartz is white. 
Some is pink, some is brown, some is purple, 
and some is yellow. 

II. 
Have you ever seen quartz crystals? 
A little boy said: **They look like icicles!" 
Do they? 

A little girl said: **They look like fairy church 
spires!" 

What do you think they look like? 
Wonderful fairies must live in the ground! 
We find so many kinds of crystals in it. 
Some look like sheets of paper. 
Mica crystals look like that. 
Some are cubes. 
Some are brick-shaped. 
Some are pyramids. 

III. 

A little boy thought that white quartz crystals 
were glass. 
Was he right? 
Rub some sand on glass. 
It scratches the glass like quartz. 
Sand is little grains of quartz. 
Men make glass of quartz sand and lime. 



42 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

They put sand and lime in big clay jars. 

They melt the sand and lime in the fire. 

Then it looks like molasses. 

They put a long tube like a horn into the soft 
glass. 

With this tube men can blow it into the shape 
of bottles, vases, and lamps. 

Quartz is not glass. 

But glass is melted quartz with lime in it. 

Illustrations of the crystal forms mentioned in II were shown 
by specimens of galena, fluorite, calcite, mica, and finally by 
some large maple-sugar crystals. The children tried to find out 
what the last mentioned crystals were, using the add test and the 
glass; but both failed. One child smelled them, and great was 
the astonishment of the entire group upon tasting these crystals. 

They were enthusiastic to make sugar crystals, and the direc- 
tions for work were given in writing whenever these were suffi- 
ciently simple. Necessary explanations were thrown in orally. 

When the crystals were made, the children composed the fol- 
lowing recipe, which applies equally for making crystals of salt, 
aliun, bichromate of potash, and copperas, from all of which good 
results may be obtained : 

RECIPE FOR SUGAR CRYSTALS. 

Take some cold water. 

Add sugar until no more will dissolve. 

Put the water over the fire to boil. 

More sugar will dissolve in the boiling water. 

Again add sugar until no more will dissolve. 

Then set the dish where it will cool. 

In two days the crystals will come.* 

' Two years ago, when we made sugar crystals for the Christmas tree decora- 
tions, we received information from a wholesale rock-candy manufactory which 
was of great value. Upon request, this information is reprinted from a back 



WORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLB CHILDREN 43 

In order that the children might see a greater variety of crys- 
tals, the class spent an hour in the crystal exhibit at the Field 
Museum, where they gained a much better idea of the definiteness 
of form and the beauty of crystals. 

While we were in the museum we saw some fine examples of 
fossils, and the children were interested in recognizing the " pic- 
tures" on them. When later we found some little fossils on 
the lake shore, their delight was still greater. The teacher was 
curious to know how they supposed the impress was made upon 
the stone. One child only thought that the Indians had made it 
Most of them thought the pictured object fell upon the stone, but 
two of the children without suggestion thought out the actual 
process. The fact that they had made limestone in a previous 
lesson gave the clue, for they could think of limestone as hardened 
mud. In order to test the theory of these two children, each child 
made upon a lump of clay an impression of a shell or leaf or 
flower and left it to harden. While this result proved nothing, 
it strengthened the possibility of a similar metihod of fossil 
formation. 

For the purpose of binding together in the minds of the 
children partial results, fragmentary discussions, and individual 
opinions, the following reading-lesson was written. It sum- 
marized the work of several days. 

number of the Elementary School Teacher, now out of print 

Forty pounds of sugar. 

One gallon of water. 

Stir only until sugar dissolves. 

Boil to 334'* F. 

Keep at a temperature of 70^ F. or above for three days. 

Avoid any jarring. 
The first necessity for attaining large and clear crystals is to use sufficient 
material, so that a considerable weight may be produced. Occasionally thermome- 
ters vary slightly, so that 234^ F. does not produce the proper density, but this 
may be discovered in about five minutes after the syrup has been poured out to 
cooL By that time a coating has formed on the top which if rough and irregular 
indicates successful crystalisation. If it appears smooth and glassy, the syrup 
must be boiled and brought to a temperature two or three degrees higher than 
before. 



44 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

FOSSILS. 

There are some wonderful stones in the Field 
Museum. 

They are called fossils. 

Some have the print of fern leaves on them. 

Some have the print of fishes on them. 

One has the print of a palm leaf. 

We found some small fossils on the lake shore. 

They have the print of shells on them. 

These fossils were in limestone. 

We wondered how the picture was made. 

We thought the shell fell on the stone and left 
its print. 

But we could not press shells into hard stones. 

We remembered that when we made limestone, 
it was first mud then it hardened into stone. 

We thought the shell must have fallen on the 
mud and made a print; then the mud must have 
hardened into stone. 

We made prints of leaves and shells and flowers 
in clay. 

It only took one night for this clay to harden; 
but the fossils were made thousands and thousands 
of years ago. 

They read with much pleasure the following story, written 
by Flora J. Cooke. 

THE STORY THE FOSSIL FERN TOLD. 
Once a family of ferns lived in a forest. 
They did not care for the bright sun. 
They liked the cool shade under the trees. 



WORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 45 

They liked the moist soil by the forest lake. 

One little fern grew close to the edge of the 
water. 

She bent down toward the waves. 

The waves rolled up toward her. 

For a long time they did not reach her. 

But after a while great storms came on the lake. 

The water rose higher and higher. 

Fine, soft mud came with each wave. 

It covered the fern and all her family. 

Year after year the storms came. 

The mud grew deeper and heavier over the fern. 

Do you think anyone ever saw the fern family 
again ? 

Many years after a man came to the forest. 

All the old trees were dead, but a few of their 
grandchildren were there. 

The lake had gone away. 

But the old father river was not far away. 

The soft mud could not go away. 

But it, too, had changed. 

It was now hard rock. 

The man knocked upon the rock with his ham- 
mer. 

Then the rock gave a leaf from his stonebook. 

There was a picture on it. 

It was a picture of the little fern. 

There it was, the leaflets, midrib, and veins. 

The man could read the stone's story. 

It told him how the fern gr^w by the forest lake ; 



46 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

how the waves covered it with mud ; and how the 
mud hardened into stone. 

Can you read the stone story of the fossil fish? 

As scx>n as the pebbles were classified, the children needed a 
place in which to keep them separate. We planned a box which 
should hold four cubic inches. After they had some knowledge 
of kinds of stones, we counted eleven varieties which we wanted 
to keep; namely, sandstone, limestone, quartz, granite, chert, 
pudding stone, marble, greenstone, sugar crystals, fool's gold 
(iron p3rrites), and also shells. We made twelve small boxes and 
then a large one to hold these. The children experimented to see 
' which was the best arrangement of the boxes, whether three by 
four, or two by six, or twelve by one. Each child chose his own 
way and made the pattern for this large box. When the pattern 
was completed, the children transfered it on to bristol board by 
means of carbon paper. Because of the strain upon the large box, 
strips of soft sheep^n were used to fasten the comers together, 
and instead of sewing or gluing these, brass-headed paper fas- 
teners were used as more secure and more sightly. The total 
expense of each set of boxes was something like three cents. 

The number relations and the geometrical conceptions which 
were applied in the construction of the boxes were so numerous 
and so well adapted to children of this age that they are enu- 
merated below. They are: the making of a four-inch square 
(repeated twelve times) ; the idea that opposite sides of a rect- 
angle are equal and parallel; the fact that two fours are eight 
(used in cutting binding-paper for the comers of each box) ; 
use of one inch, one- fourth inch, and one-eight inch (needed in 
making large box) ; conception of four cubic inches, one cubic 
inch, and the relation of numbers from one to twelve. The prob- 
lems which arise are not only varied and well adapted, but are so 
frequently repeated as to furnish sufficient drill to fix them in 
mind. 

This series of work upon the stones furnished a considerable 
amount of independent work. The younger group spent one 
half-hour daily for five weeks in the making of the small boxes. 



IVORK WITH MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 47 

The older children made a blank-book with alphabetically 
arranged pages Uke a dictionary. As soon as new words were 
gained in writing, a copy of them was put into this book for 
reference. The making of these books and the use of them 
occupied approximately six periods. The testing of the materials 
for lime and the making of the imitation fossils required two 
periods. One period was planned in which the children were to 
make the crystal forms in clay and color them as a partial record 
of the Field Museum trip, but time did not permit. 

The following directions for the making of the small boxes 
were written to take the place of oral directions : 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SMALL 

STONE BOXES. 

I. 

Make a four-inch square. 

Find the upper left corner. 

Make a dot one inch from this corner on the left 
edge. 

Make a dot one inch from this corner on the 
upper edge. 

Make a dot one inch from the other corner on 
the upper edge. 

Make a dot one inch from the other corner on 
the left edge. 

Make a dot one inch from each corner on the 
right edge. 

Make a dot one inch from each comer on the 
lower edge. 

Find the dots that are opposite. 

Draw a line between the opposite dots. 

Cut out the square in each corner. 



48 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Lay your ruler on the lines that you see. 
Then fold the four rectangles upward. 

II. 

The corners of the box are open. 

Cut a piece of^ binding-paper two inches long. 

Fold the short edges of the binding-paper 
together. 

Place the crease at the comer of the box. 

Fasten the comers together with this binding- 
paper. 

Written directions for work which is to be done furnish a 
valuable form of reading, in that reading appears to the child in 
its legitimate function, namely, telling something that he needs 
or wants to know — quite different from that well-known type: 
"This is a cow. Do you see the cow? I see thexow;" and 
different, too, in its appeal from some less obviously empty 
remarks of little more value or interest to a group of intelligent 
children, which are nevertheless to be found in some magnifi- 
cently illustrated and modem first readers. In the second place, 
the reading of directions is valuable because it demands clear 
imaging in order that the work may be done. It has just the 
value which it claimed for the well-known "Action Sentences," 
with the added virtue that this thing needs to be done. It is a 
part of a reasonable plan which the child has in mind. 

This particular subject offers abundant material for reading 
and of a nature particularly suitable for little children. In any 
subject in which the same process is repeated many times, or 
where one phenomenon is seen again and again, or where a means 
of classification is used frequently, the very repetition of the acts 
themselves causes a repetition of statement, hence a small vocabu- 
lary of often recurring words. If the repetition of words neces- 
sary in the beginnings of reading may be brought about by the 

'The corners were fastened by ps sse p artcmt paper, which may be gotten 
at any picture-framing establishment 



fVORK WITR MINERALS FOR UTTLE CHILDREN 49 

recurrence of a result seen from a new standpoint each time, the 
drill becomes of great value. 

The foregoing lessons have been reported in some detail only 
with the hope of illustrating some principles which seem import- 
ant as underlying method, namely, that children shall work upon 
a subject of genuine interest to them: that this subject shall have 
permanent value as educative material; that each child shall 
have an opportunity to work independently ; that the problems of 
reading, writing, and number shall arise from the actual needs of 
the work ; and that this subject shall in some way serve to make 
this group of children more closely in touch with some other 
group in the school community. 

References: Crosby, Common Minerals and Rocks, Tables for the Deter- 
mination of Common Minerals ; Dana, Minerals and How to Know Them, Manmai 
of Mineralogy, Crystailogy, Corals and Coral Islands; Davis, Physical Geography, 
pp. 9^105, 224-30; Heilprin, The Earth and its Story; Geilde, Text-Book of 
Geology; Jackman, Nature Study, pp. 71, 97, 133, 176, 219, 257, 301, 341. 39©. 
436; Rnslnn, Ethics of the Dust; Sedey, The Story of the Earth; Shaler, First 
Book in Geology ; Scott, An Introduction to Geology ; Tanr, Text-Book of 
Geology, 

Stories for children: Flora J. Cooke, "The Story of the Pudding Stone" 
and "Sisyphus," from Nature Myths and Stories for Little Children; "The 
Donkey and the Salt," .Ssop's Fables; Frank Dempster Sherman, "Wizard 
Frost" 



I 



GARDEN WORK IN THE FIFTH GRADE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. 

MARY M. STEAGALL. 

In the spring the garden became the center of organization of 
the science work. The feeling that the sap was again rising in 
the veins of all nature gave rise to an innate longing to help 
nature into activity and beauty again, the desire to plant seeds 
and to watch their growth. 

In early April the garden plot was surveyed by the seventh- 
grade children. The portion allotted to the fifth g^de was a 
rectangle fifty feet east and west by fifteen north and south. With 
tape and rule the children verified the measurements of the seventh 
grade and began to plan the work. Many problems confronted 
them. As it was still too cool to b^n the outdoor work, they 
devoted themselves to solving some of them in the laboratory. 

The garden was selected on an untried area. Was the soil 
rich, or would it need fertilizing? Of what was it composed? 
The first question was practically answered by taking some of the 
soil into the house and testing the growth of plants in it with the 
growth of similar plants in rich and in poor soils. 

The children did not know what made the soil rich or poor, 
did not know the soil constituents. They could see the stones, 
gravel, and sand. They were anxious to test it for carbonate of 
lime, but did not know how it was made nor what the real body 
of it was. They suggested a coarse sieve for the pebbles and 
stones, and a finer one for the gravelly sand. They could see the 
sand that would pass through their fine sieve, but did not know 
how to separate it from the " dirt," as they called the clay. 

They decided to take a kilogram of soil and separate it into 
as many parts as possible, and find the part that each made of the 
whole. This amount furnished groups of two or three with 
about 200 grams each with which to work. After separating the 
stones and gravel, they boiled the remainder about twenty min- 

50 



GARDEN WORK IN THE FIFTH GRADE 5 1 

utes; then by a gentle stream of water floated away the clay 
leaving the sand. The water in which the clay floated was kept, 
allowed to settle, and drained. The parts dried were put together 
and weighed. The weights furnished practice in comparison of 
ntunbers. The process gave individual work, but at the same 
time furnished one result so that class work might be done in the 
calculation. 

The attempt to grow plants in these constituents taken sepa- 
rately, and to compare the results, failed through lack of that con- 
tinual vigilance necessary to success in all experimental work. 

The garden itself was then planned on paper. A plat of it was 
made to a scale one-eighth inch to the foot. Each child was 
allowed to plan the walks and the planting according to his best 
judgment, and from these was to be selected an approved plan. 
This involved both an ethical and a practical question. Utility 
required a walk all around the plat. Two groups of children 
necessitated equal divisions with similar conditions of light, soil, 
etc. The ethical required that the part should be planned in 
reference to the whole. The shade was on the east and south, but 
more particularly from the east. To divide it from west to east 
would give almost equal physical conditions, but separate the 
whole into two long narrow portions, and so sacrifice the pleasing 
shape. To divide it north and south would give beauty of form 
at the expense of equal conditions of sunlight. The children 
chose to subordinate their desire for equal rights to the pleasing 
whole. This proved, too, a real sacrifice to one group, as the 
western portion far excelled the eastern in rapidity of growth and 
rankness of production. 

Fiuther divisions must depend on the seeds planted. What 
to plant was determined by two conditions: the seascHi and 
length of time during which we might have access to the garden, 
and the interest of the children in geography and history. The 
seasons were to be spring and fall. So for the spring harvest 
lettuce, radishes, and onions were chosen. Their interest in the 
Puritan Thanksgiving led them to choose com and pumpkins for 
fall harvesting. They wished to plant cotton, tobacco, and rice, 
but the time was too short for these. 



53 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The kind of seeds then conditioned the garden arrangement 
There was a desire for individual ownership and individual 
re^wnsibility in each group, yet twenty-five or thirty sqwrate 
portions would spoil the beauty of the whole. Here the ethical 
conflicted with the principle of individual ownership, and a happy 
agreement was reached in which the center was chosen (Fig. i, 
a) for com and pum[^ins, lea^Hng a one and one-half foot bor- 
der for the earlier crop. Tlie latter could lend itself to individual 
ownership and resjwnsibility by merely stretching strings for 
boundaries. 







^^S 


^s 









Fig. I. 

The actual measurement and division of the garden furnished 
the basis for a study of square measurement which was followed 
up in the Arithmetic work. 

The staking off of a two-foot walk around the whole was an 
easy problem. The separation of the remainder into two equal 
parts by a three-foot walk was not difficult. The border was 
easily staked off, but the separation of this into equal portions 
for individual work was difficult. It was a long while before the 
children discovered that they must not count the comers twice. 

When they knew what they were to plant, the conditions for 
germinatitm and growth furnished the next problems. They 
began to think by this time that tfieir soil was good. The amount 
of water necessary was not made the subject of a quantitative 
experiment, but by watering the window plants from day to day 
they learned to tell by the look of plant and soil when more 
moisture was needed. 



GARDEN WORK IN THE FIFTH GRADE 53 

That moisture was reqixired for germination was not ques- 
tioned, but how it made its way into the seed was an interesting 
problem. They worked this out by covering with paraffin the 
various parts of the seed and soaking to see what covering pre- 
vented the water's getting in. 

The amount of sunlight and its effect were studied by plant- 
ing two window boxes with like seeds under similar conditions, 
except that one box was kept in a north and the other in a south 
window. These were carefully watched, the difference in tem- 
perature of the two taken, and notes made from day to day of 
the differences in time of germination and growth. Colored 
sketches were made to show differences in color at sprouting, and 
again after exposure to light for about seven days. 

Next the children investigated the depth at which the seeds 
should be planted. They first put the seeds into flower-pots, but 
such poor results were obtained, because of the unequal conditions 
in various cases, that window boxes were thought better. A part 
of manual-training time was given to making three or four boxes 
large enough to just fit the ledge, and deep enough to allow a 
four-inch planting. In these, seeds were planted at depths of one, 
two, three, and four inches. Careful notes were made of the 
depths, of the seeds which first germinated, and of those which 
had the better hold in the soil after growth began. They noted, 
too, that seeds planted an inch below the surface are likely before 
germination to become exposed on accoimt of winds or beating 
rains. 

The strength of the seedling for making its way out of the 
soil was questioned in some of the greater depths; so, to get an 
idea of its strength, we took a jar half full of peas and put them 
under germinating conditions. After a week they were found to 
fill the jar, pressing so tightly against each other as to make them 
irr^^lar hexagons instead of spheres. They were packed in so 
closely that it was impossible to remove them except one at a 
time, and even then they must be cut to pieces first. 

The raking, spading, measuring, and planting gave abundant 
outdoor exercise for weeks. For this work rakes and spades were 
provided in the following manner : Good oak lumber was pro- 



54 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 



vided in the manual-training room. Round handles were made 
about a jrard long. For the rake (Fig. 2) a piece of lumber 
I J4 X I X 12 inches was taken. A hole was bored through the 
one-inch way for the inserting of the handle. Spike nails were 
then driven through the one-half inch way at distances of one 
inch apart, the middle one going through the handle and fasten- 
ing it The spade was made to correspond to Fig. 3. The broad 
part of this was about 9 X 6^ inches. It was made strong near 



Fig. 2 





Fig. 3. 

the handle by a cross-piece i X i X 6j4 inches which was fas- 
tened to it by bolts. The handle was given a slope by a diagonal 
sawing. It was bolted to the broad part, and passed through a 
groove in the stay to which it was bolted. Rakes so made are 
quite satisfactory. The spades are serviceable for the lighter 
woric, if one or two iron spades are used in the tougher soil. 

After the seeds had been planted, areas two feet square were 
staked off on a vacant lot not far away. Here the germination 
of the weeds of the district was studied. The children discovered 
how many different kinds grew on the area and made an estimate 
of the nmnber of each kind. In this way they learned to recog- 
nize the form and to know the names of the common weeds of the 



MARCH OF THE LITTLE SANDALS 



55 



locality; so when the time for weeding arrived, they knew the 
weeds that were to be plucked out, and no mistakes were made by 
pulling up the seedlings. 

The question arose as to which was better to plant, onion sets 
or onion seeds. One group planted the seeds, and the other the 
sets, with the result that the latter harvested its onions this 
spring, while the former will have a harvest in the autumn. 

This account of the meager work in connection with the fifth- 
grade garden is illustrative of the fundamental importance and 
far-reaching consequences of intelligent garden woric. It is in its 
nature physical, social, moral, ethical, extensive, and experi- 
mental. It is physical in that it gives motor req)onse to the idea 
and gives the child an opportunity for being out of doors a while 
each day. It is fundamentally social, as no part of the school 
work can bring the children into freer and more commonsense 
relations socially. The garden party to which they invited their 
parents and friends gave them a chance to realize themselves as 
a functioning part of the social whole. It is moral in that it 
develops the ideas of respect for property, ownership, responsi- 
bility, and dignifies manual labor. It establishes the fundamental 
percepts of ethical ideas and in its principles extends to all the 
subjects of the curriculum. Here may be worked out not alone 
the fimdamental principles of the natural and jAysical sciences,, 
but it is the basis for mathematics, history, geography, drawing,, 
and literature. Through its inductive experimentation it enlarges 
the imagery and establishes the basis of logical thinking. 



MARCH OF THE LITTLE SANDALS. 

MAY ROOT KERN. 




56 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 







f ^ f MP I' 



m JT^ i ! 





I' I iV^^' 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The Elementary School Teacher is a lineal descendant 
of the Cook County Normal School Envelope, About the year 
The siemen- 1S92 a small printing outfit was installed in a base- 
Ury School ment room of the building occupied by the Cook 
Teacher County Normal School. The purpose of this was 

mainly to provide printed reading lessons and other material thai 
the teachers desired to use in this form in their class-rooms. The 
children, stimulated by the desire to express their own ideas, were 
taught to write from a perfectly legitimate and natural motive. 
But their reading lessons found in the ordinary text-books bore 
no such organic relation to their thinking. The printing-press 
was therefore called into use with a view to placing in the hands 
of the pupils printed copies of their own stories which grew 
directly out of their observations. Still further, it gave the 
teachers opportunity to adapt stories and other descriptions to 
any particular subject in hand, and thus to relate reading much 
closer to the pupil's thinking than it was possible to do with text- 
books alone. The teachers also made use of the press in the 
preparation of outlines which gave a forecast of their plans for 
teaching; they used it, too, in summarizing what had already 
been done. As a stimulus and a means to study, this woiic was 
invaluable to the teacher and to the school as a whole. 

Presently there grew up a considerable demand for these 

papers from teachers in different parts of the country. No 

attempt was made to bind the leaflets, or to arrange them in any 

particular order; they were simply put up in a large envelope 

each month, and sent to those who asked for them. The work 

was continued in this way until June, 1899, when Colonel Paricer 

left the Normal School. These leaflets, which form several 

volumes of considerable size (no longer to be obtained), give an 

interesting insight into the workings of the school during that 

period. 

57 



58 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

When the Chicago Institute opened in 1900, the publication 
was resumed under the name of the Course of Study. In general, 
the same plan was pursued^ but under the editorship of Mrs. 
Marion Foster Washbume the matter was given coherent 
arrangement, and each month the work was bound in magazine 
form. For two years this plan was followed, there being pub- 
lished in this period two volumes of about nine himdred pages 
each, which give a detailed view of the school at work. 

In 1902, when the Elementary School of the Chicago Insti- 
tute and the Laboratory School were united, the name of the pub- 
lication was changed to its present form, and its character was 
considerably modified. Contributions from teachers and others 
not connected with the school were received, and the plan of 
printing outlines and lessons in detail was largely abandoned. 

Once more the editorship has changed hands. Those who 
have assumed the duties feel deeply the responsibilities of the 
position, and they are planning to leave nothing undone that will 
enhance the value of the journal to those who are interested in 
educational problems. The aim will be to combine, as far as prac- 
ticable, the best features of both plans that have been pursued 
heretofore. The University Elementary School is, frankly, an 
experimental school, in the best sense. It is difficult to conceive 
of a good school being anything else. When, therefore, the 
teachers of this school develop some piece of work with their 
pupils that seems to possess merit, it is proposed to give others 
the benefit of it^ as far as possible, in the pages of this journal. 
The matter so presented will vary greatly in form, because it will 
come from those who have different points of view ; it will never 
be offered as a piece of perfection, nor as a model to be copied, 
but rather as a suggestion which will enable another to do some- 
thing better. No one need wait for perfection, but everybody 
has a right to expect growth; and it is the latter that the 
Elementary School Teacher will seek to encourage. It will 
therefore be ready to present to its readers the work of all teachers 
that has been done in a true student spirit and with a view to 
making the lives of children better. 

The journal continues the work, already so well begun by 



EDITORIAL NOTES $9 

those who have founded and maintained it, with strong assurances 
of the cordial co-operation of the teachers of the School of Edu- 
cation, of The Francis W. Parker School, and of many others 
throughout the country. With such support it is believed that the 
Elementary School Teacher will continue to be an influential 
factor in the educational movement of its time. 

The most important event in the history of the School of 
Education since its founding was the dedication of its buildings, 
Dedication of o" the thirteenth and fourteenth of last May. The 
The School of University of Chicago made this event the occasion 
Kdncation j^^. inaugurating a r^^lar annual conference on 
topics relating to elementary education, which corresponds to 
the conference on secondary work that is held in the autiunn. 
The program covered two days, and it included departmental 
conferences on " The Training of Teachers," " The Arts, Music, 
and Dramatic Art," "History and English," "Science, Geog- 
raphy, and Mathematics," and "The Library and Museum." 
There were also two general meetings ; one of these was devoted 
to the subject of "Manual Training," and the other one to the 
formal dedicatory exercises of Emmons Blaine Hall. The con- 
ferences were all largely attended and the papers and addresses 
were of such exceptional character that the Elementary School 
Teacher will publish a number of them during the year. The 
addresses by Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, Mrs. Emmons Blaine, 
and Dr. Ernest F. Fenollosa appear in this issue. 

In manual training of all kinds, as with all other school work, 
the most important point for the teacher to consider is the motive. 

Constructive work at present, generally speaking, 
^ . ^* bears about the same relation to hand-work of the 

WOfK. 

highest educative value that the old-time object- 
lessons bore to true nature-study. Object-lessons were intro- 
duced for the purpose of awakening and training the senses that 
slumbered and slept through the book regime of the schools. It 
was supposed, at first, that almost any object would serve the 
purpose. Later it was discovered that any attempt at sense- 
training which does not take into account the whole mind is 
vanity; it was further found out that the first demand of the 



6o THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

mind is for motive. Without a clearly defined and thoroughly 
understood motive, it always refuses to give its best And this 
is as true for the little child as it is for the adult. 

Manual training came into the schools as an attempt to resus- 
citate and train the motor activities of the pupils that were all 
but atrophied through lack of use. The pupils were set to cutting 
and carving on the theory that any kind of movement would 
serve. But teachers are learning that one muscular movement 
directed toward a worthy end that is thoroughly appreciated is 
worth a thousand of the same kind that have no soul behind them. 
That is, that physical training, the development of the motor 
activities, is as much a matter of mind as it is of body. It is a 
matter of both, one and inseparable. And, again, the first demand 
of the mind is for motive. 

The purpose must be direct. In using a saw on a piece of 
timber the end is not to grow muscle, nor is it to develop charac- 
ter : it is to cut wood. If, when cut, it serves no purpose that is 
thoroughly appreciated, then the educative value of the work is of 
low grade. Nobody but a sick man or a child under compulsion 
ever goes through bodily motions, simply for the purpose of build- 
ing up his body ; just as nobody but a moral degenerate would go 
about hunting for opportunities to be honest simply for the pur- 
pose of developing in himself a fine moral character. Agassiz did 
not study because he desired to develop himself mentally, but 
because he wanted to know more about fishes. Newton did not 
sit up nights simply to acquire mathematical skill, but to find out 
something about the heavenly bodies. To fix the attention of the 
pupil upon himself, by setting up the motive of self-development 
or skill, is to train in him an insufferable egotism as certainly as 
though we perpetually praised his neckties and his curls. 

The true end^ the end which alone can inspire to healthy 
action, is to be found only in the purpose which the object can 
serve when it is completed. The object should be worth some- 
thing because it can do something that somebody would like to 
have done. Apply this test, and it will rule out much of the hand- 
work that now exists merely because it is fantastic and novel. 
Train the pupil to apply this test to his work and then do not 



EDITORIAL NOTES 6i 

worry about the development of his motor activities or his moral 
character. W. S. J. 

There is no better place for feeling the educational pulse of 
the country than at one of its great summer schools for teachers. 
Summer Here people are gathered from California to Maine, 

Scboois for and when classes permit of free discussion the school 
Teachers becomes a kind of clearing-house for opinion, and it 

is remarkable to note the general trend in the same direction. 

One thing that strikes the observer with wonder and admira- 
tion is the mere fact that this class of workers whose toil draws 
so heavily upon vitality should still find strength left for vacation 
work. It testifies to two things: first, to the vital hold which 
members of the teaching profession have upon their problems; 
second, to the pressing nature of these problems themselves. The 
question has been asked repeatedly of teachers: "Are you not 
trying to do too much in vacation ? " Again and again the same 
answer comes : " Oh no ! It rests me to study. It is so different 
from teaching, and it is such a satisfaction to feel that one is 
getting that which will make all next year's teaching better and 
easier." Surely such an attitude augurs well for the schools 
represented in our numerous summer sessions that normal schools, 
colleges, and universities have been conducting. Nowhere is this 
activity more evident than among the teachers of the South. 
Energy, enthusiasm, and elasticity mark the southern student. 

The trend toward activities which involve positive contact 
with things and processes is a sign of the times. Those studies 
which demand laboratory methods, or constructive, or executive 
power, are in the lead. This may seem at first thought to be a 
passing fashion, but a closer following of classes convinces one 
that the selection has been made under conviction bom of actual 
experience of the needs of children. One young woman irom a 
southwestern state said : " Well, no one from our town was doing 
anything definite to find out about these modem methods, and I 
just determined I would ; for certainly our schools do need some- 
thing down there. And now that I have come I know better 
what I want and what we need." It may be added that, as a 
result of the energy of this teacher and the generosity of a mem- 



62 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

ber of the school board of her town, materials have been provided 
that will greatly increase the facilities of their primary work; a 
iirst-grade room has been furnished with chairs and tables in place 
of the solitary desks^ so that the children, barely beyond kinder- 
garten age, may have group work and games. As an evidence 
that this teacher was not standing alone in this desire for progress, 
we cannot forbear to add that her school board paid her tuition 
at the summer school. Who knows how many such histories 
may lie behind the great wave of educational reform ? 

B. P. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Hull's Elements of Algebra for Beginners. By George W. Hull. New York, 
Cincinnati, and Chicago: American Book Co., 1904. Pp. 159. $0.50. 

A GOOD book, though we see no reason why it should have been written, as 
the market is full of just as good. In our judgment, the giving of rules before 
processes and of definitions before the thing to be defined or the process under 
the rule is thoroughly understood, is faulty. 

The author says in his preface : " We have made the equation the most 
prominent idea of each chapter." And yet, nearly 75 per cent, of the equations 
in the book are given for solution. It would seem that if the equation is so 
important X^°d it is), the originating of it is far more important than its solu- 
tion. The child has simply to recall certain facts already learned by rote to 
work an equation made for him. On the other hand, if he be given the conditions, 
let them be ever so simple, he has not only to recall the facts as before ; he has 
also to draw an inference and through this inference form his own equation, 
which becomes a part of himself, thus enhancing its value and causing its solu- 
tion to be far more pleasurable. This, however, is a fault found in many ele- 
mentary algebras. The author has simply followed the beaten path. 

William M. Giffin. 



Educational Music Course, Teachers' Edition for Elementary Grades. By 
James M. McLaughun and W. W. Gilchrist. Boston: Ginn & Co. 
Pp. 271. $1.25. 

This book is a teacher's manual designed to supplement the New First Reader 
of the Educational Music Course by furnishing excellent piano accompaniments 
for the melodies given in the pupil's Reader. That harmony greatly enhances the 
value of songs is undeniable, and where a piano is even occasionally available, it 
should be employed. In all school assembly-rooms a piano will be found, and, in 
default of the schoolroom piano, this should be used as often as practicable for 
the sake of the ear-training which the presence of good harmony affords. This 
book contains a collection of good rote-songs for elementary grades, together with 
practical drills for developing the child's voice ; also, in connection with songs for 
sight-reading, carefully graded exercises in time and intervaL In an appendix, 
songs by great writers adapted and arranged for children's use are given. While 
it is axiomatic that the child should be given " the best," it is a question whether 
it be wise to discount the future by injuring the great songs written for adults 
through divorcing them from their virile texts and resetting them to neutral- 
tinted verses, and, furthermore, pruning them, or cutting out those integral portions 
which furnish a contrast and background for the simpler melodic gem. 

M. R. Kern. 

63 



64 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Schucking*s Die drei Freier. Edited by Otto Heller. Boston : Ginn & Co. 
Pp. xxiii 4- 8i. $0.30. 

This is the first time this thrilling story has been printed out of Germany, 
and the first time it has been edited. The copious notes deal for the most part 
with moot points and other difficulties of German grammar, while the archaisms 
of Schucking's style are separately considered in a chapter of the Introduction. 
Die drei Freier is adapted to the needs of students who have spent about one 
year and a half on their German, and will be found to furnish excellent sight- 
reading for more advanced students. 

Elementary German for Sight Translation. By Richard Clyde Ford. Boston : 
Ginn & Co. Pp. 43. $0.25. 

This is a text planned for the first two years of high-school and college work, 
to be used as soon as classes are able to take up easy reading. Although the text 
has been prepared primarily for sight translation, nevertheless a few brief foot- 
notes have been introduced, thus making it especially helpful to those who may 
wish to use it as a supplementary text in prepared reading and conversation. The 
spelling followed throughout is the latest official orthography {decree 1902), and a 
few of the exercises are printed in Roman in order to familiarize the reader with 
both styles of German printing. 

Baldwin's Spelling by Grades. New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago : American 
Book Co. Pp. 126. $0.20. 

Contains the words used in the well-known series of Baldwin's readers, 
arranged in the order of their occurrence. The gradation and arrangement of the 
book, however, are such as to adapt it for practical use in all elementary schools, 
without regard to the series of readers. The words are arranged in numbered 
groups, each group being sufficient for a single lesson. Words of special diffi- 
culty, as well as most of the proper names, are pronounced in review lists. The 
meanings of all proper names and of the difficult or uncommon words are given. 
These definitions, and the marking of pronunciation, are especially thorough and 
satisfactory. 

Dumas* Les trois mousquetaires. Edited by C. Fontaine, New York, Cin- 
cinnati, and Chicago: American Book Co. Pp. 208. $0.60. 

Thb adventures of Athos, Porthos, Aramis, and D'Artagnan, which have 
delighted so many thousands of older readers, are here presented in suitable form 
for class reading. The editor has skilfully abridged the lengthy novel, but has 
left the thread of the story unbroken, so that this brilliant work of Dumas may 
prove interesting and useful to both teachers and pupils. The omitted parts are 
summarized in brief English synopses, so that the reader will be able to follow the 
plot throughout. Notes are added to afford all needed help, and the vocabulmry is 
complete. 



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MODERN 

BUSINESS 

METHODS 



A MERICAN enterprise it nowhere more 
conspicuous than in commerce and 
industry. Goods made in the United 
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whole world ; improved methods of manu- 
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the rapid advances in banking and insur- 
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other countries. These methods are the 
modem secrets of success. The Uniyer- 
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perience were secured to deliver lectures 
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The lectures have been carefully edited 
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This book comprises 340 8vo pp., is bound 
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At all bookselleri, or direct from 

The Uniyersity of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois 



Contents of the 
Lectures on Commerce 



INTRODUCTORY LBCTURB 

7* Laurence LsMghUn 
Hlfber Commeieial Bdoeatton 

RAILWAYS 

A. W. SutUbM 

RjUlway Maiuicemeiit and Operatton 

George G. TuneU 

Railway Mail Serrioe: A Historical 
Sketch 

£1 />• Kenns. 

Railway Consolidatioii 

Luis ysckson 

Raliwajrt at Factors la Indnstrial De- 
velopment 

PauI Morton 

Some Railway Problems 

TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

FrMklin H. Head 
The Steel Industry 

H» F»J» Porter 

The Bistory of the Art of Forgins 

A. C. BartleH 
At Wholesale 

yohn Lee MMn 

The Commercial Value of Adyertisinc 

DorrA.KimbMU 

The Credit Department of Modem Busi- 
ness 

BANKING AND INSURANCE 

James H. Eckels 

The Comptroller of the Currency 
The Methods of Banking 

Z>« R. Forgsm 
inTostments 

H. K» Brooks 
Foreign Bxchange 



A* F. Dean 
Fire Insurance 



PROM THE REVIEWS 

** The book contains an astounding amount 
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*'We hare no hesitation in commending this 
volume as a really raluable huidbook.**— 7)l# 
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The University of Chicago Press 

CHICAQO, ILLINOIS 



morgan Park Jlcademy 



=FOR BOYS= 



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By JOHN B. WATSON, Ph.D. 



AH BXPBRIlfBKTAL 
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This study is largely supplemental to that of Flechsig and attempts to throw some 
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122 pp., with numerous text-figures and plates, 
J1.25, net; postpaid, J1.35 

AT ALL BOOKSELLERS, OR ORDER DIRECT FROM 

tbe University of €Mcago Press, CMcago, Tllinois 







The 
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Xlbe filementat? School Xleacber 

Editor . . Wilbur S. Jackman 
AssiUani Editor^ Bertha Payne 

WITH THB CO-OPBRATIOH OP 

The Faculty of the University of Chicago School of Education 



CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER, J904 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE HOME COMMITTEE OF THE PARENTS* ASSOCIATION 
OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Mrs. Charles F. Harding 65 

THE PLACE OF TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY MANUAL TRAINING 

Frank M. Leavitt 72 

MANUAL TRAINING AND MANUAL LABOR Willard C. Gore 77 

MANUAL TRAINING IN PRIMARY GRADES Annette Butler 82 

ART Charles Zueblin 85 

THE APPLICATION OF ART TO HANDWORK - Ralph Radcliffe Whitehead 92 

SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL - - - - Willard S. Bass 97 

FALL PLANTING Wilbur S. Jackman 114 

MUSIC Mrs. Crosby Adams 118 

Pebble Game; Forming the Circle; A Riddle. 

EDITORIAL NOTES Wilbur S. Jackman 122 

The Unused Energy of Boys and Girls; What Some Boys and Girls Can Do; What Induce- 
ments Can the Schools Offer ? Two Freshmen; What These Examples Mean; True Educa- 
tion Includes the Idea and the Fact of Self-support; Enforced Tasks and Enforced Idleness; 

Parents' Associations. 

BOOK NOTICES: 

Smiles: Self-Help, Ral»'H Lytton Bower, 127; Blaisdell: Our Bodies and How We Live, 
127; McLean^ Blaisdell^ and Morrow: Steps in English, 127; Howe: Handbook of Parliamen- 
tary Usage, 128; Dickens: Chnstmas Stories, Jane Gokdon, 128; Van Dyke: Gateway Series 
of English Texts, 128; Elioi: iiilas Mamer, Wilbur Lucius Cross, 128; Burke: Speech on 
Conciliation with America, William MacDonald, 128; Tanner: Elementary Algebra, 128. 



The subscription price of the Elementary School Teacher is I1.50 a year, ten numbers, none 
being issued in July and August; single copies 20 cents. 

The Elementary School Tkacher appears, with the foregoing exception, on the first day of each 
month. Subscriptions may begin at any time. When so ordered, the magazine is stopped at the expira- 
tion of the subscription. Without distinct orders to the contrary, it is continued, as it has been found by 
experience that such is the wish of the majority of our subscribers. When subscribers fail to receive the 
magazine promptly, they will confer a favor by notifying the publisher at once. 

Articles, books for review, and all communications for the Editor should be addressed to The Editor 
of the Elementary School Teacher, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Snbseriptiont and all businest commMHtcaiioHS 
should b* sent to 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

CHICAGO 
and 156 Fifth Avenue, New York 

BNTBKBD AT THB POST-OFFICB AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AS SSCOND-CLASft MATTBR 
COrVKIGHTBD, 1904, BY THB UNIVBR8ITV OP CHICAGO 



JAMES f. McOJUOlGH TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A SCHOOl AW COIUGE BlREAl 

lUlKiy EiduiW WUht. (WugD 

iae>'\M7 >• <>>' <'">' '" REGISTER. Vaciodo oc- 
S^yjW cur neht .lone ibrough iht yMi. M.mbc.- 
il^food iiiiiiL the cTotr of ihc %eatiaa of 1904-5 ^^'uir 



Hundrcili of Tuchen Have Annually B»n BBneflloiJ 

TKe Clark iB»Yt.i. 

Teachers* A^ency^ 

B. F. CLARK, Manatee 

37*-3« Wabaih Avenue - CHICAGO 
SiHD rsn "0\im PLiTronv" 



It has* 

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S*ip«riQ(«D<l«iiiar«vrdeTlDE It for ihcir 

uieir plfcllijlD(y clanii — no! only Nor- 
Nl%:boa1t.biu HighlSchoala. Individual 
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Notable Impnvements 

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Projeelion Apparatus. 

TtIB HEW REFLEC'TINn LAKTF.KN at- 
Kcbable u> any Projeclton l^nfm or HlaKopilmii. 






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THK NEW PnOJECTION i«FErTaO. 
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BOOKS BY 

JOHN DEWEY 



StodlM ia Lofical Theory [idUtd) Slsntflcun of tb« Problem of Knowledge 

in-l-3ttpp..l>o.c)o>l>.ir>(.S>.5°;i«>F>M, •a.«7 iopp..H>ya18w.paper.>*f,3s«»"; [»«I*W»«.« 

Tke School snd &otA»Xj{fi>urlkidihim) 

13D pp-. itDO, ckHh, pnatpaid . • . 1 



The EdocatloiiAl Sltoatlon (mend 
1D4 pp., laaic. ckHh» mi, j% ocnti, ponpakd 



Fiychology and SocUl Pnctlea 
The Child ud the Curicnltim 



Intereit u ReUted to Will 

40 pp.! 8to, paper, ntt, ag cao; 



M aB bookattttra of dlrea from 

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CHICAGO, ud 156 Fifth Aveiwe, NEV YORK 



dht y^ f1 ^«^it^ y^r**. Ikoit^ ,^^ ?iU ^cj^ 



What Are the "Necessary" Books lo B«y this Summer? 

First, the STATESMAN EDITION of 

Theodore R,oosevelts 

Works ^— 

WRY MUST I BUY ROOSEVELT'S WORKS ? 

II ■■ WlECAUSE you want to read them now, in the Presidential campaign, eepeciall? 
I VhJ the two volume^ containing the President's complete speeches and public 
I ^J mi'SBagee, the authorized complete edition, revised by the President, and 
K^al edited by Dr. Albert Shaw, whom President Roosevelt selected for the task. 
Because these 14 Uandsorae octavo volumes of the Roosevelt works on American 
history, civics. Jiunting, adventure, etc., belong in the library 
of every American citizen as a permanent feature. Because 
you will not have another chance to buy a l4-volume octavo 
illustrated edition of Roosevelt's works on any such terms. 

WHAT IS SO SPECIAL ABOVT THE 
STATESMAN EDITION ? 

With a gigantic guarantee, two targe 
publishing houses have obtained the 
privilege of manufacturing and selling 
the works for a limited period, after 
wliich the plates are to be destroyed, and 
Moniot-cof the Statesman Edition can be 
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uaua! price a 14-volume octavo illus- 
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llic President of the United Sutes, at 
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Hut we must do it in the short time of the 
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WHAT IS THE SPECIAL PRICE 7 

One dollar a month for 12 months, or ^11 in cash. Half-leather edition, tl down 
and $2 a month for 12 months, or $23 cash. Remember, there are 14 octavo voinmes 

in the set, weighing about 20 pounds, and you will see at a glanco what is offered in 
BUL-h a set of a co(iyrighteil work of the most immediaki interest and Viiluc, at 111. 



^JjuU ^ <^f)^/t.<rrV -^^/w ^* ic>_^-^- 



I LOOK AT THE BOOKS WITHOVT COMMITTING MYSELF 7 

ly. We prefer you should aimply send the coupon on this page, with your address 
OD it, and the entire set will be shipped at our pxpenae. If you want them, 
within five daTs, and %\ a month. If you don't want tliem, we will take tht?m 
tying express charges. We have a few sets ot a beautiful three-quarter leatJier 
too, at less than the usual price of good cloth books. Write for particulars. 

THE STATESMAN EDITION CONTAINS : 



merlemlsm — The 






Hnnllikft Trips or ■ Rancfalnftn > Rnnoh 
In tlie Bivtl Landi— Wuler- fowl -Til e fJrouw of 
Northern Caltle Plalna-The Dwr of Uio Hlvt-r t 
toms— Tbe Blackull Deer— A Trip sfhir Moaiil 
Sheep— The Lordly BulTalo. 

Tbe midcrncBK Hanteri The AmcHi 
WUdemeiu— The n'hLteUU Deer: and tbe BUck 
ot ihe ColninblB— AmonB the HlKh Hills; the 
horn or Moontalii Sheep— Monntain Uknie; 
White (Inst-The Wapiti nr Rnundhorred Elk- 
Uooeo ; The Beut of t^e WoodUnd-hnntlns Lov 
ADVESTURK— 1 Volume 

TIix RonKli Blalerai Raisins the ReglDic 

Benenil Yoong's Fight at LaBUnaslni 

The Cavalry at Santiago— In the Trench ~' 
larn_ Home— The " Round Robin" Leu 

HISTORY-B Totamea 
Tbe irinnlns of tbe Weal Is a graphic rrpre- 
^ntatlon of the gradaal advance, alep by > ep, year 
' year, of the sturdy frontieremen from thu .rltrlnal 
thirteen States acrou the AlleabanIa Into tne val- 
leys of the Ohio and MinlsslppI Rivers, and '- "-' 

n^fonof tbe Orrat Lake*. It '" ""' — 

tlrely related and IntereHtlngly iajiu. 

The NbtkI Warol I SIX is a formal statement 

ot those Interesting fact* whleh gave to our country 

Indlapnlable preBtrge on the sea. In two volDmes the 

thrlllliiH victories by our men^jfwar are vii-ldly 

pictured and narrated with buoyancy. 

SPEECHES AND MESSAGES- 

Prealdenll>l Addreaaea >nd Hlate Faprrai 

In till, volumes, edited with an Introdaetlon by 

t Shaw. Include spceehea and artiJrcsse" of 

; Rooeesplt made on vbHouh important 

' I. the messaasB nf the 

._ second Besalons of the 

seventh CongreBO and to the ami and second 




BOOKS m THE 



RIVERSIDE LITERATURE SERIES 

SUITABLE FOR USE IN GRADES I— IX 



GRADE I 



Riverside Primer and Reader 
Holbrookes Hiawatha Primer 



GRADE II 

Holbrookes Hiawatha Primer (reviewed) 
Holbrookes Book of Nature Myths 
Scudder's Verse and Prose for Beginners 
Scudder^s Fables and Folk Stories 

GRADE UI 

Hans Andersen^s Selected Stories .... 
Arabian Nights. Selected Stories 
Grimm's German Household Tales 
Scudder's Book of Legends 

GRADE lY 

Hawthorne's Wonder Book .... 

Peabody's Old Greek Folk Stories 

Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha .... 

Whittier's Selections from Child Life in Prose and Poetry 

Old Testament Stories in Scripture Language 

Brown's In the Days of Giants 

GRADE y 

Ruskin's King of the Golden River (with stories by Andersen and 

others) • ..... 

Hawthorne's Tanglewood Tales 

Longfellow's Children's Hour, Paul Revere's Ride, etc. 
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe .... 

Ewing's Jackanapes; The Brownies 
Bryant's Ulysses Among the Phseacians 
Longfellow Leaflets (Selections in Prose and Poetry) 
Hawthorne's Little Da£Eydowndilly, Biographical Stories, etc. 

GRADE YI 

Longfellow's Courtship of Miles Standish; Elizabeth 
Ouida's A Dog of Flanders; The Niirnberg Stove 
Dicken's Christmas Carol ; The Cricket on the Hearth 
Hawthorne's Tales of the White Hills ; The Old Manse, etc. 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress .... 

Whitter's Snow Bound, Mabel Martin, etc. 
Franklin's Autobiography . < . . . 

Whittier Leaflets. (Selections in Prose and Poetry) 
Burroughs's Birds and Bees, Sharp Eyes, etc. 
Plutarch's Alexander the Great, North's Translation 
Hawthorne's Grandfather's Chair .... 

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BOOKS IN THB 

RIVERSIDE LITERATURE SERIES, 



(8BB 0PP08ITB 
PA6B) 



GRADE YII 

Longfellow's Evangeline .... 

Wamer*s A- Hunting of the Deer, etc. 

Washington's Rules of Conduct, Diary of Adventure, etc. 

Holme's Grandmother's Story of Bunker Hill Battle, etc. 

Martineau's Peasant and Prince 

Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare 

Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days 

Scott's Lady of the Lake (Rolfe's Notes) 

Scudder's George Washington 

Fiske's War of Independence .... 

GRADE VIU 



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A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
SECONDARY EDUCATION 

®y GEORGE K LOCKE, Editor of the School Review 



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Aim of the lessons 

The Lessons aim to introduce the 
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2. That he will acquire some familiarity with 
the location of the vanous books of the Bible, of 
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of books. 

3. That, having this knowledge, he will acquire 
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3. A specific program for the presentation of 
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orizing which continues the work through the 
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This is made definite and precise by the use of 
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reading is assigned, the other being for the 
pupiPs report on this -specific work. 

6. Suggestions to parents for supplementary 
work with the children at home. 

Dfstinctiye Features 

The distinctive features of the book 
may be classified as follows : 

1. It requires the children to use the Bible at 
home and in class. 

2. It introduces written work in class through 
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work. This booklet, entitled 7^ke Books of the 
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child's name. His interest in it will increase 
with its use- 

3. The work demanded from the children both 
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and interest at an age when such interest and 
respect are difficult to hold, and compares 
favorably with work which they are required to 
do in the day-school. 

4 The distinctive religious teaching is not 
forced upon the child, but is so embodied in the 
material presented that it cannot escape his 
notice. 

5. By making suggestions to the parents in 
connection with each lesson it brings the relig- 
ious training of the home and the Sunday school 
into harmony, and makes the work continuous, 
at the same time enlisting the interest of the 
parent in the school. 

6. It introduces through the child the study of 
the Bible in homes where it might otherwise be 
neglected. 



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VOLUME V NUMBER 2 



The Elementary School Teacher 



OCTOBER, 1 904 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE HOME COMMITTEE OF 
THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION OF THE SCHOOL 
OF EDUCATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHI- 
CAGO.* 

MRS. CHARLES F. HARDING, 

CBAlEMAir. 

The Home Committee of the Parents' Association of the 
School of Education grew out of the Social Committee formed 
tome years ago in the Laboratory School. That Social Com- 
mittee met and discussed the social and physical needs of the boys 
and girlSy and at the same time strove to bring all of the mothers 
to an understanding of what the school stood for socially. Among 
other things, we agreed that a democratic spirit should prevail; 
fliat no sex line should be recognized; that the girls should be 
simply dressed ; that there should be no idle roaming about the 
streets or idle visiting ; that the social gatherings should be most 
single. For the younger children we encouraged sleigh rides, 
picnics, and afternoon parties. For the older ones, we stood for 
early hours and plain dressing. And always we discouraged too 
frequent festivities of any sort. The teachers as well as the 
parents came to realize that social events were important. But 
something else was needed to make the social life more whole- 
some, natural, and developing. This should come through 
intercourse centered about conmion interests. So camera clubs, 
debating clubs, and sketching clubs were some of the clubs 
formed. We arranged with a young university man who had the 

* A ]Mit of this report is taken from the author's " Social Needs of Ghildrea," 
pohUshed m the Elbmbhtast School Tbachbk for December* 1903. 

65 



66 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

true spirit of play to encourage plenty of activity of the right 
sort among the boys during noon time and for a time after school. 
We arranged with the young woman director of the gymnasium 
to initiate the girls into games out of school. The teachers met 
with us. Without their counsel and co-operation we could have 
accomplished but little. Each member of the committee acted as 
chairman of another committee and called that committee together 
to spread the principles for which the main committee stood. 
These committees met informally at the homes of the members. 
In this way the parents became acquainted with each other. They 
came to know the needs of their friends, and, I think, were of 
mutual assistance. In this way the school was brought into the 
closest touch with all the families represented in it, and furnished 
a unique instance of the whole neighborhood being a part of it, 
so that this community was associated with the methods, aims, 
and ambitions of the school in a way that made it an uplifting 
force, not only to its pupils, but to a large constituency. The 
subjects discussed in this committee were "Proper Recreation 
for Children," "Need of Public Playgrounds," "Value of 
Neighborhood Director of Games," " Out-of-Door Life in Cities," 
" Athletics," " How Shall the Time of the Child Out of School 
be Occupied?" "Physical Care of Children," "Periods of 
Growth," " Social Needs during Adolescence." 
y/ The committee was strenuous in its efforts to infuse into the 
little community which grew about this school simplicity in 
thought and in action, and I think we were all rewarded by seeing 
our boys and girls reach the ages of sixteen and seventeen natural 
and wholesome. But we did not have our own children only in 
mind. We hoped that the learning of a university — that rare 
pedagogical insight, combined with the earnest watchfulness and 
experience of the teachers and parents — might throw light upon 
what the social life of children of all communities, and especially 
of less favored communities, should be. 

But th^ Laboratory School was small. Such a committee 
might or might not succeed in a larger school. The opportunity 
to test this came last fall when the four smaller schools were 
merged into a larger school — the School of Education. A 



HOME COMMITTEE OF PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 67 

parents' association was formed, and the Home Committee was 
one of the committees provided for in the constitution. 

By some inadvertence the constitution provided that the Home 
Committee should be composed of twenty-two members. It 
should have provided for a membership of twenty-eight ; so that 
a chairman and a secretary might be chosen for the General Com- 
mittee, and the other twenty-six be disposed of in accordance with 
the general scheme. There are thirteen divisions in the School, 
and the general plan was that every parent of the thirteen divi- 
sions should in one way or another partake of the work of this 
committee. To do this, after reducing the twenty-eight members 
by its chairman and its secretary, there would be twenty-six left — 
a sufficient number to furnish a chairman and a secretary to an 
organization made up of the parents of each of the thirteen divi- 
sions, and >yhich organizations were to act with, and supplement 
the work of, the General Committee. 

The general meeting of this committee for the purpose of 
organizing and outlining its work was held in February. The 
plan was to adapt the organization and work of the Social Com- 
mittee of the Laboratory School to this larger school in its larger 
needs. The members showed a keen appreciation of what the 
committee stood for ; i. e., to secure such conditions at home and 
in the school as would accomplish the wholesome and natural 
development of the child and youth both physically and socially. 
The members of this General Committee subsequently called their 
committees together. As a result the Kindergarten Committee 
met and decided to meet every two weeks and conduct regular 
work with the possibility of publishing the results so obtained. 
The chairman asked for the co-operation of the parents in secur- 
ing a more simple style of dress for the girls, and also to give the 
girls more of out-of-door life. 

The First, Third, Fifth, Seventh, and Eighth Division Com- 
mittees all met and held successful meetingfs. The following sub- 
jects were presented and discussed: "Gardening," "Literature 
for Children,** "Reading at Home," "Dramatics," "Coeduca- 
tion," " Social Life of Children," " Cheating in School," " The 
Relation Existing between Boys and Girls," " Athletics," " Fra- 



68 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

temities," and " A More Simple Social Life." The Fifth Division 
Committee asked that the School give more time to manual 
training. 

The work of the High School committees was largely done 
by the First Year Committee. The committee conducted a series 
of meetings and considered the following subjects : " Athletics," 
" Fraternities," and " Substitutes for Fraternities." As a result 
of these meetings the following recommendations were sent to the 
faculty of the High School : 

1. We urge the building at the earliest possible date of a students' club- 
house and the development of genuine club life. 

Until this is done we ask for the setting apart of several rooms in the 
present building for this purpose, and we offer to assist in fitting them up and 
caring for them properly. 

We urge that this club idea be developed in the spirit of a true democracy, 
with freedom of forming and leaving groups of friends, and under the becom- 
ing supervision of the faculty. 

2. We urge the constitution and development of many clubs of special 
interests — debating, literary, musical, art, dancing, outing, etc. We ask that 
these interests be frequently presented to the students in public assemblies, and 
their Social side made attractive. 

We hereby offer to assist in finding money, meeting-places, and chaperones 
to begin and carry on this work. 

3. We offer to conduct many social parties at our houses during the 
season, and so to co-operate that all students may be so reached. We ask the 
authorities to regard this as a part of their interest, to advise with us as to 
the best methods of doing it and of how to make it satisfy social needs of the 
students. 

4. We urge the continuation and development of the afternoon school 
parties and dances. We rejoice in their simplicity and informality. We sug- 
gest the division of their attendance into several groups, so as to throw 
together those of similar ages and interests. 

5. We urge the School not to permit the formation of formal fraternities 
and societies, because the social good they accomplish is bought at too high a 
price in waste of time; in social fixation; in the creation of a spirit of 
exclusiveness and of pride, and the consequent damage to those who are not 
members; and in the prevention of the freedom of social movement and the 
love of the School as a whole which is the first need of all young people. 

In reply, Dean Owen of the High School said : 

I am sure Dr. Belfield and I appreciate the spirit in which the committee 
has undertaken its work. The faculty voted in its last meeting not to permit 



HOME COMMITTEE OF PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 69 

further initiation into fraternities. This, I think, will settle this particular 
question. This very act, however, makes it very important that we should do 
something really worth while in caring for the social life of our children. I 
shall try to get something definite to say to you in regard to rooms for social 
purposes. 

I have spoken so far mostly of the past, but I have spoken 
also of our purposes, and they reach forward into the future as 
well as backward into the past. If our hopes and aspirations are 
to be realized, it seems to me that we must give to this work more 
than a passing interest; that we must all co-operate toward a 
common end, and that we must use the means at our disposal in 
the most effective way. 

We, the parents of children in a school so richly endowed as 
this, have a double responsibility. Our responsibility in the first 
instance, and that of the teachers and officials, is to the children 
who attend the School. It is to illiunine their path ; to give them 
a better idea of the value of things, and a better idea of the rela- 
tion of things; to elevate their notions of intellectual attainments; 
and to demonstrate to them what social life should be — to inspire 
them with the spirit of democracy, and to give them a lasting 
understanding of their own worth in the world. 

Out of this arises our responsibility to the cause of education 
everywhere; and if we acquit ourselves well, we shall thus blaze 
the way for the introduction of similar aims and ambitions in our 
public schools and make it possible for them more fully to serve 
the end of their being. 

It would be easy to show by multiplied examples that the real 
and actual work of large organizations must be done by com- 
mittees rather than by the organizations themselves. It would 
also be easy to prove that all these committees in their work 
should realize that same democracy which they so earnestly 
recommend for their children and for the school ; and therefore, 
in concluding this, my report, I recommend for the guidance of 
future committees that full records be kept of all of their pro- 
ceedings, and, so far as may be, of the proceedings of the sub- 
committees, so that material may be at hand for publication when- 
ever deemed best; and I especially recommend an adherence to 
the following principles : 



70 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

1. The committee should be as informal as possible, and to 
that end should hold its meetings at the homes of its several 
members, where the atmosphere of the home will, by its very 
presence, suggest ideas not to be evolved from surroundings more 
formal and severe. 

2. The discussion should involve the conditions, surround- 
ings, characteristics, and tendencies of childhood and youth, and 
should be had with a view to initiating definite action that would 
better them. This distinctly does not mean the discussion of 
individual cases. Personalities should be carefully avoided. The 
committee should never forget that its function is general and not 
personal, and that its duty is not one of a grievance committee. 

3. The committee should bear in mind the need of securing 
for the child a perfect physical development. This would involve 
lectures and discussions for the purpose of understanding the 
physical well-being of the child and the youth, and of securing 
the proper surroundings and conditions for such. At this point, 
among other subjects for discussion, would be that of athletics. 

4. It should also consider at all times and keep in the fore- 
ground the need of proper social activity for the child. It should 
carefully distinguish between proper social activity and mere 
restlessness. The child needs leisure as much as work or social 
life, and this need should not be sacrificed. At the present time 
the restless social life of the child and youth needs serious con- 
sideration. Their training should be such that, in the words of a 
well-known educator, they could pass Sunday creditably to 
themselves ; but, instead of that, their serenity and self-poise are 
being sacrificed. 

5. Do not be discouraged if the discussions reach no result 
for the time being. The atmosphere will be clearing. In the 
end we shall see more clearly, and some good things will 
crystallize. 

And last of all and most important of all, this committee and 
all the committees, if they are to reach the best results of which 
they are capable, must have — and I cannot bring myself to doubt 
they will have — the hearty and sustained co-operation of all the 



HOME COMMITTEE OP PARENTS' ASSOCIATION ^ X 

parents, and of all the teachers, and of all the officials, and of the 
Parents' Association as such. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION OF THE SCHOOL OF 

EDUCATION FOR 1904-5. 

Mr. Qiarles A. Heath, 471 Forty-second Street President 

Mr. Joseph W. Errant, 346 East Fifty-fourth Street. .Firit Vice-President 

Mr. F. W. Smith, 4725 Grand Boulevard Second Vice-President 

Mr. James H. Tufts, University of Giicago Third Vice-President 

Mrs. Frank Hugh Montgomery, 5548 Woodlawn Avenue Secretary 

Mr. A. V. Booth, Chicago Beach Hotel Treasurer 

Mrs. William Kent, 5112 Kimbark Avenue. .CAatrmafi of Finance Committee 
Mrs. Wilbur S. Jackman, 5724 Kimbark Avenue. 

Chairman of Home Committee 
Mrs. Warren McArthur, 4852 Kenwood Avenue. 

Chairman of Social Committee 
Mrs. John O'Connor, 5210 Woodlawn Avenue. 

Chairman of Educational Committee 



THE PLACE OF TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

FRANK M. LEAVITT, 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Of all the theories which may engage the attention of the 
manual-training teacher, I can think of none which will have 
more influence upon his daily practice in the class-room than will 
his theory as to the rightful place of technique in the work under 
his charge. If this be true, our subject is, then, of first impor- 
tance and its consideration a matter of practical utility. 

Someone has said that most discussions would be unnecessary, 
or even impossible, if those engaged in them would first concern 
themselves with mere definitions. At the risk of making the 
remainder of this discussion unnecessary, may I quote from the 
definitions of "technique" given in the Century and Standard 
dictionaries : 

Technique — the method of performance or manipulation in any art, or 
that peculiar to any artist or school ; technical skill or manipulation ; manner 
of artistic performance; the details, collectively considered, of mechanical 
performance in any art ; also mechanical skill in artistic work ; used especially 
of the practical details of any fine art. 

If we are to have a suitable basis for discussion, it is evident 
that we must distinguish at the outset between the " method of 
performance*' and that exactitude in performance which the 
words "technical skill or manipulation'' and "mechanical skill 
in artistic work" may imply. Let us accept as a basis for dis- 
cussion the definition first given, "the method of performance 
or manipulation." For example, one might clamp a plane in the 
vise in an inverted position and draw or push a piece of wood 
over it against the plane iron. He might become so skilful in 
this performance that he could produce a perfectly plane surface 
on the wood. I think we should agree that he had a faulty 
" technique," although the performance was one of exactitude or 
accuracy. 

In the light of these prefatory considerations, may I say, 

72 



PLACE OP TECHNIQUE IN MANUAL TRAINING 73 

unequivocally, that I believe the development of a correct tech- 
nique to be of prime importance in manual training, considered 
as an educational scheme. 

Technique in any educational scheme, of which the child is to 
be the product, should be considered simply as a means to an end, 
not as an end in itself. It is felt by some that the development 
of accuracy is one of the objects for which instruction in hand- 
work is given, and in so far as this is admitted, technique may, 
in a sense, become an end rather than a means. In my opinion, 
however, it has no place as an end in elementary manual training, 
and it is a fair question whether it does not receive far too 
much attention, as an end, even in secondary schools. Modem 
educators are agreed that matiual training is peculiarly adapted 
to accomplish for our children certain general educational ends, 
and it is only as technique enhances the possibility of this accom- 
plishment that it is worthy our consideration. 

What are some of the ends which manual training is thought 
to further? I would mention the quickening of the creative 
instinct, the inculcation of a respect for labor, the formation of 
habits of neatness, order, directness, and exactness, and the 
induction of the logical and rational thinking and doing of one 
who believes in cause and effect. Let us ask to what extent 
technique is useful in the acquirement of any one of these objects, 
for example the development of the creative faculty, bearing in 
mind that we have agreed to consider technique not as accuracy, 
but rather as the method of performance. The creative faculty 
is developed only by personal achievement. The little child is 
satisfied with comparatively modest achievement so long as it 
is continuous and progressive. He is also satisfied with a mod- 
erate degree of accuracy — or, shall we say, is not disturbed by 
a considerable inaccuracy — so long as he achieves something 
which appeals to him as useful and desirable. Nor is he hurt 
by such inaccdracy so long as he does not fall below his own 
present standard, which standard is imposed by the project in 
hand, itr the early days of his acquaintance with the plane he 
may wish to prepare a piece of wood seven inches wide, for 
use in the kitchen as a cutting-board. It is very probable that 



74 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

in this early eflFort he would meet with better success, in planing 
just to the line, if he were permitted to stoop down and peer 
under the plane while using it, as we know boys so frequently 
wish to do. He might thus stop nearer the line, but his shav- 
ings would not be so good. His work would be comparatively 
accurate, but his technique poor. When we reflect, however, 
that at some future time he may need to produce true surfaces, 
for glued joints let us say, and will therefore need a better method 
for the accomplishment of the result which he himself desires, 
then we realize that this method of using the plane is objection- 
able. His technique is insufficient. It would seem wiser to 
have required the boy to use the very best method of handling 
his plane when engaged in his first planing, and when a slight, 
or indeed a considerable inaccuracy would not have impaired 
the usefulness of the product or have discouraged the young 
worker. 

This regard for technique then, this insistence on the employ- 
ment of the correct method, is important chiefly because it insures 
the fact that the tools, in the child's hands, shall be tools of 
ever-increasing efficiency, keeping pace with the enlarging ambi- 
tions and advancing standards of the worker and the increasing 
demands of his problems. 

It will be the easier to accede to the demands which this 
theory makes upon our practice in the class-room, if one is not 
overanxious for accuracy in results. But this desire for extreme 
and immediate accuracy is far too common among us. I believe 
that one of the dangers which beset our work lies in the fact 
that the facility which it offers for developing accuracy is its 
most prominent feature; and not only prominent, but alluring. 
There are many warm advocates of manual training who see in 
it nothing more than this opportunity to instil a r^^rd for 
small measurements, square comers, good curves, and a fine 
finish. Manual-training teachers who believe in the fundamental 
importance of this feature feel that every method leading to 
accuracy of results is a good method, and every means of securing 
it a worthy and legitimate one. It is unfortunate, for the best 
interests of our children, that the prominence of this feature 



PLACE OP TECHNIQUE LW MANUAL TRAINING 75 

hides, from the eyes of so many, the fact that the ability to 
adapt means to ends is of far more importance than mere fussi- 
ness; that ingenuity is more useful than a highly specialized 
ability, at least for young children; and that the joy of creating 
is a more elevating motive than the desire to imitate the skilful 
performance of another. We are in little danger of forgetting 
the importance of accuracy, but we may easily overlook the fact 
that an imnatural demand for accuracy destroys the spontaneous 
effort of the child, and robs him of that sense of reality which 
is peculiar to manual training as contrasted with much of the 
academic work. It is this very unreality, of necessity character- 
izing purely academic work that educational manual training was 
designed to correct. 

In an address an intelligent advocate of manual training, a 
layman, recently said : 

With manual training, however, the immature faculties are not forced out 
of their normal path ; the child is not compelled to lie to you and to himself 
by pretending to a literary power which he cannot have. One simply employs 
the natural instinct of the child to use its hands, one merely seizes upon that 
passion of most children to make something, one but leads into regulated 
channels the brimming enthusiasm of healthy youth for the bending and 
shaping of inanimate things. 

Is it entirely true that manual-training teachers are never open 
to the criticism here made, by implication, of the teachers of 
the humanities? Is it not possible that we sometimes compel a 
boy to lie to us and to himself by pretending to a mechanical 
skill which, in the very nature of things, he cannot have? I 
believe that we should free ourselves from any suspicion of this 
criticism, and confidently rely on the method commended in the 
above quotation. 

What, then, should be our practice in the class-room regard- 
ing the hand-work of our pupils? I sincerely believe that we 
should view with complacence all " results " so they be the pro^ 
duct of the boy stimulated by a vital interest and achieved with 
the proper tools thoughtfully used. Here, it seems to me, is 
the specific point at which the teacher has a right to be dogmatic 
For the sake of encouraging experimentation and thoughtfulness 



76 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

he may occasionally permit the use of a wrong tool, but he should 
at all times insist upon the correct handling of the tool, upon 
correct position and intelligent use ; that is to say, a use that has 
due regard to the form and construction of the tool and the 
physical limitations of the worker — a reasonable technique. 

Equipped with a knowledge of the correct method of handling 
tools, supplemented by some habitual application of that knowl- 
edge, inspired by a vital interest in real work, and opposed by the 
demands of reasonable problems, we may feel sure that the pupil 
will gain, along with the major benefits of manual training — 
as, joy in creation, respect for labor, habits of order, directness, 
and rational thinking and doing — the relatively unimportant 
acquisition of a mechanical precision in his hand-work. 

Technique will then hold a chief place in our regard, because 
it will furnish our pupils with power to manipulate the tools and 
materials with which manual training deals — a power com- 
mensurate with the reasonable demands of the immediate project ; 
and we may be confident that when the demand for accuracy is a 
timely one, it, like all others, will be adequately met 



MANUAL TRAINING AND MANUAL LABOR. 

WILLARD C. GORE, 

THB UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. 

The march of manual training in the educational world 
is rivaled by the retreat of manual labor in the industrial world. 
At first glance the general situation seems to be something 
of an anomaly. The tremendous development of machinery 
and applied science in the industrial world has crowded in 
between the brain and the hand, feeding on both, assimilating 
both into the complex automatism of its own growing structure, 
till the hand-labor that is left, to say nothing of the brain-labor, 
seems hardly more than a temporary makeshift, awaiting a few 
more new inventions to put it, not painlessly perhaps, out of the 
way. And now comes the exploitation in the schools of the very 
form of activity which is fast becoming obsolete in industrial 
life; and with this exploitation of a survival there arises, curi- 
ously enough, or rather just as we should have expected, in 
analogy with many other social survivals, an entirely new atti- 
tude toward hand-work. It comes to have an aesthetic value it 
did not enjoy before. The original activity became drudgery 
or worse. The survival is a thing of beauty. 

An anomaly, or a paradox, is of value because it forces con- 
ceptions to a deeper level. Is there a tendency to confuse manual 
training with manual labor — with the handling of tools and 
materials to secure merely tangible results ? Is the child to work 
with his hands, and with the knife, saw, and hammer, after the 
manner of an adult laborer or unbilled artisan, in response to 
the dictates of a model, or sequence of models? Is it argued 
that the child's moral nature, his habit of truthfulness, is being 
developed by this process, because of the fact, forsooth, that he 
cannot very well lie out of any discrepancy between the model 
and his own copy? If so, then the present era in manual train- 
ing corresponds, all too closely, to the great era of " fancy-work," 
with all its unfanciful hideousness and triviality; an era which 

77 



78 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

followed the rapid development of machinery for spinning and 
weaving, culminating in the invention of the sewing-machine, 
and which in its unhappy fashion exemplified the law of the 
aesthetic survival of a formerly useful occupation. 

I have seen some outputs of manual training which educa 
tionally were, so far as I could make out, pretty much on a par 
with the crocheting of tidies, with "drawn-work," or with the 
embroidery of doilies and lambrequins. I do not mean to speak 
disrespectfully of the educational value of such modes of expres- 
sion. For some individuals it is doubtless very great. Nor 
would I confuse the placing of a little stitch at regular intervals 
along the line of a shop-stamped pattern with true constructive 
and artistic work in textiles. The point I wish to make is, after 
all, the point that has been made so many times that one is in 
doubt as to how much longer it will be proper to bring it up; 
namely, that the educational value of any form of activity 
depends, not on the stuflF used, but on the attitude of the user. 
Do manual training and "fancy-work" amount to the same 
thing educationally? They do, I repeat, if the attitude of the 
worker in each is practically the same. And I submit that it is 
practically the same when the worker in wood or in iron, as the 
worker in worsted, in silk, or in linen, follows, though patiently, 
the line of a stamped pattern whatever it be called. 

Thus we come back to our anomaly, in so far as educationally 
we find ourselves repeating, under the guise of manual training 
a form of activity which the larger social and industrial situa- 
tion is trying to eliminate and tolerates only as a temporary 
makeshift. 

So far we have been looking only at one side of the aesthetic 
value which a social survival may have. We have been discus- 
sing, by implication at least, the more narrow, trivial, and ano- 
malous directions into which the aesthetic interest may lead* 
Everyone has probably experienced the kind of aesthetic gratifica- 
tion one has in doing over again, under very different conditions, 
something that was originally distasteful, or in living over 
again in the imagination something that in the first place was a 
hardship. One's dire failure can sometimes be recounted with 



MANUAL TRAINING AND MANUAL LABOR 79 

great satisfaction in the presence of later successes. This may 
be the lowest form of aesthetic gratification, being pretty much a 
sheer repetition of a previous experience. There is little appear- 
ance of growth in the repetition, in the recount. The prosperous 
individual who is forever sunning himself in the reminiscences 
of his early toil and struggle is a type that leans toward the side 
of complacency rather than toward the side of further develop- 
ment of the spirit. Still there is more of positive value in this 
form of aesthetic gratification than we have charged to its credit. 
On the very face of it, it is something more than a reinstatement 
of a previous experience. The event has been taken out of its 
original setting and placed in a new one. Hence, the charm it 
did not have before. 

And here we come to a parting of the ways. In one direc- 
tion lies the blind alley of mere repetition of the act for the sake 
of continually realizing, upon its charm. In the other direction 
lies the open road of further question and endeavor, of larger 
possibilities, toward which the aesthetic appreciation may be an 
impelling stimulus. Surely the quickened interest in arts and 
crafts, the newer aesthetic appreciation of things that are " hand- 
made '* may have more in it than that form of aesthetic gratifica- 
tion which arises through the mere repetition of manual labor in 
the new setting of machine-made things. If it has not, then 
it deserves to stand condemned as a " fad " and a " frill." 

It is a matter of comparative indifference as to whether the 
arbiters of taste will continue to fill their houses with "hand- 
made" furniture, "hand-made" books, and "hand-made" bric- 
a-brac. It is a matter radically different as to whether this 
new-found appreciation of manual work which has come into 
education, this new aesthetic attitude which is upon the whole 
tlie most revolutionary factor in modern education, shall be 
allowed to crystallize into a sentimental form of manual labor, 
or whether it shall be generalized into a group of constructive 
activities which shall constitute a fundamental part of the curric- 
ultmL It is not a question of determining the place of construc- 
tive activities. It is a question of how far at any given time these 





8o THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

activities are recognized and utilized as educational means and 
opportunities. 

In the industrial world what wotdd probably be regarded as 
the two most serious factors in the "labor problem" are the 
isolation of labor, particularly of imskilled labor^ on the one 
side, and the irresponsibility of intellectual control, on the other. 
Specialists in nerve diseases tell us that one of the most charac- 
teristic symptoms of that form of mental derangement known as 
hysteria is some phase of anaesthesia, or the lack of feeling, the 
lack of sensitiveness, in some part of one or more of the sense- 
organs, usually touch and vision. One writer^ significantly 
terms this anaesthesia of hysteria "chronic absent-mindedness," 
or a "contraction of the field of consciousness." There is evi- 
dence for believing that this partial loss of feeling, of sensitive- 
ness, is due, not to the impairment or actual destruction of any 
portion of the sense-organ itself, but to the isolation, the dis- 
sociation, of the inner nerve connections. The point may be 
given an application in terms of social psychology. If there be 
any violence and working at cross-purposes in the present 
industrial world which can be fitly compared to the violence — 
the "accidents," as they are sometimes called — of a hysterical 
patient, the analogy would lead one to look for corresponding 
symptoms of social anaesthesia, of lack of feeling, lack of sensi- 
tiveness, equivalent to "chronic absent-mindedness," to a "con- 
traction of the field of consciousness," on the part of those 
concerned, employer and employed. And it would lead one to see 
in these symptoms, when found, in this lack of "touch" and 
" vision," not the impairment or actual destruction of any portion 
of the sense-organs of social consciousness, but the isolation, the 
dissociation, of inner nerve connections; for example, in the 
failure of manual work to be done in terms of free intelligence, as 
an expression of personality, and in the co-ordinate stultification 
of intellectual control in its own irresponsible exercise. 

Is the manual training situation to be chiefly a reflection of a 
pathological and hysterical social condition? Is it to be an 

^Ptkrkb Janbt, The Mental State of HystericaU; translated by CAKOLimt R. 
Coasoir. 



MANUAL TRAINING AND MANUAL LABOR 8x 

aesthetic survival of the gulf between manual labor and the 
operations of intelligence? Sufficiently current, probably, is the 
belief that the utilization of motor activity in getting things made 
is likely, in the case of children and youth, to be of educational 
value. But why should it be of educational value in the case of 
children and youth any more than in the case of adults, unless it 
be the occasion of bringing into play, also, the ideas, the intelli- 
gence, the "inner nerve connections," the "touch," and the 
"vision" of the individual worker? It is surely the freeing 
of these that transforms manual labor into manual training. 





MANUAL TRAINING IN PRIMARY GRADES. 

ANNETTE BUTLER. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. 

One may enter the University of Chicago at the age of three, 
and at this time his work in manual training begins. 

The kindergarten during the past year has furnished its doll- 
house with tables, chairs, beds, and cupboards. Saws, hammers 
and nails, with small blocks and pieces of wood, were used, and 
many small busy hands, with absorbed interest on the part of 
the diminutive owners, were the means by which the furnishing 
was accomplished. In the springtime stakes were made for their 
gardens; "the most satisfactory stakes ever used" being the 
verdict of their teacher. 

In the first grade the underlying thought of last year's work 
was food supplies and the industries pertaining thereto. In 
October a farm was planned. The children decided upon a house 
and bam, a milk-house and a corn-crib, to be made of wood. In 
time fences were added, and two wagons, bridges for the stream, 
and some improvements upon the house and bam. At the con- 
clusion of the first lesson in planning the farm, one very small 
boy added nonchalently : " And don't you think it would be rather 
nice to lay out a little golf ground?" The dimensions of the 
farm were determined by the size of the available sand-table, 
and the building^ were made to scale. It was distinctly a com- 
munity project, each one having his part to do. Seven children 
made the seven pieces of the house, each one drawing on a paper, 
with ruler, the pattern of the piece he was to make, to exact 
size, and from that pattern making the same piece in wood, using 
quarter-inch bass. Each child had the privilege of nailing his 
piece to the part that came next, and in this manner the buildings 
were all completed. After the buildings were laid out upon the 
sand-table, the animals were added as suggested by the children. 
Dogs, sheep, cows, horses, and even a woman chimiing, were 

82 



MANUAL TRAINING IN PRIMARY GRADES 83 

made from clay, and all helped to lend interest and reality to the 
work. 

The constructive work of the second grade called for clay and 
textiles as working material, except for the wooden trowels for 
gardening. These were triangular pieces of wood, sharpened 
on the edges, with handles nailed to them. 

Early in the year the third grade was particularly interested 
in the more primitive peoples, and especially in their means of 
transportation by land or sea. After some discussion on the 
subject of transportation by land, each one of the class drew a 
plan of the vehicle he would make, if he were confined to the 
materials these primitive people had at command — logs, the 
bark and boughs of trees, leather, and strong grasses. It was 
decided that holes might be bored by using the auger bit, since 
the pieces of wood used were too small to be bored by the use 
of fire or crude tools. The results were most interesting when 
worked out, improvements suggesting themselves to the children 
as the actual materials were worked upon. The principles of 
both the wagon and wheelbarrow were seen in the results, and 
when the springtime came, the planning and making of two 
wagons and two wheelbarrows suitable for their gardening came 
only as a more elaborate working-out of the principles already 
mastered. During the winter the life and adventures of the 
vikings of the Northland, and of Ulysses of the southern country, 
were a basis for much of the constructive work of the grade. 
Armor and weapons typical of the two peoples were made; 
designs for boats were drawn and worked out of cardboard, 
with appropriate designs on the sails — the fiery dragon for the 
viking boat, and a beautiful Grecian border for the boat of 
Ulysses, with its bird-head at the prow. 

The fourth grade studied the early colonial history of Vir- 
ginia, and during the winter laid out on the sand-table Jamestown 
and the surrounding country, making the small town of card- 
board, clay, and sticks. The Indian village was also built, using 
birch bark, cardboard, sticks, and raffia. It was a natural out- 
growth of this to build the colonial house of that locality and 
period. Each one of the children had his distinct part in this 



84 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

building, with its six rooms and attic, its hardwood floors, its fire- 
places, the outlying houses, and slave quarters. The furniture 
was made of paper to the definite scale of an inch to a foot 
In connection with their study of milk and its properties, in 
domestic science, the class made a cheese-press, in which fifteen 
cheeses were made at one time. 



The Elementary School Teacher, V. 




First Gbaue Farm Bui 




Plantation HofSE. Mabe and Fui 




Fori Deabbohn, Foubtii Gba 



ART. 

CHARLES ZUEBLIN, 

THE UNIVSRSITY OF CHICAGO. 

Goethe said once: "Fortunate is he who at an early age 
knows what art is;" which you may take as a platitude, but 
Philip Gilbert Hamerton has said that in the whole realm of art 
literature you will hardly find a sentence of equal significance. 

We all have had the experience, either in ourselves or in 
others, of trying to overcome years of neglect or bad teaching; 
and often no amount of information, no amount of subsequent 
training, will neutralize the mistakes of the schools. I fancy 
most of us have gone through some sort of art-training. Unfor- 
tunately for many, that usuaHy has meant merely a sort of 
encyclopaedic survey of the great painters and sculptors of the 
world. Unless we can learn some of the elements of art, 
we cannot by mere knowledge of art products remedy our 
deficiencies. 

I want to speak here very briefly about the function of art 
with respect to occupation, social welfare, and culture, believing 
that we shall satisfy these needs best if in preparation for occu- 
pation we give students a knowledge of form, color, and design ; 
if in preparation for social welfare we consider especially the 
beauty of environment; and if as a contribution to culture we 
consider the fine arts and the lesser arts in harmonious relations. 
Those of us who were educated in the public schools, or even 
the private schools, twenty or thirty years ago, will have had 
scarcely any instruction in form, color, and design. I remember 
very well the style of public-school instruction — if I may quote 
a personal experience — which obtained in Philadelphia at that 
time. I stayed in the country late one autumn, and came into 
school every day, with permission to take one session until 
two o'clock. The teacher of my class stayed through the lunch 
hour every day, and for the first time I learned something of her 
skill in free-hand drawing, when she prepared the blackboard 

85 



86 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

by a slate pencil for the coming chalk lessons. That was the 
character of instruction given throughout the schools of Phila- 
delphia at that time. At the end of fifteen years of school life 
in Philadelphia I am perfectly sure the average student did not 
have the remotest conception of the elements of art. I presume 
the other schools were not much better. Even today you go into 
schools where teaching in art is given ; it is still called drawing, 
and that drawing is still too seldom the means of recording one's 
own impressions. 

Tolstoi defines art as the power of telling someone else what 
one sees. A little boy gave to his teacher at one time in a sketch 
his impression of the vacation school by an attempt to show the 
boy who went and the boy who did not — two very grotesque 
figures, suggestive of the before and after of patent-medicine 
advertisements. I have used it as a lantern slide, trying to 
show how we should make use of our impressions, no matter 
how rude the art. The grotesqueness of it always strikes the 
audience, and I have taken it as a reflection not on the boy, but 
on the audiences, that they did not get an idea when they saw 
it carried out, because of the crude form. He showed the idea 
as it came to him, but of course without training he did not 
have the power of recording it skilfully, of making it vivid. 
The kindergarten is supposed to begin the removal of those 
deficiencies from which we suffer, by teaching children form and 
color. As the kindergarten methods penetrate into the grades, 
there is given more of the conception of design. I have had the 
pleasure of visiting some of the manual-training schools in this 
country, and I would speak especially of the Mechanic Art 
School in St. Paul, where the endeavor and actual accomplish- 
ment with every child are teaching him to express his own ideas. 
In Chicago there has been the introduction of color-work with 
children, and it has been found that, while only 50 per cent, 
can reproduce in black and white, about 99 per cent, succeed in 
the use of color; which implies that the child has in him 
usually some artistic idea until crushed out by false methods of 
instruction. 

It has been the custom to stuff children full of facts ; as some- 



ART 87 

one said recently, we paraphrase the old idea about the little star : 
"Twinkle, twinkle little star, teacher's told me what you are." 
Occasionally now they are allowed to find out these facts for 
themselves. Very few of them, however, acquire these very 
simple fundamental things — a conception of form, color, and 
design. 

What is the economic value of this form of teaching? The 
greatest necessity of the workman of today is adaptability. He 
is frequently stranded for lack of it. I remember living with a 
friend in London who kept bachelor quarters, and marveling at 
the skill of his domestic — a man who seemed equally capable 
in the garden, kitchen, or garret I wondered that such a versa- 
tile man should be found in domestic service. My friend told me 
he had been a skilled watchmaker who had perfected his special 
skill so assiduously that he had failed to do anything else, so that 
when they invented a machine which could do his work, and that 
was taken away from him, he was stranded; and so he became 
a house servant. That is the condition of the majority of 
workmen today, if good workmen; if comparatively inferior 
and unambitious, the condition will not be so difficult. In the 
schools of today the power of adaptability should be given chief 
attention ; children should be taught to use their hands to express 
the ideas of their minds. It is astounding to see what little chil- 
dren can do with clay. Those of us who never got beyond the 
crude mud pies which we taught ourselves to make after we had 
escaped from school can scarcely realize what children can do 
in the schools today. 

I think sometimes we hear rather excessive denunciations of 
the value of reading and writing from such people as John 
Ruskin; yet, after all, it is asked whether in learning so much 
from books we have unlearned the capacity for observing with 
the eyes and executing with the fingers. Beginning with clay 
and other plastic materials, we can carry children up to a recog- 
nition of what a soft finish on a table means, contrasted with the 
mirror-like tables with which we have been familiar — to realize 
that the texture of wood signifies something. This is an equip- 
ment for industry which it may take years for us to appreciate. 



88 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

You will witness this curious phenomenon in the world today : 
a man who can manage men can go with ease from one situa- 
tion to another ; he can go from being an engineer on a railroad 
like the Illinois Central to the position of an engineer on the 
Panama Canal — as happened here recently — simply because 
he has that power of adaptability. But the average workman 
has not that capacity, and is thus limited in his occupation. 

John Ruskin's famous dictum in regard to good architecture 
is, first, that the material should be good and true; second, the 
ornament natural ; third, the designer left free to work from his 
heart. We have stifled that capacity in the workman, if he ever 
had it. I do not believe, of course, that the change of methods 
in schools will immediately bring large rewards; it will prob- 
ably bring rebuke from employers. But, after all, there is a 
growing demand for individual products, and the workmen them- 
selves will not long be content with the humdrum limitations of 
today. People say, however, that this development of handicraft 
is reactionary. But that is not the case. There is a movement 
which is running counter to that of machine industry, which 
comes very largely from the fact that even in the midst of the 
mechanical triumphs of today we are insisting upon individual 
workmanship. The time is coming when either we must go back 
to lead a primitive life, or we must have the opportunity to 
express individuality in workmanship; and it is being hastened 
in the schools today by giving children, not a knowledge of the 
great sculptures, but the power of design, which emanates from 
a knowledge of form and color. 

A few years ago, after an extension lecture which I gave in 
an Iowa town, the drawing teacher in discussing the subject gave 
a little exposition on the blackboard of the meaning of propor- 
tion, and drew the outline of a house, and put the windows and 
doors in where they ought to be. That was twenty years after 
I left the grade schools, and yet it was the first intimation I had 
had of what proportion meant in a building. I am afraid there 
are a great many people quite as ignorant as I was as to any 
proper conception of form. The most graphic illustration of this 
is in the decline of colonial architecture at the time we supplanted 
humble bricklayers by skilled architects. The old colonial build- 



ART 89 

ings are invariably satisfactory in form and color. The builders 
had no education in the schools — only instinct. They had a 
tradition of form. The moment that generation died out and the 
trained architects of the schools undertook to draw their concep- 
tion of colonial architecture, it began to decline. They have not 
in their souls any tradition of proportion, and they draw some- 
thing out of their minds which is mathematical and not artistic. 
Half a century ago in England they were talking about the 
significance of the oval. Everything was built upon the oval. 
Everything today is built upon the city building lot. The con- 
ception forced upon the architect is the city building lot, and 
this again is mathematical, being compelled to produce a thing 
which a mechanical civilization wants. 

A friend of mine was standing, or rather sitting, reverentiy 
looking at the Venus di Milo recently, when a woman brought in 
a troop of American girls : and they all stood, craned their necks, 
and looked at the Venus. Then she led them over, and they 
looked at the fragments. They looked as tenderly at the frag- 
ments as they looked at the statue. They had seen every element 
of it preserved, and they were satisfied — checked it off, and went 
home. That is not the attitude of the illiterate. It is the atti- 
tude of the average untrained mind until he has seen such an 
amount of true art that he knows. That is the remedy — to see 
enough until one knows. We can do this in the schools. I 
repeat, therefore, that in preparation for occupation the most 
necessary thing is to get the power of adaptability; and that 
can best be done, not by definite technical training, but by ele- 
mentary teaching in form, color, and design. 

To secure social welfare we must secure beauty in environ- 
ment We have made the greatest progress in the decoration of 
schools, and the landscape architecture outside the building has 
advanced marvelously in our day. Many will remember the bare 
white walls and blackboards of the old-time schoolhouse, with 
nothing to relieve the bleakness unless some teacher could not 
resist the impulse to put in plants. Now we have frequently 
good pictures, although too little discrimination and too many 
of them. Then we have better school grounds. Unfortunately, 
some schools have none. I have in mind one in Chicago which 



90 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Stands flush with the sidewalk. The children must play in the street. 
Back of the school are two very little spaces where the children 
could not all stand up at once. Of course, we cannot decorate 
those tiny spaces. We must have courage to attempt greater 
things. We must get a beautiful environment for the school. 
Not that the children shall be told just what that means, or that 
they shall be taken up in order to these pictures, as we would in 
a good religious ceremony go around and reverently view each 
one; but in some way or other they will absorb the influences, 
if given the opportunity. In our efforts to teach new ideas we 
have unfortunately too often taught them in the same way as 
the old ideas. An example of this is the two vacation-school 
children who were viewing with the greatest possible interest 
the eagles in a cage in Lincoln Park. One said: "Come on, 
let's go away, or we will have to draw them." They enjoyed 
them to the utmost until they thought of some formal task. The 
unconscious influence of those noble birds would have been 
equally beneficial. 

But what are you going to do even with a beautifully deco- 
rated building, if after leaving it the children must be turned 
loose amid the conglomerate architecture of Lake avenue? The 
best teacher cannot eradicate the influence of bad grammar at 
home, and the best art teacher cannot eradicate from children 
the impression of the advertisements along the elevated and 
steam railroads. Even private residences bear advertisements, 
probably because the backs and the sides of almost all houses in 
Chicago are unworthy of anything but advertisements. I am 
not so sure but the owner is right to have some sort of paint to 
cover up the sort of brick that you see in some of those buildings. 
The child cannot go out of this building and keep all that he 
gets here. Consequently we shall have to undertake a reforma- 
tion, training this generation as well as the next. That again 
means going down to the fundamentals. A great many people 
have on their walls beautiful oil paintings and in their houses 
hideous furniture; and they do not know it. I do not know 
whether it is that they put all their souls into the old masters 
and divest themselves of their surroundings. It is true that 
music and the fine arts are of infinitely less importance than the 



ART 91 

furniture, the hangings, and the kitchen fittings. We can never 
eradicate those impressions by any amount of education in the 
fine arts. Until the environment becomes harmonious we are 
going to undo the work of the schools. If the schools are going 
to effect anything, they must be met half way by civic and home 
improvement. 

Of course, in cultural improvement we must get a consider- 
able notion of the fine arts, because they are intimately related 
to culture. Music, literature, sculpture, and painting — we must 
know something of these if we are to get a knowledge of art; but 
they are rather the means of finding out things than real knowl- 
edge. The average woman's art study club is merely learning 
to finger the lexicon by cataloguing art products. That is valu- 
able knowledge, but it gives us not one single aesthetic concep- 
tion. There again we have to go down to the fundamentals. 
As Ruskin said, to study carefully the Grand Canal in Venice 
was worth a visit to all the galleries of Europe. 

Sargent has painted many beautiful portraits of the million- 
aire and the millionaire's beautiful daughter, but he has never 
done anything for a private patron like his decorations for the 
Boston Library. No painter could rise to such heights in paint- 
ing the picture of any millionaire as in painting some beautiful 
and ennobling subject, something that touches his soul. A won- 
derful influence is sweeping over the country, giving the people 
a conception of the difference between mural painting and easel 
painting — a work of art related to a building and a work of 
art not related to anything. We gain thus not only greater 
artists, but a culture not merely for the favored people who can 
go to Europe, but for the multitude who, if they cannot have 
this abundant knowledge, at least can grasp the fundamental 
principles that will teach them something of harmony. I take 
it that it is not impossible with the forces already at work in the 
schools to teach form, color, and design so as distinctly and 
valuably to influence the mind of the child and lay the foundation 
for this culture which will give us that sense of harmony and 
make for the child of the future a more beautiful environment for 
the expression of his ideas. 



THE APPLICATION OF ART TO HAND-WORK. 

RALPH RADCXIFFE WHITEHEAD. 

CHICAGO. 

The difficulties of the application of art to the teaching of 
hand-work in schools arise from the fact that very few teachers 
are artists. It is impossible for a man to communicate to others 
what he does not know himself. Not everyone has the capacity 
for art, and even for those who have, the attendance for a few 
months at a summer school, or even the taking of a short course 
in design, can hardly be sufficient preparation. 

One not infrequently meets with teachers giving instruction 
in manual work who have made the discovery that there is some 
connection between things of beauty and the work in hand of 
which hitherto they have only seen the mechanical side. For 
such, of course, there is some hope; but the stress of school 
work and the multiplicity of things they are expected to know 
renders it generally impossible for them to spend sufficient time 
in developing their latent faculties. They see the beauty of some 
picture by Raphael or of some modem landscape, and perhaps 
of some example of architecture, but the way of art by which 
these were created are incomprehensible to them, and the con- 
nection between such objects of beauty and the work to be done in 
wood or in weaving is hidden from them, because they have had 
no fit training in the appreciation and the practice of design. 

For these reasons it seems as though specially trained teachers 
were necessary to teach those branches of work to which design 
is applicable; and design is a necessary part of all better hand- 
work. 

The ugliness of almost all the articles of modem manufacture 
can be combated only by the development of the sense of beauty 
in the people who buy them, and the gulf between the really 
artistic work which is done by a few, and the want of beauty in 
the articles of common use, can be bridged only by the training 
of the young of the nation to see with their own eyes beauty of 

92 



THE APPUCATION OF ART TO HAND-WORK 93 

form and color. The hideousness of the ordinary wooden or 
stone house in town or country, and the tawdry decoration and 
graceless form of such things as the usual forks and spoons, can 
vanish only when a future generation shall have been trained 
to see and to feel that they are ugly; the designing and making 
with their own hands of such simple articles as are within their 
power to make at a suitable age is the surest way of developing 
better taste in children. 

For those who wish to teach design there is but one way of 
developing what faculty they have for it, and that is by draw- 
ing, and at the same time by being with students and teachers 
who have a better appreciation of such things than they have. 
Hence it is obvious that a course of design at a real art school 
is the best means open to them. Such a course must last for 
years, not months ; and they had better attend the regular classes 
for art students than any specially devised " normal " course, in 
the first place because the standard required is a higher one, and 
in the second place because they will have the opportunity of 
being among more students who are really artistic. It need 
hardly be said that the ordinary ** normal " school is the last place 
to study such things. 

The beauty of such articles as children can make with tools 
or with a loom depends, as does the beauty of all things, chiefly 
on simple proportions, on the balance of spaces or the harmony 
of colors. The subtle principles of such balance and harmony 
have been set forth in many a lecture by Dr. Denman Ross, and a 
course in his summer school at Cambridge would be a great help 
to a teacher. Some things connected with the balance of values 
in design are expounded in Mr. Dow's book on composition, 
which might well be placed in any teacher's library. But the 
reading of a mere statement of these things is not sufficient ; the 
study of art can be made only by the practice of the art. You 
can no more learn to draw and to design by reading about draw- 
ing than you can learn to sing by reading text-books. The daily 
practice of drawing lines and filling spaces with design is the 
only royal road open to the student. 

Of course, manual work can be done with very little regard 



94 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

to design, and is useful in itself. The greater part of the 
so-called sloyd is good training for the hands and brains of 
children of a certain age; and in the same way the mechanical 
drawing introduced by Mr. Liberty Tadd has much to recom- 
mend it as mechanical work. In the one as in the other case 
there is very little beauty of design applied; but there is no 
reason why the good there is in both systems should not be 
joined to beauty of model and finer appreciation of form. 

And now as to the children. Probably the first art — art in 
the ordinary acceptation of the term, and apart from the subtle- 
ties of pedagogical and anthropological pedantry of which we 
have had a good deal — to which they are accessible is music 
And the music best suited to them is to be found in the folk-songs 
of the peasants of different countries; for natural selection 
through many generations has preserved a large number of 
beautiful melodies in Germany, in Italy, in Russia, in Scotland, 
and elsewhere. The first training in the artistic emotions can 
be accomplished by the musical singing of these simple songs. 
I say musical, because in a great many kindergartens and grade 
schools it is not music which is produced by either the teacher 
or the pupils. The music should be taught by a musician daily, 
and not by an unmusical teacher with a weekly visit from a 
musician as superintendent. Of course, if a teacher is musically 
gifted, she should be encouraged to train herself, and be allowed 
to take part in the teaching. 

The next forms of artistic handicraft for young children are 
clay-modeling and basket-making. The latter should be done 
with somewhat coarse materials. In this, as in other kinder- 
garten work and in drawing, there have been made many mis- 
takes in giving work which is too fine and too small for the 
children, much to their detriment. 

At the age of six or thereabouts drawing with the full arm 
on the blackboard after the system of Mr. Tadd, can be used. 
Each day an exercise of fifteen or twenty minutes would be in 
place. 

As the children grow, the basket-maker can be gradually led 
on to simple forms of weaving, and in connection with it to the 



THE APPUCATION OF ART TO HAND-WORK 95 

relation and harmonizing of color; the brush-work with water 
colors which would go on at the same time is excellent if capably 
conducted by one who has an eye for color. Then at the age 
of about nine carpentry of a very simple kind may be introduced, 
and at about twelve simple carving in low relief might be added. 

Such work as is done with the fret-saw, or so-called Venetian 
iron-work, is less desirable than the other crafts which have been 
mentioned, as there is less variety of skill required in them, and 
the results are not so interesting. 

One word as to results, and at the same time as to technique. 
Children want results — articles made to take home and show as 
their work ; and much of this desire is natural. 

But the true workman who is learning a craft cares little for 
the objects which he can produce in comparison with the satis- 
faction of his desire to acquire skill in the use of his tools. 
And it may be that in many classes too much stress is laid 
on "objects made," and much too little on the acquisition of 
technique. 

Manual training is also mental training, and the power of 
concentration required to use any art really well is of more worth 
than rooms full of articles made for use or for show. 

It is said that children cannot be got to practice the use of a 
tool. There is even one rather well-known superintendent who 
asserts that the practice of technical studies on the violin are 
useless. This, of course, is foolishness, although it may be 
granted that such practice as may be best for an apprentice of 
sixteen is impossible for children of ten ; still it would seem that 
more regard to technique and more practice in the use of tools, 
r^;ardless of the child's haste to produce finished objects, is 
desirable, than has been the case in most of the manual-training 
schools. 

It is as great a mistake to set children to any sort of manual- 
training work before they are fit for it as it would be to teach 
them Latin grammar at the age of eight, as used to be the 
fashion. It is frequently the case that both brush-work and 
carpentry are beg^n far too early. Any kind of work may be 
a pleasure when it is done by one who is either the master of it 



96 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

or who feels that he may attain to mastership. But there is 
nothing so disheartening to a child as to be set to do what is 
beyond his years. 

And this remark applies, of course, to the artistic side of 
hand-work. You must not expect appreciation of the composi- 
tion of a Japanese color-print or of a Botticelli picture from 
young children. But you can set before ihem models which any 
but the perverted among them will admire, and which yet have 
nothing in them to contravene the laws of beauty obeyed alike 
by Botticelli and by the Japanese. And in these truly lies the 
difficulty named in the creation of beauty in simple forms. 

We have far too little respect for art, and anyone who learns 
to draw and paint thinks himself, and is thought to be, an artist ; 
but this is not so. Of the thousands who go through the Paris 
art schools not 5 per cent, are artists. And the first great step 
toward the introduction of more art into manual-training classes 
may perhaps be possible only when the majority really recognize 
the high mission of art and the reality of beauty, which is trodden 
underfoot by the present turbulent course of commerdalian. 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL. 

WILLARD S. BASS, 

FRANCIS W. PARXIR SCHOOL, CHICAGO, ILL. 

It will help us in our discussion if we distinguish two phases 
of science-teaching. Science is organized knowledge, and the 
two phases to be distinguished are (i) gaining the knowledge 
and (2) organizing it. 

The presence of the latter phase as a conscious motive of 
teacher and pupil distinguishes the work of the secondary from 
that of the elementary school. The latter is "science," in the exact 
and restricted sense of the term ; the former we will call " nature- 
study," including under that term a study of both animate and 
inanimate things. 

It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the point of view, 
methods, and values of the science-teaching in our school, and 
to show the relations of nature-study to systematic science, and 
of both to mathematics. 

"Nature study," says Hodge,^ "is learning those things in 
nature which are best worth knowing, to the end of doing those 
things which make life most worth living." The end of the 
study is thus action — doing things. But what are the things 
the doing of which makes the pupil's life now and in the future 
most worth living, and what are the things which are therefore 
best worth knowing ? " They are indicated in a fundamental way 
by the relations which the human race has found it necessary and 
valuable to develop with nature " — relations which have existed 
from prehistoric times, and which will persist through every 
advance of civilization. 

These relations are mainly with living things — animals and 
plants. Upon plant and animal life primitive man depended 
entirely for his food, his clothing, and, excepting the cave-dweller, 
for his shelter. Our modem civilization has not altered this 

'C. F. Hodge, Nature Study and Life (Boston: Ginn & Co.), p. 1. The 
writer wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the influence which Dr. Hodge':* 
teaching and book have had upon his own views of nature-study. 

97 



98 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

fundamental dependence. We, too, go to plants and animals for 
our food and clothing, while the forest still furnishes most of 
our shelter. The chief difference between us and primitive man 
is the way in which these necessaries are secured. The primitive 
man who sought refuge from large animals by climbing trees 
and hiding in caves, who obtained his vegetables direct from 
nature's bounty, and his flesh by preying upon small animals^ 
offers a profound contrast to the modem dweller in cities, to 
whom wild animals are imknown, whose food grows hundreds 
and even thousands of miles from his table, and whose clothing 
comes to his hand ready-to-wear. 

Let us look for a moment at the steps by which man has 
advanced from his former simple and immediate relations with 
nature to his present complicated and remote ones. This prog- 
ress has been due to a better control of the animate and inanimate 
forces of nature, and gaining this control has been and is the 
nature-study of the race. 

The first step in this long series was the subjugation of ani- 
tnals, which victory left man no longer the prey of the cave bear 
and tiger, but their pursuer and hunter, and insured his continued 
existence. Even now, however, the conquest of animals is far 
from complete. Insects still destroy the crops of whole counties ; 
vermin still annoy us ; microbes still destroy thousands of lives.* 

The next step was the domestication of animals. After man's 
existence was secure, he came to recognize that some animals 
could be made his friends and helpers instead of remaining 
enemies. 

The first animal tamed was the dog, which is still the idol of the child's 
heart. Then came, also before the dawn of authentic history, domestication 
of the horse, sheep, goat, homed cattle, and most of our domestic birds ; and 
it is self-evident that the family or tribe which first developed patience and 
intelligence to tame and utilize animal helpers must have rapidly outstripped 
all rivals in the race for life. 

The next, and possibly a greater advance of the race, was the 
cultivation of plants. 

'This and the two following paragraphs are condensed from Hodge. His 
chapter on " The Point of View " is a masterful argument for the predominance 
of the biological matter in nature-study. 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W, PARKER SCHOOL 99 

This has constituted the largest factor in the transition of tribes from 
wandering nomads to stable, populous, civilized communities. In the stability 
of landhold we have the beginning of home as distinguished from the casual 
camping ground; and with the founding of homes came commerce and arts, 
literatures and sciences as well. 

While man has been developing by the subjugation and 
domestication of animals, and the cultivation of plants, he has 
also been concerned with inanimate things. Ever since he began 
to earn his bread by the sweat of his brow, he has needed and 
used tools. In fact, we may say that his entire progress has been 
possible only by the aid of implements. A step in advance far 
greater than the invention of tools was made when man seized 
the forces of nature and compelled them to do his bidding. The 
harnessing of nature's inanimate forces is the last step in the 
nature-study of the race, and, in fact, reached its height only in 
the inventions of the nineteenth century. 

There can be no doubt that in broad lines the development of 
the individual follows that of the race, and that the active doing 
things with nature which has been the chief means of advancing 
the race will prove most helpful to the child. To place the child 
in the conditions which have caused the race to advance, we must 
give him opportunity for action which seems of real value to 
him and worth his greatest effort. That these conditions are 
normal to the child and most favorable for his growth is shown 
by his own natural instincts and spontaneous activities — his love 
of pets, his desire for flowers, his joy at seeing plants grow, his 
eagerness to handle things and to make them go. These instincts 
are toward active relationship with things, and not toward pas- 
sive contemplation. The child wants to play with his dog, and 
does not care at all whether Towser has three or five toes on a 
foot. He wants his garden to grow so that he may eat its 
products, and he cares little for the number of seed leaves on his 
beans and com. A wide range of active first-hand contact with 
nature is the normal condition for the development of the child, 
as it has been the chief means in the progress of the race, "and 
to substitute for this contact the study of pictures, museum 
specimens, or caged animals is to miss the substance for the 
shadow." 



lOO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

We have tried to follow these principles in the selection of our 
work in nature-study. We have sought to make the work active, 
to have it of practical importance, and to bring the children into 
direct contact with nature. In the lower grades the attention 
is directed mainly to the study of living things and the use of 
tools, while in the upper grades the study of natural forces is 
gradually introduced. 

The establishment of relations with animals begins in the 
kindergarten. The school cat and her kittens are wonderfully 
interesting to these little people. I am not certain that they know 
how many ears or how many tails she has, but pussy always 
received a joyous welcome from them. The upper grades, too, 
have a warm feeling for her, and anyone who watches the face 
of a sixth-g^de child playing with the cat at recess will conclude 
that the animal has its function in a school. The first grade has 
had the care of a guinea pig for several months, and I never sec 
a more happy or more eagerly busy crowd of children than when 
I watch these first-graders cleaning this animal's house in the 
morning and getting him ready for the day. Now, the care of 
him during the school day even does not suffice them, but the 
children must take turns in carrying him to their homes after 
school. The third grade has had an aquarium of turtles in the 
room through the year, and other aquaria have been in various 
rooms. Just now there is a great deal of interest in the develop- 
ment of a lot of tadpoles. 

By far our greatest success with animals is with our bees. 
Our other animals are obliged to live in artificial surrotmdings 
and to lead lives more or less foreign to their natures. The bees, 
however, have a regulation hive, go out of doors to gather honey 
or pollen as they desire, build their combs and rear their young 
in their own fashion — all exactly as if their only function in life 
were to make honey for some hard-headed farmer. The only 
differences between their present life and what it would be if the 
farmer owned them are that they must travel some eight inches 
through a glass-topped tunnel to gain access to the open air, and 
that we can remove the wooden sides from their hive and look 
through glass at the walls of their city and the manifold activity 



SCIEiWCB IN THE FRANCIS W, PARKER SCHOOL loi 

there. The hive is in the kindergarten room, and to the kinder- 
garten children the bees are a never-ending source of wonder. 
The little people stand by the hour and watch the bees coming 
into the hive, and count those carrying pollen until they get to a 
hundred. Sometimes one child counts the bees with yellow 
pollen, while another takes those with red, and a third those with 
brown. The older grades also watch the hive with interest and 
have observed the laying of the eggs, the growth of the larva, 
the sealing up of the cells and distinguishing characteristics of 
worker and drone cells, the emergence of the young bee, and 
have made some study of the structure of the insect. 

It is only a short step from getting acquainted with our 
domestic animals to the study of those which we meet in our 
garden and which affect our crops for good or ill. We have met 
thus far the earthworm, the groundbeetle, the cabbage worm, 
and the potato beetle. The latter two have not yet appeared this 
year, but probably they will not forget us. The young children 
always seem to think that earthworms eat the roots of plants, so 
when the kindergarten child first sees an earthworm he proceeds 
at once to cut him in two with his hoe. To convince the child of 
bis mistaken opinion, it is only necessary to place a few earth- 
worms in a jar of white sand, on the top of which is placed a little 
black earth, or, better still, leaves of various plants. A surprising 
increase in the quantity of black earth will occur within a few 
weeks; and if this experiment is accompanied by one to show 
the importance of black earth to plants, the child will not again 
deliberately cut earthworms in two. Experiments of this sort are 
now being carried on in the kindergarten, the second and fourth 
grades. 

In the study of the cabbage worm and potato beetle the first 
point to be considered is how our crops can be protected from 
their ravages. In order to do this most effectively, we are led to 
the study of the life-history of the insect to learn from what place 
he makes his appearance and at what point we can attack him 
most successfully. While the study of the life-history is begun 
from this utilitarian motive, it is soon pursued for its own sake. 
The cabbage worm seems an unpromising field for anything 



I02 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

interesting, but when we watch its rapid growth, its formation of 
a cocoon, and its emergence as a white moth which immediately 
proceeds to lay more eggs, we have an example of the life-history 
of all insects — one of nature's deepest marvels. 

Besides the insects, we have found this year in the garden 
two toads. These were captured, brought in, looked at, and their 
food was discussed. Then they were put into the garden and a 
board placed for them to live under, in the hope that they would 
stay there and devour insects. I am sorry to say that the induce- 
ments offered were not sufficient, and that they have apparently 
forsaken us. 

Besides domestic animals and those found in the garden, the 
child is also interested in the wild life around him. The latter 
does not touch him so closely, but it appeals far more to his 
imagination and sense of the beautiful. Our aims in its study 
are to have the pupil realize in the life of the wild creature some- 
thing akin to his own, and to find the part the creature plays in the 
economy of nature. For both these purposes we study the habits, 
food, and life-history of the animal. In knowing these facts we 
become acquainted and even friends with him. With this study a 
certain amount of naming and learning to recognize is essential. 
We try to do these things in ways which permit initiative on the 
part of the children and give as full play as possible to their 
powers. Cages have been made in which insects can be raised 
and their development watched. For preserving collections we 
have adopted a device* adapted especially for life-history collec- 
tions. It consists of two plates of glass kept apart by a wooden 
rim ; the specimens to be mounted are glued to one of the glasses,* 
and the whole is fastened together with passe-partout paper. 

In attempting to reproduce in school those relations with 
plants which have aided the civilization of the race, we have had 
two places to work, the school grounds and the garden. 

The object of the work on the grounds is to make the sur- 
roundings of the school as beautiful as possible. The raking 
and seeding of the lawn which have to be done every spring, 

' See HoDGB, p. 53. 

*A littie glycerin in LePmge's glue will make it stick to the glass. 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W, PARKER SCHOOL 103 

and the spading and manuring the soil around the hedges, have 
been done by the older pupils. Every spring we have had a 
formal planting. The work which any one pupil does on these 
occasions amotmts to little, but in calling his attention to the 
desirability of having beautiful sturoundings and in cultivating 
his aesthetic emotions we think it well worth while. 

The garden is managed with an entirely different object — 
namely, to bring every child into close contact with the soil and 
have him learn the value of his own efforts in making things 
grow. We have tried to gfive to every child below the eighth 
grade some piece of ground which should be entirely his for this 
simimer. He has chosen what he wanted to plant, has himself 
done the entire work of planting, will have the entire care of it 
during school, and will get all the products to dispose of as he 
Ukes. By this means he reaps the result of his own labors as 
directly and immediately as if he were making something in 
wood; only in this case his product depends not upon his own 
efiForts alone^ but also upon the closeness with which he makes 
them conform to the laws of nature. 

Besides these individual beds» each grade has a large bed of 
some product upon which the class works together. The object 
of these class beds is, first, to furnish an illustration of the growth 
of the staple products of the country; second, to make experi- 
ments in their cultivation. The planting is generally preceded by 
some study of the best method to use. A careful record is made 
of what is done, and the results obtained in the fall are noted and 
recorded. Sometimes two ways of doing a thing are tried and 
their results compared. We hope that the records thus made will 
prove of value to future classes in showing the best procedure for 
our particular soil. 

We use all or most of the products of these beds in our school 
work. Last year, for instance, the third grade grew tomatoes^ 
and in the fall made them into pickles. The kindergarten grew 
popcorn, which was used at Qiristmas. The fifth grade grew 
flax, which they rotted and hackled and prepared for spinning. 
It had got too brittle, however, to be spun, probably because it 
was too old when cut. They have another bed of it this year. 



I04 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The sixth grade grew sugar beets, and tried to extract and refine 
the sugar. Now, the extraction of sugar from sugar beets is a 
matter of some difficulty. Slicing the beets, soaking in water, 
and boiling down is easy enough, thus making a molasses, sweet 
but black and ill-smelling, and tasting disagreeably of the beet 
For two years we have experimented in getting rid of these 
undesirable qualities. We have not succeeded yet, but bur hopes 
were never higher. This year we have planted more sugar beets 
than ever before, and while we are not taking orders for sugar, 
we expect to obtain some which will be edible, if not marketable. 

This year we are attempting to develop the economic impor- 
tance of agricultural work, by keeping a careful record of the cost 
of the garden and the value of its products. The cost of manure, 
plowing, and other labor is divided among the different beds. 
Each grade keeps the record of the cost of the seeds, fertilizer, 
etc., used on its own beds. In the fall it will reckon the marlcet 
value of the crop, and compute the profit or loss. In some grades 
this will be carried farther to find how much would have been 
made upon an acre of ground under the same conditions. The 
yield of our crops per acre will be computed and compared with 
the average yield in Illinois and other states. By this means we 
shall have an opportunity to compare our work and soil with that 
of the average farmer, and to see if we ought not to do better; 
and also it will enable us to realize how hard the farmer has to 
work for his product, and something of his importance to the 
community. 

This spring we have started a new experiment by planting 
seeds of trees. We desire in this way to get tlie children acquainted 
with seeds and seedlings, to have them get over the feeling that 
there is something more mysterious about the appearance of trees 
than other plants, and to learn a lesson in patience. We hope 
that the patience will be rewarded, and that in four or five years 
we may see the blossoms on our own peach trees, and a little later 
on our pear, plum, cherry, and apple trees as well. The care of 
the trees, the budding, grafting, the digging of borers, and the 
keeping off of other insects, will furnish enough to do and enough 
to learn amply to justify the planting of the seeds. 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 105 

I might at this point speak of some h'mitations of our school 
work in these lines. The children are absent in the summer — 
the time when the garden is at its height, when the labor is most 
exacting and the returns most abundant. The work is also limited 
by the smallness of the plots which can be assigned to each pupil. 
A four-foot square is the largest given any child. This is too 
small for him to really work on. As an object-lesson it is of the 
greatest value; but it is, after all, only an object-lesson, a model 
of a garden, an illustration of a farm; and models, object les^ 
sons, and illustrations can never take the place of the real things. 
The same is true even to a greater extent of our animals. A 
school cat and gtiinea pig are good things, but one cat for two 
hundred children does not give a sense of ownership nor a feeling 
of responsibility for its care; and one guinea pig can hardly 
establish with eighteen children those relations of mutual aid and 
dependence which have been the main channels by which the 
domestication of animals has contributed toward civilization. 

The difficulty would not be helped much by a multiplication of 
cats or guinea pigs in school, and an increase in the size of the 
garden, while desirable, is impossible. We must look to other 
sources than the school for the establishment of these personal 
active relations with plants and animals which are of too much 
educational importance to the child to be omitted from his life. 
The country home is the natural and most effective place for the 
establishment of these relations ; and though the city home offers 
much less chance for such work, yet there are few houses which 
do not possess some square feet of back yard that would look 
better for the planting of vines or flowers, or could be made to 
produce a few vegetables. It is a pity when any of these oppor- 
tunities for the children are not utilized. 

The great problem of a garden is, after all, how to make the 
plants grow, and a child working in a garden is sure in a little 
while to be seeking for things to help his plants. The main fac- 
tors which influence the growth of plants are soil, moisture, 
temperature, and light. The finding out of the influence of these 
factors upon the plants, and the discovery of methods by which 
they can be controlled for the best growth of the plant, start 



Io6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

several lines of inquiry. Some of these open up topics of impor- 
tance enough to be carried farther than the immediate needs of the 
garden demand. Some examples of this are given below. 

The second grade performs experiments in growing things in 
different kinds of soil — sand, clay, loam, etc.; and the fourth 
g^de carries the experiment farther and studies the effect of a 
particular kind of soil occurring over a large area. 

The weather conditions of sunshine, rainfall, wind, and tem- 
perature are recorded in the lower grades. The effect of the 
weather upon the garden is, however, only one of the reasons for 
doing this woric. The immediate effects of its changes upon the 
pupil and upon vegetation and animal life at large are other potent 
reasons. Several forms of weather records are kept in the lower 
grades, and a set of monthly landscapes is painted by some grades 
whicli shows strikingly the effect of seasonal changes. This work 
is extended in the fifth grade to a study of the climate of Chicago. 
In the sixth it is made the point of departure for a study of annual 
changes, especially of temperature, in which study the change in 
the sun's slant is shown to be the cause of sunmier and winter. 
In the seventh grade there is a study of climatic conditions all 
over the earth, in which the causes of climatic differences arc dis- 
cussed. This work is greatly helped by the fact that the pupils 
come to it with some idea of the meaning of statistics — such as 
thirty inches of rainfall in a year, and a mean monthly tempera- 
ture of 20° or 65° — and are able to use the meaning of these 
figures in imaging the conditions of other places. 

Finally, the direct effects of different heat, moisture, and light 
conditions upon the plant are observed. These observations and 
accompanying experiments are, of course, only of the most 
obvious kind at firsts such as growing plants in windows where 
the light comes from one side, or growing them in the dark. 
Later comes the observation of characteristics of plants which 
naturally grow in different conditions — in swamps, prairie, 
ravine, sand dunes, etc. Lastly, the pupil tries to find out pre- 
cisely the effect of water and light upon a plant, by a series of 
experiments in plant physiology in the seventh grade. 

Cooking is a form of activity with natural products^ we may 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W, PARKER SCHOOL 1 07 

say of nature-study, which has existed from the dawn of history. 
It furnishes an admirable and logical supplement to the work in 
the garden, and it is also a point of departure for a great many 
experiments which are more purely scientific; e, g., the effect of 
acids upon carbonates, the growth of yeast and its products, tests 
and characteristics of various foqi principles, and the effect of 
heat upon them. These are not, however, the chief reasons for 
teaching cooking. The chief reason is that it answers our origfi- 
nal requirement of nature-study ; for is it not one of the things 
the doing of which makes life most worth living? 

Many of you will agree with me that hand-work is the most 
efficient means which could be devised for enabling the children 
to gain control of the inanimate forces of nature. It is thus 
repeating the last step in the nature-study of the race^ and its 
influence must be included in considering the science work of the 
school. 

I wish to say a little about the relation of nature-study to 
mathematics. Out of the impressions and images of the external 
world are built all of our mental pictures and concepts. Words 
are of value only in so far as they awaken images in our mind of 
things we have already experienced. Mathematical sjrmbols and 
expressions, unless they stand in the pupil's mind for some defi- 
nite relationship in an external, concrete world, are meaningless 
and worse than useless. The material world is the place where 
these relationships exist, and getting control of natural forces 
and turning them to use is where the relationships become of 
importance to man. Work with these forces must, therefore, be 
the most natural and effective place for the study of these relation- 
ships which are the foundation of mathematics. 

I have already mentioned in connection with the garden some 
things which could not be done without the use of arithmetic, and 
several more whose significance could not be understood without 
the use of number-processes, sometimes quite complicated. We 
are finding more and more of these problems each year, and a 
portion of the number-work of all grades consists of problems 
drawn from, or necessitated by, the work in science. It is the 
unanimous opinion of the teachers that these problems carry 



lo8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

home the reality of symbols and the meaning of processes as no 
amount of book-work can do, and that what is thus learned for 
the sake of immediate use is regarded of more worth and longer 
remembered than problems done with no motive but the gaining 
of facility in some process. 

The above is not the case with concrete problems in which the 
pupil has no interest. In these he must understand the concrete 
thing or illustration first, and then the mathematical process. His 
difficulties are thereby increased, not diminished. This is espe- 
cially so in many of the mercantile and commercial problems in 
text-books, where the thing talked about — promissory note, bill 
of exchange, stock, or bond — is entirely foreign to the life of the 
pupil. These things may have their place in the elementary 
school, but that place is after, not before, the arithmetical pro- 
cesses involved are well understood. The pupil's attention can 
then be directed to the conditions existing in the outside world 
which give rise to the paying of interest and commissions. The 
conditions understood, the principles underlying the transactions 
become plain and the mathematics almost obvious. 

But these problems are too far from the life of the pupil to be 
used for the developing of his mathematics. The problem for the 
development of mathematical principles must be one whose solu- 
tion is important and of immediate interest to the pupil, and one 
in which the concrete facts are easily seen, and in which the atten- 
tion can therefore be directed to the mathematical prindple 
involved. In the right working out of such problems comes the 
pupil's surest and most rapid mathematical progress. We have 
a good number of such problems already, and it is a cherished 
hope that we may finally obtain enough for the development of 
all needful mathematical principles, and for some, but probably 
not for all, of the drill necessary to give facility and accuracy. 

We now turn to the second step in the acquisition of a science 
— the organization and systematization of the knowledge. The 
pupil should finish the elementary stage with the knowledge of 
many of the things of nature around him and considerable con- 
trol over them. He has undoubtedly also grouped many of the 
facts together, and knows the relations of many of these groups 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 109 

to himself. But up to this time he has not done much thinking 
about the relations of the facts and forces of nature to each other. 
We make the first extensive attempt to have the pupil do this in 
the eighth grade. The work of this grade, like that of preceding 
ones, is designed to secure an active contact with nature by 
observation, experiment, and work; and it seeks in addition to 
summarize and put into their proper relations the facts of science 
which the pupil has been learning through the seven previous 
grades, and to discover the relations which exist between those 
great organizations of knowledge known as the sciences of chem- 
istry, physics, physiology, and botany. I shall in the following 
tell with some detail how this is done. 

We began the work by calling the pupil's attention to the fact 
that most moving objects, such as street cars, locomotives, and 
automobiles, had a source of power or energy, which generally 
could be easily located. Animal bodies also move and do work, 
and the question was propounded as a basis for the year's work : 
"Must animal bodies, especially the human body, also be sup- 
plied with energy, if they are to do work? If this is so, from 
what source does the energy of the human body come ? " 

We first tried a set of experiments with pulleys, which showed 
that no combination of them could be made which would do more 
foot-pounds of work than was used up in running the pulleys. 
We generalized this to other machines, especially levers. We 
then began a study of the human body, and found that its work 
was done through a system of bony levers, and that the muscles 
applied the power to them. The muscles, therefore, must perform 
at least as many foot-potmds of work as are done by the hands 
and feet. A study of the structure of muscle showed the class that 
the power came from the contraction of a multitude of tiny 
striped fibers. Our question then became: "What source of 
energy gives these fibers the power of contraction ? " 

The class at once suggested food as the most probable source. 
So we tried a set of experiments on the composition of the com- 
mon foods, and found that they all contained carbon. We knew 
that the burning of carbon outside the body produced heat, and 
that heat could be transformed into any desired form of energy 



no THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

by the action of the steam engine, dynamo, etc We, therefore, 
set to work to find what becomes of carbon when it is burned. 
After experiments extending over about fotir weeks, we came to 
the conclusion that carbon, in burning, unites with a gas called 
oxygen and forms a new substance, which is a heavy gas having 
the properties of putting out flame and turning lime water milky. 
This gas was fotmd to exist to a slight extent in the atmosphere, 
and to a much greater extent in exhaled air. 

Our problem was then to find how the food reaches the 
muscle. We first learned the diflFerent food-principles, and the 
test by which eadi can be recognized, the most important sources 
of each, the principles which should be observed in cooking each ; 
and had some practice in the application of these principles. The 
digestion of each of these food-principles was studied ; then their 
absorption and the various routes by which they get into the 
blood. In connection with this we studied the anatomy of the 
digestive system, and later of the circulatory and excretory sys- 
tems. Most of this study was done from a papier mache manni- 
kin, which represented solid models of the various organs. An 
eflFective method of work was to have the pupils make drawings 
of the organs being studied. The above work traced the route 
of the food from the mouth to the muscle. 

We next studied respiration, and found that the lungs are 
constantly taking oxygen from the air and replacing it with car- 
bon dioxide. We found that blood has the power of absorbing 
oxygen where that element is plentiful, and of giving it up where 
it is in demand. It then required small faith on the part of the 
pupils to believe that the blood carried oxygen to the muscle and 
brought back carbon dioxide. The matter was summed up as 
follows : The blood brings to the muscle sugar and proteid foods 
and oxygen. It carries away carbon dioxide and broken-down 
proteid. 

The children at this point wrote papers answering, as well as 
they could, the question : " How does the muscle get its energy ? " 
These papers required the hardest thinking done in the course. 
The pupils very generally arrived at the conclusion that the energy 
came from the union in the muscle of carbon and oxygen ; that the 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W, PARKER SCHOOL 1 1 1 

carbon came from the sugar and proteid in the blood; that the 
oxygen was brought from the Itmgs by the red blood corpuscles ; 
and that the union formed carbon dioxide, which was carried 
away by the blood and eliminated by the lungs. 

The class then raised the question: "If animals are con- 
stantly producing carbon dioxide, why does not all the oxygen 
of the air become replaced by carbon dioxide." They suspect 
that plants have something to do with it, and we shall spend the 
rest of the year in showing how plants are able, by the action of 
sunlight upon their green leaves^ to change carbon dioxide and 
water into starch and oxygen, the one of which becomes food for 
man and the other his breath. 

This great cycle of carbon from the inorganic, inert carbon 
dioxide, up through the plant where it is elaborated into starches 
and sugars, into the animal where, after becoming a part of still 
more complex tissues, it is finally reduced again into carbon 
dioxide, is to me the most impressive illustration of the conserva- 
tion of matter. The marvel deepens when we think that this car- 
bon, separated from its oxygen and seeking it again, carries the 
energy for all hiunan endeavor, and that, when once used, it can 
be made available again only by the action of energy from that 
far-away source, the sun. 

This course serves as an introduction to our high-school 
science. From it, as a starting-place, we can continue the study 
of energy and its various changes, which is the science of physics ; 
or investigate the transformations of matter, which is chemistry ; 
or we can study systematically the structure and behavior of ani- 
mals, which is zoology; or that of plants, which is botany. In 
any case, we ought to know how the particular group of facts 
studied is related to the other groups, and that nature and science 
are not manifold, but one. 

We have chosen physics for our second year's work in science. 
Our work here is along more conventional lines than that of the 
first year. Of course, we use the laboratory method, and stand by 
our original principles of having the pupil get into as active 
relations as possible with the thing studied ; and we select for that 
purpose those topics which seem of practical value in life. But in 
all these respects we can make no claim to uniqueness. 



112 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

There are two respects in which we do differ somewhat from 
the ordinary school: (i) Our pupils begin, and still more in 
the future they will begin, this course with considerable knowl- 
edge of the facts of physics. For instance, the third grade studies 
the water supply of Chicago ; the fifth, the boiling of water and 
the heating apparatus of the building ; the sixth, air-pressure and 
the barometer. This gives the pupil a much broader and better 
base for his generalization than when he must make his gener- 
alizations and learn his facts at the same time. (2) An unusual 
amoimt of apparatus has been constructed by the pupils. It needs 
no argument to show the better understanding and control of 
the apparatus, which this gives them. 

The relation of mathematics to this work in physical science 
is a most interesting problem, but it is too large to be treated in 
this paper. Suffice it to say that the relationship has long been 
recognized by teachers of physics, and is beginning to be by 
teachers of mathematics ; but little use has thus far been made of 
it in teaching. It has been found during the year that the physics 
has shed much light upon some parts of algebra; e. g., meaning 
of negative numbers and their addition and subtraction, propor- 
tion and variation, the equation as a law, square root. During 
the next year a consistent attempt will be made to develop the 
algebra of the tenth grade from suitably selected experiments in 
physics. 

And when, at last, the pupil has finished his school work in 
nature-study and science, what will he have gained from them ? 

First, from a utilitarian standpoint he will be familiar with a 
good many industrial processes and be able to do amateur work 
in several. He will have understanding and control of those 
forces of nature with which everyone comes into contact in his 
daily life — those involved in cooking, housekeeping, gardening, 
the care of animals, etc ; and will have tlie knowledge and manual 
dexterity to use them to his own ends. In a broader sense, he will 
know the mutual relations and interdependence of many indus- 
tries — a thing of value in whatever vocation he may adopt 

Intellectually, he has been thinking in scientific things and by 
the scientific method. The scien^^c method of thinking may be 



SCIENCE IN THE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 1 1 3 

summarized as follows: gathering data by observation, making 
a hypothetical law or generalization from these data, deducing 
consequences from this law, and testing the consequences by 
experiment. If the results of the experiment tally with the hypoth- 
esis, the latter may be stated as a law. Now, Dr. Dewey says 
that this method of thought demanded by the science is the only 
possible way of true thinking.** The study of science ought, 
therefore, pre-eminently to develop the power of clear and logical 
thinking. This is a deduction which, I believe, is verified by a 
study of the facts. 

Nature-study also aids intellectual development by establish- 
ing new interests. The fulness of one's mental life is largely 
dependent upon the number of things in which he is, or may be, 
interested. To one familiar with her, Nature offers a wonderful 
variety of such interests. She is by turns amazing and quieting, 
thrilling and peaceftd, beautiful and terrible. To her we may go 
for inspiration or solace, for work or for rest. To be her friend 
is to have a certainty of perennial interests. 

Ethically, science studied as we have indicated helps accom- 
plish one great result: it substitutes an active for a repressive 
method in dealing with moral questions. It teaches boys to study 
birds and build places for their nests, instead of molesting them 
and making game wardens necessary for their protection. It 
teaches boys how to grow grapes and peaches of their own, and 
does not make laws to prevent their stealing from others. 

Finally, we may also claim for science a distinctly religious 
value. For do not the order, regularity, and precision with which 
effect follows cause in nature's domain indicate a single under- 
lying and unifjang law? And what is religion but to work in 
accordance with this law for the creation of happiness and the 
good of men ? The child who cares for an animal, raises a plant, 
or makes some article for the comfort or well-being of men is 
working hand in hand with nature. And what truer religion can 
there be than that he thus become the image of his Creator ? 

*JoHN Dewey, address before the Central Association of Science and Mathe- 
matics Teachers, November, 1903. 



^\ 



FALL PLANTING. 

WILBUR S. JACKMAN, 

PUMCXPsAL or THE UNIVSBSXTY WLmUftttTAMY SCSOOt- 

Most flowering bulbs shottid be planted in the autumn. In 
this latitude the i^oper time is the month of October. It is usoaQf 
not difficult to interest pupils and parents in the spring plantin|^ 
of seeds; but there has been comparatively httle done in this 
direction in regard to the fall planting of bulbs^ shrubs^ and trees^ 
The great majority of the earliest spring flowering plants are 
those that begin the year before in a bulb that lies liuDugh tbt 
winter at a greater or less depth below the surface. The frost is 
scarcely out of the ground when the Brst tender shoots appear, 
and in an incredibly diort time, even sometimes with the siow 
flying, tiiey blaze out in a wealth of color that contrasts strongly 
with tihe dull surroundings^ 

There is no good excuse for a school or home that can have 
die use of any ground being without these flowers. They are 
even more easily planted than seeds> and, when once in tlm 
ground, they require almost no attention. They grow, flouri^ 
and die in a period when no weed is able to compete with them 
for i^ace and power. 

A bulb is something like a big imdergrotmd bud. Its struc^ 
ture, which varies somewhat with different plants^ can be readily 
understood by dissecting an onion or a tulip bulb. At the base is 
a short nub which answers for a stem to support the leaves that; 
much thickened, closely inclose the tender growing points in the 
center. The bulb is a form that the plant has invented which 
enables it to carry through the inhospitable winter into a second 
season a large food supply that it has spent all of the first season 
in manufacturing. It is not necessary, therefore, for a bulbous 
plant to postpone the period of flowering until a large fc^age area 
has been developed, as most plants that come from the seed in the 
spring must do. Its thickened leaves, at the first peep of spring; 
are ready to give up their rich nourishment for the immediate 

"4 



FALL PLANTING 1 1 5 

development of flowers and fruit. The foliage leaves of the 
second season are chiefly concerned in building up a new bulb for 
the following year. 

I. GENERAI. DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 

1. Soil. — All plants have acquired certain habits which the 
gardener must respect if he is to succeed with them in cultivation. 
To understand bulbs, go to the localities where wild lilies of 
different kinds grow, and note the conditions. They will be 
found usually in loose, loamy, moist ground, but in areas not 
always covered with water. A shaded woods with a deep soil of 
leafy mold is a favorite spot. They will not be found in dry, hard, 
and unshaded clays. In the winter they lie well covered with 
dead leaves which in a wonderful way keep the earth from 
freezing. 

The conditions, therefore, for bulbs the size of a tulip, etc., are 
(a) deep, loamy, sandy soil ; spade up the ground at least a foot 
in depth; (&) a well-drained location; round the surface of the 
bed so the water will not stand on it in winter; (c) a loose, 
leafy cover for the winter. If the location is on the sunny side of 
a wall or house, the start will be much earlier in the spring, but 
the blossoms will not likely last so long. 

2. Arrangement — It is best, generally speaking, to plant so 
that the flowers will appear as masses of color. A notable excep- 
tion to this plan is the crocus. It may be planted with fine effect 
over a grassy lawn in groups of twos or threes. With a spade or 
trowel lift one edge of a piece of sod, making a hole about three 
inches deep. Place in this two or three crocus bulbs and replace 
the sod, patting it down. For weeks in the early spring they will 
beautifully spangle the sward with white and purple and gold. A 
clump of snowdrop bulbs tucked away in a sheltered nook will 
surprise one with its modest bloom before the snow is gone. 

The accompanying chart, reproduced from Popular Garden- 
ing, gives clearly in graphic form the depth and distance from 
each other that the common bulbs should be planted. The best 
way, perhaps, is to spade out the entire bed to the required depth, 
and then set the bulbs firmly in the ground in the desired order. 



Il6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Carefully cover them with fine earth, and then soak the bed with 
water. After this fill up the bed to the top, leaving the surface 
rounded. 

II. SELECTION OF BULBS. 

It is not necessary to name here specific varieties, as each one 
will wish to make his own choice from the florist's catalogue. 
Among the various kinds that may be counted upon to give 
satisfaction are the following : tulips, hyacinths, snowdrops, 
daffodils, scilla, narcissus, jonquils, crocus, and lilies. The 
florist's catalogue will indicate the time of blooming of each of 




Chabt, Sbowihg Dsptb and Distahce Afast or Bui.bs. 

the different varieties, and the blossoms may be so timed as to 
appear simultaneously or in succession, as may be desired. In 
general, the early and single varieties of tulips and the single 
hyacinths are the most pleasii^ and the easiest to raise. In 
buying, it is always best to select large, first-class bulbs which 
may be depended upon to give a vigorous plant. They cost more 
than the "bedding" sizes, but the results justify the extra 
expenditure, and if one must economize, it is better to get along 
with fewer plants. 

HI. OTHER PLANTS. 

In addition to the bulbs, there are many other fiowers that 
may be planted in the fall; sweet William, peony, iris, hollyhodc 
(the roots), columbine, phlox, and pansies (seed) are among 
the number. Autumn is the most favorable time also for plantii^ 
trees and shrubs. This may be done as soon as the leaves fall. At 



FALL PLANTING 1 1 7 

the end of summer one is apt to have fresh in mind the particular 
spots about the house that during the summer would have been 
greatly improved by the presence of a shrub or tree. In planting 
the latter, some of the hardier fruits should not be overlooked. 
The Whitney crab, for example, yields abundant and excellent 
fruit, and is a beautiful tree either in leaf or blossom. It should 
be remembered, too, that the smaller fruits, such as gooseberries, 
currants, raspberries, and blackberries, will do well along a 
fence or wall in a space that otherwise may easily become 
unsightly. If such out-of-the-way places are thus filled up there 
is at once a sufficient motive for keeping them in order. 

IV. CARE. 

As winter approaches, the roots of all the plants should be 
well soaked with the hose, if the rainfall is insufficient. The bulbs 
and other plants of this general class should be covered to a depth 
of four to six inches, if possible, with that best of all nature's 
litter, autumn leaves. The covering should extend several inches 
on all sides of the beds. If leaves cannot be obtained, then straw, 
or other light material^ may be used. When the severest weather 
is over, the litter may be in part removed. As the grotmd thaws 
out, take it all away and lightly stir the surface among the bulbs. 
The ground should be kept thoroughly moist, but not too wet. 
.Ordinarily the water from the melting snows will be quite suffi- 
cient to bring out the earliest flowers. 



PEBBLE GAME.* 



MUSIC BY MRS. OtOSBY ADAMS 





« Wal - ter, turn a - way your face Un - til the stone is gone; 




^m 





' I I J r f i f f r l i r I f I 



Wal - ter, Wal - ter, now tnm back, 1>t us find the peb-ble's track, 



.n J i \ pun f^ ^ 





Wal-ter, Wal-ter, now turn back, 1>t us find the peb • ble's track. 



rr 




* It is beliered that this game and these words originated in Germany. 

* The name of any child playing the game may be inserted here. 



FORMING THE CIRCLE. 



AUTHOR OF WOKD8 UNKNOWN 



MUSIC BY MBS. CB08BT ADAMS 




J'i | j J ■''i | / -1 ^ 



^ 




Face the cen - ter of the ring, Tra, la, la, Tra, la, la. 





ji ^ i ; J' j'l i i: J' ; j | r 



AU to-geth-er gai • ly aing, Tra, la, la, la, la, 





L f.*J' J r ^' i f r c^i^ c ^^ i g r f j 



Tra, la, la, la, la, la, la. Step in time, step in time, 




mf^-ii^ ^ 1 ^1^ 



lJ \ LJ U \ LJ r, | LJ ^ s 



I20 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 




A RIDDLE. 

AUTHOR OF WORDS UNKNOWN MUSIC BY MRS. CROSBY ADAMS 




There's a queer lit - tie house That stands in the ann, When the 





good mother call8,The chil-dren all mn; For nn-der her roof it is 



r";^J7jif7iJJ[^ i p^ i 




A RIDDLE 



121 



<fAj'j',j .tjii/J'^r ff ri^'-^'J-p i 



0087 and wami,Tho' the cold wind may whxst1e,and bluster, and stonn. 




hii M'^n ^ r ^ 



if L \ i^ u n i f ^, , . 1 



In the daytime that queer 

Little house moves away; 
And the children run after 

So happy and gay. 
But it comes back at night. 

And the children are fed 
And tucked up to sleep 

In their warm, cozy bed. 

This queer little house 

Has no windows nor doors; 
The roof has no chimneys, 

The rooms have no floors; 
No fireplaces, chimneyl. 

Nor stoves can you see — 
Yet the children are cozy 

And warm as can be. 

The story of this 

Little house is quite true; 
I have seen it myself. 

And I'm sure you have, too; 
You can see it today. 

If 3rou watch the old hen 
As her downy wings cover 

Her chickens again. 



— ^AKomrMOtrs. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



It is a far cry from what a boy or girl in the grammar and 
high schools is really capable of doing to what there is actual 
The Unused opportimity for doing in even the best schools. The 
Knergyof Boys tendency in this day is to do too much for the pupils 
and Girls jjj every way. The educative material that we offer 

is of the " predigested " t)rpe that not only spoils the digestion, 
but destroys the appetite. The teacher cannot too often recall to 
himself that, beyond what he is able to provide in the way of 
opportunity for effort, there is very little that he can do toward 
the education of anyone. 

Teachers, under the usual conditions, are so completely cut off 
in their work from tangible results that can be measured in com- 
mon terms of value that they are apt to forget what an amount of 
potential power for actual work exists in the boys and girls with 
whom they deal. These boys and girls can do things when they 
get a chance. 

Recently, out on the endlessly sprawling prairies of the 
Nebraska ranches, the writer had it fresh realization of this fact 
What Some ^^ ^"^ i^rm out there are two boys, twelve and 
Boys and Girls fourteen years old respectively, who have taken 
^^ ^ care of a hundred acres of com this summer, and 

the work was well done. These boys will clear two or three 
thousand dollars in cash as the tangible result of their year's 
work. One finds himself puzzled when he tries to think what 
even the best school in the country could offer these boys as an 
inducement to enter its halls which would justify them in leaving 
their ranch. If these two children were to enter an ordinary 
school, what would it give them? They would exchange the 
plow, the harrow, and the corn cultivator which they now handle 
with a perfectly definite motive, and through the use of which they 
get equally definite results — they would exchange these for tools 

122 



EDITORIAL NOTES 123 

that have no particular meaning, and for work that, so far as they 
can immediately discern, has no particular value. They are now 
associated with people from whom they purchase live stock, 
machinery, and many of the necessaries of life, and to whom they 
sell their grain and other produce. Mistakes in these transactions 
would be serious business, and these youths, therefore, are acutely 
training their powers of observation, judgment, and reason. 
They are also finding out, at first hand, the moral points at issue 
in dealings between man and man. 

Place these boys, now, in " the best schools," and every one of 
these character-building, man-making relationships would be 
What Induce- severed. They would become members of a class 
ments Can the or group whose organizing ties perhaps do not go 
Schools Offer ? beyond a common interest in football or some other 
game. So far as the output is concerned, there is no obvious 
reason why such a group should exist. Their associations, instead 
of being of an organic character, definitely formed, are simply the 
accidents of the situation. To offer these boys the advantages of 
a school where, instead of their annual output worth thousands of 
dollars, they would find their product to be a bit of basketry or 
bric-a-brac worth but a trifle, would very likely seem to them as 
though we were presenting them a gold brick. 

I saw another youth in his teens who enters the university this 
fall. He may or may not have met all the entrance requirements, 

but I saw him harness a wild horse into a team 
^^^ and drive away eight or ten miles one Sunday 

evening to a ranch that he might be ready for work 
early next day. After watching the performance, it seemed to 
me that he might be credited, on admission, with a couple of ora- 
tions in Cicero. Afterward, as I observed him handle his team 
on the steep sides of a canon and with a great sweep bring hay 
into the stack, a ton at a time, it seemed no more than right to 
pass him on the Harvard entrance experiments in physics. Earlier 
in the season, on short notice, he had planned and executed the 
delivery of a thousand bushels of grain to a point some thirty 



124 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

miles distant; and this, it would seem, might be considered the 
equivalent of several electives. On the whole, it is doubtful if 
any university could afford to bar him out. 

I saw his younger sister mount a wild Indian pony which 
immediately ran away with her. The girl, however, did not 
know it was nmning off, so it made no difference to her, though 
it did excite the bystanders. Recently she made a business trip 
of some hundreds of miles for her father, and in returning drove 
a double team thirty miles of the way by herself over the prairies. 
These two young people will enter a university this fall that will 
never suspect how much they know, and it will probably graduate 
them without ever finding out the one-half that they can do. 

I do not mean by this that we should close our schoolhouses 
and go to ranching. These cases are cited merely to show once 
What These niore how much good life-making stuff young people 
Bxamples in their teens, and even younger, have in them. 

*•" Here are four young people — and they can be 

matched by thousands in city and country — that are, several 
times over, self-supporting. No doubt they are overdoing it 
somewhat on the ranches, but the schools are certainly at the 
other extreme. Why should not self-maintenance be an integral 
part of an education ? There is not a healthy boy or prl in the 
world who, after entering his teens, if opportunity were offered, 
could not make his " keep and clothes " and, besides, in his spare 
hours, learn all that the schools have to teach him. Many 
even younger could do the same. Many, as a matter of fact, are 
already doing it, and you can generally recognize every one of 
them by his step a block away. A son of one of my neighbors has 
put himself through the grammar school by lighting lamps, and 
it is not a very lucrative job either. Another did the same, in part^ 
by running a very small printing-press, and still another, by 
organizing and running a daily-paper route. These are the city 
counterparts of the ranch boys, and they make plain the same fact 
that the youth of the period have a redimdancy of energy that is 
now absolutely lost to themselves and society. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 1 25 

Self-support and scholarship both have a common denomi- 
nator in character. They are not alien and mutually repellent. 
„^ ^, ^, The school on the ranch should not make the ranch- 

Trne Bdncatioii 

indndM the "^^^ forget his ranch, but it should keep the ranch 

Idea and the from turning him into a clod. Likewise, the ranch, 
ItctofSell- standing here for the idea of self-support in the 

school, should keep the scholar from educating him- 
self into a state of utter helplessness. 

The average youth of today is in a sad predicament. His 
time is mainly divided into two periods — one of enforced tasks, 
Bsfoiced Tasks *^^ another of enforced idleness. In the former he 
and Enforced is compelled to deal with the empty shells of mathe- 
idleneM matics, science, language, and history that seem but 

remotely related to any ideal that he at that age is capable of 
forming. In the latter, from pure ennui, he is driven into all the 
excesses and vagaries that are supposed to be peculiar to his age, 
but which he seeks one after the other as a relief from his own 
idle self. Fraternities, football, cigarettes, and all-around loafing 
are the last resort of a bored and motiveless youth. If in these 
early years a boy or girl could have an opportunity and proper 
encouragement to engage in wholesome, productive, and remun- 
erative work, it is doubtful if big books on the dangers of 
adolescence would be necessary. If a man between the ages of 
thirty and thirty-six were to be placed under conditions as 
unfavorable to his life as those which surround him from twelve 
to eighteen, the chances are that the psychic phenomena of the 
former period would be equally startling. 

The real problem, therefore, that confronts both teachers and 
parents is that of providing such opportunities for emplojrment, 
along with the other school duties, that, as early as possible, the 
boys and girls shall feel some of the pleasures that are due ovfy 
to those who are made independent through self-support. 

The annual report of Mrs. Harding which appears in this 
issue will be read with interest and profit by all who are interested 

in the general movemnt to bring the school and 
Ateociationa home into closer co-operation. Besides detailing the 

work of the Home Committee, of which Mrs. Hard- 
ing was chairman last year, the report gives an insight into the 



ia6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

spirit and scope of the association as a whole which must deeply 
impress one with the importance of the part which it can take in 
the educational work of the community. That the association can 
accomplish definite results is shown in the decisive action taken 
in regard to the fraternities and sororities in the high school 
Without the hearty co-operation of the Parents' Association il 
would have been difficult, if not impossible, to deal effectively with 
these troublesome organizations. 

The monthly meetings of the entire body were devoted to 
discussions of great importance. At one of these, the diseases 
of children were considered, and on this occasion medical special- 
ists read helpful papers. Another evening was given to physical 
culture and athletics; another^ to certain lines of school work 
presented by the teachers, and so on. Probably one of the first 
parents' associations in the country was that organized by Colonel 
Parker more than twenty years ago among the patrons of the 
Cook County Normal School. During his connection of nearly 
eighteen years with this institution he spared no effort to educate 
the parents as well as their children. I well recall how many 
times over and again questions relating to the school were dis- 
cussed, until the parents had an understanding of what was being 
attempted. It accordingly happened that, when the fate of the 
school hung in the balance with the politicians, as it often did, 
it was the influence of an intelligent parents' association that 
saved the day. 

It cannot be too strongly emphasized that the relation of such 
an association to the teaching corps should be that of co-operation. 
Criticisms there may be, but they always should be made from 
a sincere desire to help solve the difficult problems which confront 
teacher and parent alike. 

In an early issue, the Elementary School Teacher hopes 
to publish in full the program for the year for the benefit of its 
readers. It hopes, also, to publish reports of similar organiza- 
tions throughout the country. 

W. S. T. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Smilxs's Self 'Help. Edited by Ralph Lytton Bower. New York: American 

Book Co. Pp. 304. $0.60. 

This well-known Yolume of essays is here presented in a form adapted 
especially to American readers. Since its first publication, fifty years ago, it has 
been translated into many languages, it has attained a widespread and enduring 
popularity, and has exerted a permanent influence upon character and conduct. 
These essays show that the happiness of every individual must depend upon his 
own efforts, and that true success is to be attained only through diligent self- 
culture, self-discipline, and self-control. In the present edition several passages 
of a distinctly local and British interest have been omitted. Many helpful 
explanatory notes make the text intelligible to even very young students. An 
appendix contains brief biographies of most of the important, persons mentioned. 
This is a book which should be used for supplementary reading in every schooL 

Our Bodies and How We Live, By Albert F. Blaisdell. Revised edition. 

Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 352. $0.65. 

Ih this revision of Dr. Blaisdell's Our Bodies the text has been thoroughly 
revised and in many parts entirely rewritten. The author's intent has been to 
bring his well-known book fully into touch with the latest and best scientific 
thought on physiology and hygiene. Many of the special features of the older 
book which have met the generous approval of teachers and educators everywhere 
since its first publication have either been retained or made still more effective. 
There are the same simple and interesting style, the same careful consideration of 
pTMtical everyday health, and the same emphasis upon the use of simple 
experiments. 

In addition, the revised book is fully illustrated with engravings and line 
cuts based upon original drawings and photographs; and the mechanical execu- 
tion of the book as a whole marks an improvement over the older edition. 

Steps in English. By A. C. McLean, Thomas C. Blaisdell, and John 
Morrow. Book I, pp. 245, with illustrations, $0.40 ; Book II, pp. 352, with 
illustrations, $0.60. New York: American Book Co. 
Thsse books constitute a distinct innovation in teaching language In ele- 
mentary schools, which is at once sensible, practical, and modem. They teach 
the child how to express his thoughts in his own language, and do not furnish an 
undue amount of grammar and rules. They mark out the work for the teacher 
in a clearly defined manner by telling him what to do and when to do it. From 
the start lessons in writing language are employed simultaneously with those in 
co n ve rs ation ; and picture study, study of literary selections, and letter-writing 
are presented at frequent intervals. The books do not contain too much technical 
grammar, nor are they filled with sentimental twaddle and gush. The series will 
be welcomed by teachers who are tired of antiquated methods, and desire live, 
«p-to-date books. 

127 



128 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Howe's Handbook of Parliamentary Usage. New York: Hinds & Noble. 

$0.50. 

Thb unique feature of this new handbook is an ingenious visual arrangement 
of the whole subject-matter of practical parliamentary law in such order that when 
the book is opened in the middle, the chairman, the speaker, the member who 
next has the floor, or anyone else, has before his eyes a complete summary of 
every rule needed in the conduct of any business meeting. The surprising prac- 
ticality of this arrangement and of the system of cross-reference used can be 
fully appreciated only by actual inspection of the book itself. Moreover, it is 
" really and truly " pocket size, and so does not have to be carried in the hand 
to and from meeting, but slips easily into and out of the pocket, without crowding 
or discomfort. 

Dickens's Christmas Stories. Edited by Jake Gordon. New York : American 

Book Co. Pp. 304. $0.50. 

These mirth-provoking and yet pathetic stories, written when Dickens was 
in the full maturity of his marvelous powers, are now issued in the well-known 
series of " Eclectic School Readings." They are repeated as originally published, 
except that some of the descriptions have been left out, others abridged, and 
allusions unfamiliar to American readers have been omitted. All the qualities 
that have made the name of Dickens a household word remain. It would be wdl 
if all school children could be introduced through this book to the master of 
English humorists. 

Gateway Series of English Texts. General Editor, Henry Van Dyke. New 

York: American Book Co. 
George Eliot's Silas Marner. Edited by Wilbur Lucius Cross. Pp. 336; 

with portrait of George Eliot. $040. 
Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America. Edited by William Mac- 
Donald. Pp. 164 ; with portrait of Burke. $0.35. 

The latest additions to this new series, which will include all the college- 
entrance requirements in English. The editorial work has been intrusted to 
scholars of special fitness. Each volume contains a portrait and a biography of 
the author, and an introduction dealing with the subject of the book, the way in 
which it is written, its relation to human life, and its place in literature. The 
texts are derived from the latest authoritative sources. The series should be 
welcomed by all teachers of English literature. 

Elementary Algebra. By J. H. Tanner. New York: American Book Co. 

Pp. 374. $1. 

The latest addition to the " Modem Mathematical Series," prepared under the 
general editorship of Professor Wait, of Cornell University. The transition from 
arithmetic to algebra has been made as easy and natural as possible, and tiM 
author has aimed to arouse and sustain the student's interest in the work, and 
to teach him to think clearly and reason correctly. The book is designed to meet 
the most exacting entrance-examination requirements of any college or univenity 
in this country, and especially the revised requirements of the College Entrance 
Board. 



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PIAN05? 



The 



Jementary School 
Teacher. 



November, 1904 

Vol. V. No. 1 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 



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Ubc filementar? School Ueacbet 

Ediior . . Wilbur S. Jackman 
Asmtani Editor^ Bertha Payne 

WITH IHB OO-OrUlATIOM OP 

The Faculty of the University of Chicago School of Education 



CONTENTS FOR NOVEMBER, J904 



The articles upon varioos phases of the general subject of Manual Training in the October and November 
numbers of The Elementary School Teacher were collected and arranged 

for by Miss Elizabeth Euphrosyne Langley I 

J. 

« 

THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS M, V. 0*Shba' lag 5 

SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY, AND MATHEMATICS - - - . Thomas B«. Ballut I4t ^ 

THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS ...... Edwin L. Nortok 14! 

TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY MANUAL TRAINING - Harvey G. Hatch ISI 

HANDIWORK IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL - - > - Ida Hood Clark li4 

CORRELATION AND TECHNICAL SEQUENCE - Elizabeth Euphrosynx Lamglxt i^ j 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAYHOUSE MADE BY FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN IN THE 

FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL - - Rose Philups and Grace Dewst 17I 

THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION : REPORT OF THE OCTOBER MEETING jj 

Mrs. Frank Hugh Montgomskt lit 



? 



MUSIC ... Richard STRAim i9s T 

Weihnachtslied (Christmas Song). V 

• 

EDITORIAL NOTES WiLBUR S. Jackmah ll| ?. 

The Mourners; The Real Difference; Teacher Not a Taskmaster; Personal Initiative; TlM >: ' 
Counter Initiative; Initiative Not Endless Beginnings ; Motive; Responsibility. 

BOOK REVIEWS: I 

Young and Jackson: The Appleton Arithmetic, E. C. Layers, 191 ; The Ship of Stale, " ^ 

William M. Giffin, 192. .^ 



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** (Adolescence" and The 



'T'HE University of Chicago Press has perfected arrangements whereby 
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as described in this advertisement. All teachers should own the two volumes 
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This saving should especially interest city and county superintendents, 
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Adolescence dk. o. staiobt hau. «^ «^ «i^ 

This work is the result of many years of study and teaching. It is the first attempt in any 
language to bring together all the best that has been ascertained about the critical period of 
life which begins with puberty in the early teens and ends with maturity in the middle twentiei» 
and it is made by the one man whose experience and ability pre-eminently qualify him for 
such a task. 

The nature of the adolescent period is the best guide to education from' the upper grades 
of the grammar school through the high school and college. Throughout the book the state- 
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education, penology, and other phases of life. 

Juvenile diseases and crime have each special chapters. The study of normal psychic Ufe 
is introduced by a chapter describing both typical and exceptional adolescents. 

Chapters follow characterizing the changes that take place during these years in the feel- 
ings, the will, and the intellect, so far as these have been ascertained by experiment, questios- 
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on the insanities peculiar to youthful years follow. 

The practical application of some of the conclusions of the scientific part are fonnd in sept- 
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family life, as seen by statistics of American colleges, with a sketch of an ideal education for girls. 

There are also brief chapters on the initiation rites of savages, descriptions and critical dis- 
cussions of the forms of confirmation in the great churches of the world, the psychology of 
conversion and the relations of this to the introduction of collegiate youth to philosofihical topics* 



I 



'iementary School Teacher 



he problem of the public school, its chief topics and methods, is considered from the 
)oint of adolescence, and some very important modifications are urged. 
'his is a very wide range of topics, all focusing upon a single stage of life and one which 
' exciting the most eager interest among teachers, clergymen, and parents. It is believed 
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a Yols., cloth, z,373 pp., $7.50 net, $7.92 postpaid. 



lie Elementary School Teacher 

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?HK Elementary School Teacher, Wilbur S. Jackman, Editor, is published on or 
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Contributions to Education 

By JOHN DEWEY and ELLA FLAGG YOUNG 

■'^77sr- : — 



In this series a union is effected between educational 
theories and actual practice. The fundamental 
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I. ISOLATION IN THE SCHOOL^ By Ella Flagg 
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The Elementary School Teacher 



l; 



VOLUME V NUMBER 3 



The Elementary School Teacher 



NOVEMBER, 1904 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS.* 

M. V. O'SHEA, 

THE VKIVSBSITy OF WISCONSIN. 

I. 

Considering the trend of current opinion, it is probably not 
necessary to dwell upon the proposition that psychological study 
of the rational or formal or static or faculty sort cannot be made 
of much, if any, practical value to the teacher. This seems 
apparent when we consider what task the teacher must accom- 
plish. Stated in a general way, he must lead his pupils to attain 
ever more perfect adjustment to their environments. The 
teacher has to deal with a reactfve, dynamic being. He can 
have no interest in mental processes or forms except as they are 
concerned in reaction. If it is l^itimate for any purpose to view 
the mind morphologically, it is at least of slight consequence to 
oiie who must always deal with mental function. 

Indeed, I think the teacher may be injured by getting in the 
way of looking upon mind as anything but a functional organ. 
I have in my classes sometimes mature students who have had a 
year or so of formal faculty psychology preparatory to teaching. 
They have acquired a body of terms which they employ verbally 
and statically to explain psychological phenomena. Now, these 
terms get in the way of their looking upon mind as a dynamic 
agency. If they address themselves to a psychological problem, 

^ An address delivered at the dedication exercises of the School of Education 
of the University of Chicago, May 13, 1904. From the stenographic report, revised 
and condensed by the author. 

129 



1 30 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

their attention runs over into their verbal terms, and they really 
cannot see the reacting individual who is trying to adjust him- 
self to some phase of his environment. Happily, though, the 
study of formal text-book psychology has very little effect one 
way or another upon the work of many who pursue it, for it is 
so remote from the teaching process that the two things will not 
run together. Such psychology is not any closer to teaching 
than is astronomy or calculus. It is set off in the teacher's mind 
in a department by itself, so it does not soak into the teaching 
system to any appreciable extent. 

Efficiency in the schoolroom requires first of all that the 
teacher should be made what I may call "pupil-minded." He 
must be got into the way of observing how his pupils respond to 
the situations he presents, and why, and what will secure him 
most surely and economically the response he wishes. Upon 
this insight in the teacher depends all success in teaching. The 
ideal is to make the teacher a naturalist in the human sphere. 
He must be got, if possible, to see what are the springs of conduct 
in childhood and youth, and how he can present the stimuli of edu- 
cation so that they may be reacted upon by native impulses and 
experience in such a way as to correlate the individual ever more 
closely with his environments. The teacher needs to observe 
intelligently what happens in the schoolroom ; which implies that 
he must be able to refer particular manifestations to general 
principles of human nature. Doubtless he gains some of this 
insight from his every-day contact with people. He could not 
survive in a social regime if he did not discover and observe some 
at least of the deepest tendencies of himian nature. He may 
not be able to state what he knows in formal principles, but yet he 
feels that certain traits are common to all men, and he will take 
due account of them in his attitudes toward people. The one 
who is most sensitive to these traits of human life — who knows 
people best, in other words — will, of course, other things being 
equal, make the best teacher. But with even the most sensitive 
and cosmopolitan individual there will be subtle principles of 
human nature — of child-nature, at any rate — of supreme impor- 
tance in education which he will not appreciate because they have 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 131 

not been involved in the give-and-take relations of every-day 
life. A man may know how to read well and yet not be a gram- 
marian. So he may see much of sick people and not be a 
physician. And the principle applies universally. It is a matter 
of common observation that the very best teachers in general 
qualities are very dull when it comes to observing the influence 
of various studies and methods of teaching upon the thought 
and conduct of their pupils. One may see a good man in some 
respects teaching a subject like physics in a verbal, mechanical, 
fruitless fashion, and he keeps on blindly, saying to himself that 
his pupils are getting good discipline from his woric. He has 
a few formal pedagogical terms infixed in his mind, and these 
blur his vision for the phenomena occurring right before his 
eyes. I think this is the type of most cases of bad teaching, and 
it suggests the supreme need in training which I have suggested — 
making the individual " pupil-minded." 

II. 

When it comes to the question of presenting studies, it will 
be granted, of course, that, since it is the business of the teacher 
to guide the pupil to perfect his adjustments, he must himself 
have made the adjustments which he proposes to have his pupil 
make ; that is to say, he must know his subject thoroughly. And 
I am convinced that if he had mastered it in its historical or 
evolutionary, as well as merely logical, development, he would 
gain considerable which would aid him in presenting it to his 
pupil economically and effectively. Then he could appreciate 
the main movements which his pupil would be likely to make at 
various stages in his efforts to assimilate it. He would see that, 
speaking in popular phrases, the himian mind in thinking any 
special subject will move through it and aroimd it in a charac- 
teristic manner. Knowing this, the teacher could anticipate the 
pupil's difficulties, and he would tmderstand how to help him 
best to keep to the straight road, or at least to regain it readily 
whenever he strayed into by-paths. One who could trace out the 
detailed phylogenetic development of his subject should know 
something of its psychology from the ontogenetic standpoint. 



13a THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Any Study is, of course, but a branch of psychology in a certain 
sense; it is a record of the way men have regarded a particular 
phase of their environment. The point I wish to make is that 
if the teacher understood the developmental course of physics, 
e. g.f he would have before him a record, more or less clear and 
distinct, of how the individual would conduct himself in assimi- 
lating his subject. He would know how the mind of the race 
moved around various topics, and why; what experiences led 
men out of error into truth ; what was the stimulus which led to 
the development of his subject; and so on. With this knowl- 
edge he could locate the pupil in all his wanderings, and lead 
him back to the trail ; and he could save him much waste of time 
and energy by foreseeing his wrong tendencies and guarding 
against them. 

But we are speaking here of an ideal which has probably 
never been realized in respect of any study. There are immense 
gaps in our knowledge of what has been the experience of any 
and all the subjects of instruction, which represent the most suc- 
cessful efforts of the race in adjusting itself to its environments. 
And this makes it necessary that the teacher should study what 
is known regarding the way in which the individual mind most 
readily assimilates these subjects. He must be made to reflect 
upon the peculiar nature of the difficulties that lie in the route, 
what equipment the pupil has for surmounting them, and just 
what kind of help will be of greatest assistance to him. I speak 
as if this were all understood, which is doubtless not the case ; but 
yet there is something at least already established, and more is 
being added to our knowledge every day ; and the teacher ought 
to possess himself of so much as is known. 

But it is maintained by some that the teacher gains this 
knowledge without special study. He has been over the course 
himself; he has it all in his own experience; why cannot he 
rtm over the record and gain enlightenment if he needs it? We 
are told that one who has made an adjustment himself should 
be able to lead another to make it. But now, there is probably 
no adult who can go back over his history and recall the 
detailed steps he took in assimilating arithmetic. These steps 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 133 

have for all practical purposes been obliterated. Mental develop- 
ment proceeds by consolidation of experiences; details of adjust- 
ing processes are being constantly merged into general reactive 
systems, which in time become largely or entirely subconscious. 
The more perfectly one has made an adjustment, the more diffi- 
cult it is for him to review the processes by which it was made. 
The greatest artists often know the least of the modus operandi 
of acquiring their art. This was impressed upon me emphati- 
cally in a recent experiment which I made in assigning to two 
students a thesis on the psychology of arithmetic. One was 
to work it out by introspection and logical analysis^ while the 
other was to teach it, and observe all that occurred. The first 
individual produced a formal analysis which failed to take 
accotmt of perhaps the most vital experiences of the child in 
mastering this subject. He could not discover many of these 
experiences from a merely logical treatment of his theme, even 
when he got what light he could from trying to recall how 
he learned arithmetic himself. 

I do not forget that the text-book in any study plans to pre- 
sent it in the order in which the pupil will most effectively assimi- 
late it. Now, the text is, of course, based upon some sort of 
conception of developmental psychology in a special field. With- 
out question the book is of great value in instruction. It is the 
product usually of many generations of observation as to the 
manner in which the mind of the learner will most easily conquer 
the subject treated. But, as a matter of fact, the available texts 
for the most part have been worked out from the adult stand- 
point in large measure. What we have got, then, is a logical 
arrangement of the facts of arithmetic, for instance, that we 
regard as of greatest value. But a sequence of facts in any sub- 
ject arranged according to their degree of objective complexity 
may not be the best sequence at all when regarded from the 
standpoint of the learner. Pedagogical and logical sequences in 
any field are not necessarily the same. 

When it is said that the teacher must track out the course 
which the learner pursues in assimilating a subject, it is under- 
stood, of course, that with experience focal consciousness of the 



134 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

pupil's prcx:esses will gradually disappear, and the teacher will 
handle him appropriately in a more or less subconscious way. 
As long as the teacher must laboriously follow the movements 
of his pupil's mind he will be handicapped as an artist. Expert 
action in teaching, as in other things, must be facile, and in 
considerable part automatic. Given a situation in his special 
field, the expert knows without hesitation what is to be done 
with reference to it. But in the development of this expertness 
he must first act deliberately ; then he must repeat his action often 
enough so that he may acquire the power of reacting readily 
and easily. It should be added that the teacher ought not to be 
made to reflect upon the mechanism of any process which he 
can perform properly as a matter of suggestion. Automatic 
action is more effective and safer in all simple situations, if it is 
rightly adjusted, than reflective action. But in many of the 
situations in the schoolroom the teacher is not likely to have 
acquired automatic action of the right sort, and this is why he 
must be brought to reflect upon what is best to do in these 
situations. It is probable that much of the work in teaching 
can never become automatic, because of the variety of minds 
with which the teacher has to deal, and of the necessity of con- 
stant appeal to general principles in the interpretation of special 
manifestations. If all pupils of a given age reacted in just the 
same way to every situation in arithmetic, say, one could con- 
ceive that after a few years a teacher might be able to teach the 
subject with as little reflection as he employs in walking or in 
talking; but no one will grant the assumption. The principle, 
though, is important, for one may see teachers who are every 
year growing more expert in the discipline of their pupils and in 
the teaching of their subjects. Through continued experience 
they come to feel the tendency of different types of minds, and 
they perceive without calculation what is to be done in the differ- 
ent situations which arise. This, then, must be our ideal — to 
lead the teacher to study the movements of his pupils' minds just 
to the extent that this is necessary in order that he may interpret 
correctly the phenomena of the schoolroom, and to deal most 
economically and effectively with them. 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 135 

III. 

The teacher ought to make his start in becoming psychologi- 
cally minded by studying his own experience in order to discover 
what moves him to action, and what is the method of his attain- 
ing adjustment to any situation. In some respects his own expe- 
rience will be close to that of his pupil. For one thing, he is 
himself learning during his academic career; and if he can 
clearly see what happens in his own case, and why and with 
what results, and what is the line of least resistance in attacking 
any problem, he will have a basis, at any rate, for understanding 
his pupil's attitudes, and assisting him to find himself readily. 
If, for instance, the teacher is beginning a foreign language, and 
he can discover what steps he must take in order to assimilate 
it most easily, he will gain some insight into the way in which 
his pupil will most economically get possession of the mother- 
tongue. I say he will gain some insight; he surely will not gain 
a complete and correct view, for his own experience will not be 
precisely like that of his pupil, though viewed ab extra they might 
appear to be so. He is learning the same thing as his pupil; 
why should not their mental movements be the same? For 
one reason, because the teacher brings to his study an equip- 
ment which his pupil does not possess. He brings not only 
knowledge which acts in an apperceiving way, but he also brings 
a tendency of mind which is a generalization of his experience. 
He has come to regard language more anal}rtically than does his 
pupil; he has acquired a sort of grammatical sense, too, which 
his pupil lacks. But if we could lead him to see what he 
possesses that his pupil does not which makes his present expe- 
rience different from his pupil's, then we should help him 
immensely. The teacher heeds to get into the habit of asking 
questions relating to the pupil's stock of experience; he needs 
to be made minded in this direction. 

Then, in a broader view, it will be granted that the psychol- 
ogy of the schoolroom is not different in essential principles from 
the psychology of out-of-doors. The objective situations are, of 
course, not identical, but the processes in reaction thereupon 
are undoubtedly the same in principle. The method of the child's 



136 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

assimilating geography in the school is not essentially different 
from the method of his getting acquainted with the countrj' 
about his home. The psychology of schoolroom discipline is 
not different in essence from the psychology of conduct in the 
home or on the street. And now, if the intending teacher can 
interpret his own social experience, and see what are the springs 
of conduct in human nature, and how social action can be most 
effectively stimulated, he will gain much that will greatly illumine 
the work of the schoolroom. 

While thus granting the value of the teacher's study of his 
own experience, it should be said that at the same time there is 
danger of carrying this too far. If he dwells upon it too greatly, 
it is likely to subtend too large an angle in his vision of his 
pupil. If he goes too far in introspection, he will come ulti- 
mately to see his pupil solely in terms of his own experience. 
This, of course, is a very simple principle of psychology; what 
fills our minds often comes gradually to exclude everything else. 
That which will not fit into what is in our minds is not discerned 
at all. This is the chief trouble now with most of our educa- 
tional psychology. But how can we tell just how far to carry 
the teacher in the work of introspection? In general, I should 
say that alongside of his introspection from the beginning must 
go concrete study of his pupil. If either study must suffer, I 
should say it ought to be introspection. It will result much bet- 
ter to get the teacher into a habit of observing his pupil's reac- 
tions rather than his own. If he observes pupils closely enough, 
he will come to discover certain uniform modes of action, even 
if he does not have any clear principles of interpretation derived 
from the study of his own experience. But if his own experi- 
ence becomes too stable, if it projects itself into the focus of 
attention whenever he is before his pupils, it will prejudice his 
action. 

It will not be in place here to discuss in any detail the methods 
of prosecuting the kinds of studies which have been indicated — 
the study of experience and of the pupil directly. But it may 
be said, in passing, that what the teacher needs is to get a view 
as a whole of the pupil's experience as well as of his own. It is 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 137 

of little account for him to pick out some more or less isolated 
act and study it in detail. If he cannot discover the causes of it, 
the conditions which have given rise to it, and for what purpose 
it occurs — if he cannot see it in its setting, his knowledge will 
be of little worth to him. This is to say that, whatever method of 
study the teacher pursues, he must come finally, at any rate, to 
conceive of the pupil's mind and life as a unity. But this does 
not mean that minute analysis is to be avoided altogether. On 
the contrary, such analysis seems absolutely essential if any suc- 
cess whatever is to be achieved in psychological study. The 
problem here is no different from what it is in any phase of 
scientific work. No just conception of the nature of objects or 
phenomena can be gained from studying them merely in the large, 
or on the outside. Little progress was made in the natural 
sciences until the analytic method of study was adopted, and the 
same appears to be true in the psychological sciences. Simply 
to look on at very complex phenomena is likely to g^ve either 
an extremely shallow and unsatisfactory, or else a distorted, view. 
Under such circumstances one sees with his prejudices, and is 
likely to miss the really vital characteristics of the thing he 
studies. 

These observations lead up to the proposition that the teacher 
will be benefited by the method of experimental psychology 
applied to his special problems. I do not imagine the teacher 
will gain mucH from experiments upon the threshold of con- 
sciousness, as an instance, but I think he will be greatly benefited 
by an experimental study on some phase of the learning of lan- 
guage, as a typical example. In this way he will be led to the 
apprehension of subtle processes which otherwise he would never 
detect, but which for a correct understanding of his problems he 
must take account of. To make my remark concrete, take such a 
study as Mr. Bagley's Apperception of the Spoken Sentence. 
This reveals elementary processes which simple observation 
would never disclose, but which illumine the whole subject of 
language-learning, and so of language-teaching. 

I do not say that the teaqher needs to study experimental 
psychology as it is presented in any text or conducted in any 



138 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

latx>ratory today. As a science it deals with much that only 
very remotely can concern the teacher. But what I urge is that 
he should know its method, and so much of its results as bear 
directly upon his tasks in the schoolroom. And these results 
must relate to the mind as a functional organ. They must con- 
cern the individual in his efforts to assimilate himself with some 
phase of the world. I think the teacher will gain little, if any- 
thing, of worth from examining tables showing what is the 
average number of times a hundred thousand children of any 
age can tap with a finger or any other bodily member, for 
instance. Whatever this and similar facts may be worth as 
items of general information, they certainly are not close enough 
to the processes of the class-room to throw any light upon 
them. In a way, doubtless, every psychological fact, and per- 
haps every other sort of fact, bears some relation, near or remote, 
to the work of education ; but some of these facts are so distant 
that the teacher can never make the connection. It is true prob- 
ably that statistical tables and summaries will with some persons 
determine the validity of principles of human nature, but if the 
teacher is concerned much with these tables, he will be lost in 
his figures, and the pupil will move on without his guidance. 
Or, pending his mathematical computations, he will hinder his 
pupil in his progress, not being able to get any wisdom from his 
figures as to the concrete human being before him. 

In passing, we may ask whether the teacher is likely to gain 
anything of value from a study of physiological psychol(^;y ? It 
is apparent that in his teaching he is not concerned, directly at 
any rate, with either the structure of nerve elements or their 
function. Even if every psychosis is accompanied by a neurosis, 
it may nevertheless be enough for the teacher to take account 
only of the former. But this is not to say that mental function 
could not be made clearer if the teacher knew the outlines at 
least of cerebral structure and function. To my mind some- 
thing may be gained by giving current psychological theory a 
foundation in the architecture and function of the nervous sys- 
tem. It is understood, of course, that in the present stage of 
our knowledge we cannot say that there is any very detailed 



THB VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 1 39 

correspondence between mental and nervous function, but those 
who ought to know say that there are certain general correspond- 
ences which are well established, and which it would be profit- 
able for the teacher to understand. If it should give him nothing 
more, it will at least impress upon him the fact that mental 
action must occur according to certain patterns; its main fea- 
tures, at any rate, are absolutely determined because of the 
medium through which it must be expressed. 

Then when it comes to abnormal manifestations, which the 
teacher cannot ignore, physiological psychology will prove of 
considerable value. Mental defects and deficiencies seem inex- 
plicable except on physiological grounds. This is not to say that 
they are wholly explicable upon any grotmds ; but they are made 
reasonably clear by the aid of physiology. In ancient times, 
before any close connection between mind and brain was 
thought of, men believed that mental errancy was due to lethargy 
of will or to demoniacal possession; and all are familiar with 
the consequences of such views. Now, it is probable that the 
young teacher will be more or less strongly inclined toward this 
view, unless his natural tendencies are corrected by some study 
of the physiological basis of mental defect. Already this study, 
crude and imperfect as it still is, has illumined some of the dark 
spots in teaching, and made some children everywhere happier 
as well as more efficient. 

Thus far I have spoken mainly of that phase of school work 
which relates to the values of subjects of instruction, and the 
modes of presenting them. But this, after all, is the least 
important aspect of the teacher's work. The ethical phase is of 
greater importance. And then, in order to make any headway 
in his business, the teacher must get his pupil into a positive atti- 
tude toward the situations he presents. It is not as though the 
pupil were unmotivated, waiting for the teacher to apply his 
stimulus. He may not respond at all when the teacher brings 
him into an arithmetical situation, for example ; and so he gains 
no ground as a result of his experience, and he may even lose 
ground. Pupils often have a more or less permanently antago- 
nistic attitude toward the reactions which the teacher desires 



140 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

them to make, and, of course, this defeats the end of teaching. 
If the teacher cannot appeal to the spontaneous impulses of the 
pupil, he surely cannot teach him except at tremendous waste. 
Then the teacher's own personal expressions have much to do 
with the pupil's attitude toward the thing he teaches. If they 
arouse antipathy in the pupil^ the battle is lost; whereas if they 
attract him, he will be likely to yield himself to the thing which 
the teacher presents, even though he is not natively inclined 
toward it. So it becomes of supreme consequence for the teacher 
to find out all that is known regarding the experiences which 
attract, and those which repel, children at different stages in their 
development. Something of this he will have without any study 
of the subject; but those who have added to what they have 
gained incidentally through some study in the spirit of modem 
evolutionary thought have testified that their study has proved 
of genuine service. And then consider what is required for the 
efficient government of the school. What tendencies do pupils 
of different ages possess which can be utilized in establishing 
and preserving the school as a social unit? What tendencies do 
they possess which militate against such organization, and how 
may these tendencies be transformed or combated? It will be 
granted that no teacher can achieve success who cannot g^ve a 
more or less satisfactory answer to these questions, if not in 
formal statement, then at least in instinctive action. 

Without doubt some teachers have been reared under such 
happy circumstances that they have unconsciously acquired an 
understanding of the way in which a child will acquire a knowl- 
edge of his fellows and a disposition to live in peace with them. 
One sometimes sees mothers who appear to have instinctive 
knowledge of these matters, and who are most efficient in their 
instruction. But, on the other hand, the majority of mothers, 
as of teachers, are greatly lacking in this respect. Spencer has 
in an effective way called attention to the shortcomings of the 
average mother and teacher when it comes to the moral training 
of the young. And he argues that some study of the natural 
tendencies of children would be of supreme value to all who 
had them in charge. If the teacher were familiar with the evo- 



THE VALUE OF PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS 141 

lution of social and ethical sentiment in the race, he would 
perhaps understand in a way the method of social and moral 
development in the child. He would know how to interpret 
actions of the individual that had a social or ethical bearing, and 
he would be capable of aiding him in choosing the straight and 
narrow path. But the detailed history of social and ethical 
evolution in the race is not at hand ; and what the teacher needs 
then is to study ethical and social development in the individual 
so far as it is now known. 

Here, perhaps, more than anywhere else there is a demand 
for a study of the natural tendencies of the individual, and the 
effect of varied educational forces upon these tendencies. 



SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY, AND MATHEMATICS.* 

THOMAS M. BALLIET, 

DBAN OF SCHOOL OF PEDAGOGY, NEW YORK UNIVEKSITY. 

The time is shorty and I shall have to be as brief as possible 
in my remarks. 

There are a few suggestions that come to my mind which 
possibly may be interesting, perhaps helpful, to some of you in 
regard to the teaching of arithmetic. 

I think we often make a mistake in teaching arithmetic, in not 
distinguishing between the kinds of processes that we are dealing 
with, and it may be profitable to discuss for a moment what some 
of these processes are. 

There are, in the first place, the number-processes, and many 
people assimie that these are the only ones that we deal with in 
arithmetic; but arithmetic is broader than number. Let us sec 
what these processes are. They are the four fundamental " rules," 
as we call them — square root, cube root, and arithmetical and 
geometrical series; not all of which we should teach in the ele- 
mentary schools. I cannot this moment think of any other mathe- 
matical process in arithmetic, unless you r^ard the application of 
the four fundamental rules to fractions as new mathematical 
processes, as I would not. 

Besides these number-processes in arithmetic there is the lan- 
guage of numbers to be taught. All figure work is language work 
except in so far as it involves the number-processes. The teaching 
of figures, then, is language work. The Arabic notation is an 
arbitrary and technical language, very useful indeed, and is an 
efiective means of handling numbers; but nevertheless it is lan- 
guage. Now, as a pedagogical point, we must bear in mind that 
the methods of teaching language are quite different from the 
methods of developing a thought-process. You develop a thought- 
process by leading the pupil to see the facts, and then to analyze 

^ Discussion of President David Felmley's paper on " The Teaching of 
Mathematics/' at the dedication exercises of the School of Education, The Univer- 
sity of Chicago, May 13, 1904. 

142 



SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY, AND MATHEMATICS I43 

them and draw his own conclusions. It is a process of develop- 
ment pure and simple, and in the development of that thought- 
process good pedagogy requires that we do not tell the pupil any- 
thing, but lead him to see the facts, to analyze them, and to draw 
his own conclusions. 

When you come to language you deal with an arbitrary thing. 
That you call a cat a cat, and not a dog or something else, is 
purely arbitrary. To you and me words are not purely arbitrary, 
because we know the rudiments of philology ; but to children they 
are absolutely so. 

When you deal with figures you deal with language, i. e., with 
the arbitrary. The figure 5 is a purely arbitrary symbol to the 
child. The Romans used one kind of symbol; the Hindus 
another, which we have adopted ; the Greeks another; and besides 
these the words for five in the various languages may be used to 
represent the same thing. A great many teachers imagine that 
these symbols are actual ntmibers ; that the figure 5, for example, 
is the abstract number five. They mistake figures for abstract 
numbers. If the figure 5 is the abstract number five, the word 
" five " is the abstract number five also, and the word " cat " is an 
abstract of cat. Abstract ideas cannot be thought except in con- 
nection with words, but words are not identical with abstract 
ideas. 

While a thought-process must be developed, and nothing must 
be told to the pupil except facts where, as in history, he cannot 
actually observe them, in teaching language you must absolutely 
tell all, because all is arbitrary; so that at the beginning the 
process is a question of information, next a question of associa- 
tion of symbol with idea, and thirdly a question of drill. When 
you have these three things combined and have enlisted the pupil's 
interest, you have good language-teaching. 

These characteristics of good language-teaching are not the 
characteristics of teaching which aims to develop a thought- 
process. We must distinguish very sharply between the two. 
Even the best teachers I know occasionally go wrong in this 
respect, and teach thought-processes in arithmetic as if they were 
language lessons. 



144 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

What part of arithmetic, then, is language work and ought to 
be taught by the methods appropriate to the teaching of language, 
in distinction from those to be employed in the development of a 
mathematical thought-process ? 

In the first place, the Arabic notation is to be taught as lan- 
guage. In the second place, all the figure work in fractions. A 
fraction is a part of a thing, and our rules for fractions are not 
based on real fractions, but on the technical langfuage of fractions. 
A real fraction, like half a bushel of apples or half an hour, has 
neither a numerator nor a denominator. These distinctions, on 
which our rules are based, are applied only to the technical lan- 
gfuage of fractions. If we should discard the Arabic notation and 
adopt the Roman, all our rules for fractions would become inap- 
plicable. These rules are of great practical value, but we must 
recognize the fact that they are based on one arithmetical notation. 

In the third place, when you teach decimals you are teaching, 
of course, simply a certain type of vulgar fractions having mul- 
tiples of ten for a denominator, so there is absolutely nothing 
new there but the language. Now, what does that mean, peda- 
gogically? It means that when you come to decimals you are 
teaching a language lesson, and you ought to teach it by the 
method by which you would teach French or German, or any 
other language, and not emphasize the mathematical processes 
involved, because these the child already knows. It is a question 
of simply telling him how a decimal is formed, showing him the 
identity between decimal and common fractions, making the 
association firm and strong between the decimal language and 
the ideas, and drilling upon it until he can think readily in this 
new technical language. 

Not to go any farther into details, all technical terms in arith- 
metic are language. There is, therefore, a large part of arithmetic 
which is nothing but language, that must be taught by the 
method of teaching language. When you teach a language lesson 
in arithmetic like decimals as if it involved new number-processes, 
you attempt to teach the child what he knows by means of a lan- 
guage which he does not know. The emphasis of the teaching 
must be laid on the new language, else there is waste. 



SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY, AND MATHEMATICS MS 

To pass on : Are there any other topics in arithmetic differing 
essentially in character from number-processes on the one hand, 
and from language on the other ? Take a problem like this : " If 
one man can do a piece of work in three days, and another man in 
four days, how long will it take both of them to do it, working 
together ? " What is the function of such a problem ? It seems to 
me its function is to train the child to see conditions. A similar 
problem is that of the two boats : " Two boats start at the same 
place ; one sails up the river, another down the river ; the current 
is so many miles an hour ; how far apart will they be at the end 
of so many hours ? " What is the function of such a problem ? 
It is to train the mind to picture conditions and reason upon them. 
Unless you see one boat go up and the other down the river, and 
keep in mind the velocity of the current, you cannot possibly solve 
it. The mathematical processes involved are simply the four 
fundamental rules already familiar to the pupil. Now, unless you 
teach such a problem by actually showing the conditions, you 
miss the point to be taught. If you try to work toward a rule and 
to show that you add the results when the boats go in opposite 
directions, and subtract if they go in the same direction, you miss 
all the value of such a problem. There is therefore a topic — 
formerly called " analysis " — which presents neither new number- 
processes nor new technical language, whose function it is to 
develop the power of analysis, and that is one of the important 
functions of arithmetic. What is the new element which is 
involved in the various topics which come under what we call 
•'commercial arithmetic" ? Take "interest," for example — what 
new element is involved upon which the teaching must lay the 
emphasis? Not a mathematical process, because the subject 
involves only the four fundamental rules. There is a little tech- 
nical language which must be made familiar to the pupil. What 
is the new element to be taught ? It is the nature of the business 
transaction which makes the paying of interest a profitable thing. 
The aim should be to lead the class to imagine circumstances or 
conditions under which one of them could borrow $ioo or $200, 
keep it for a year or so, and then pay back the sum with 6 per cent, 
interest and yet make money. 



146 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

When we take bank discount, what is there specially to be 
taught? Not mathematics; for there are only the four funda- 
mental rules involved in it. What is the thing to be taught ? It 
is the business operation — the function of a bank as a money- 
lending institution, and the method of calculating the interest on a 
loan. Problems should be solved, not for the purpose of secur- 
ing expertness, but for the purpose of making clear the nature of 
the business transaction involved in borrowing money at a bank. 

When you come to " stocks and bonds," what is the new ele- 
ment to be taught? Again there is no number or mathematical 
process involved which the children do not know. These topics 
present a little technical language that is unfamiliar and must be 
taught, but the burden of the teaching must be to make clear to the 
class the conditions in industrial and commercial life which make 
stocks and bonds necessary. It means that the general nature of 
corporations must be made clear to the class, the nature of stocks 
and of bonds^ the difference between dividends and interest on 
bonds, the relative safety of stocks and bonds as investments, and 
the relation between low rate of interest and safety of investment. 
The fundamental ideas involved in all this can readily be grasped 
by grammar-school pupils of the upper grades. Little emphasis 
should be laid on the solving of problems except for the purposes 
of making clear and impressing the instruction on these various 
subtopics. " Stocks and bonds " taught in this way have a high 
practical value for every child ; taught as topics in mathematics, 
with the emphasis on rules and the solution of problems, they are 
not worthy a place in the curriculum. There is a moral value in 
teaching these topics as suggested. If in the grammar schools of 
this country, in the two higher grades, we should impress upon 
the minds of children the relative degree of safety of stocks and 
bonds, by making them see clearly the nature of both and their 
difference, and if we should impress upon them the facts that the 
higher the rate of interest on bonds, the less safe they are, and 
that there is also some relation between dividends on stocks and 
safety ; that there arc plenty of millionaires throughout the coun- 
try who are buying up all the stocks and all the bonds which pay a 
high rate of interest, and are at the same time safe, and that there- 



SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY, AND MATHEMATICS 147 

fore those which pay a high rate of interest and which are glow- 
ingly advertised for sale are not safe investments, could the 
mining sharks in the West and in Boston and New York have 
fleeced the teachers and working people, as they have within the 
last two or three years^ throughout the whole country, by selling 
them millions of dollars of worthless stocks ? 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS. 

EDWIN L. NORTON, 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 

That music has high value as a school pursuit will hardly 
be questioned by wide-awake and cultivated teachers. Nor can 
they fail to remark that this value depends in part on what is 
sung and how it is sung. It is with the former point alone that 
we are here concerned; we must leave undiscussed even the 
nature of this value — aesthetic, moral, intellectual, and hygienic; 
for song has a complex effect on the personality. 

The selection of songs for school use must be made in view 
of certain principles, and their discovery is one of the most 
important problems of musical pedagogy. This problem has 
but recently received the attention due it from educators and 
publishers. It needs all the musical and pedagogical ability that 
can be brought to bear upon it; for, while it is easy to benefit 
the children in some respects by almost any class of songs, it is 
also easy to do them injury, as the effects of song are manifold. 
In fact the practical teacher's sins of commission or of omission 
in this matter are frequent enough. 

When one comes to inquire what the criteria of such selec- 
tion are, two complementary principles must appear as centrally 
important. These principles involve a dual conformity : on the 
one hand, to the actual child of the present ; on the other, to the 
adult of the future, now potential in the child. In other words, 
one must take account of the child's powers, interests, and needs ; 
yet these must be viewed as dynamic rather than static, and as 
bringing the child into an indefinite, though real, relation to a 
standard of taste shared with the adult. Though the child has 
a nature and lives in a world of his own, different from the nature 
and world of the adult, still the child-world grows into the adult- 
world and from the first constitutes a part of the latter. Laws, 
conventions, and ideals which govern adults must therefore have 
some, though a much less penetrating, hold upon children. The 

148 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS 149 

Strict severance, as well as the complete identification, of these 
two worlds, is a pedagogical extreme. We fail of our duty if 
we do not consider the child's duty as well as his pleasure; we 
fail in good taste if we do not lead the child to exercise good 
taste. The whole idea of education is to develop the future of 
the individual out of his present, and not to leave him completely 
satisfied with the present. 

Those songs are most beneficial whose interest is most univer- 
sally shared and whose effects are permanent — songs that appeal 
alike to child and adult, and unite rather than sever them ; songs 
which the man will recall with pleasure from childhood's days, 
because they do not clash with his matured interests and tastes. 
Hence occasional songs, moralizing songs, and songs devoted 
wholly to school exercises are of but secondary, if any, value; 
while under most conditions of school work a harmful effect 
may be traced to cheap, characterless, inartistic music, whether 
it be weak or quite degrading. The songs to be chosen then 
are, first, the folk-song, the spontaneous production of some 
obscure representative of the people; and, second, the artistic 
or classic song as composed for children, the studied work of 
trained musicianship. The songs to be avoided are the trash 
heard in the vaudeville or on the street, and too often in the 
Sunday school or gospel service — songs popular with the masses, 
but never long-lived; songs of broad-spread influence, but lack- 
ing depth and character. 

Melody, rhythm, and verse must be judged in relation both 
to the pupil's needs and powers and to the standard of taste 
recognized by musical people. The child's perceptive and vocal 
powers, powers of appreciation and expression, and stage of 
intellectual and emotional development are all to be considered. 
Children's songs must be sane, though idealistic ; they must con- 
form to hygienic laws, recognizing the limitations and imma- 
turity of the child's vocal apparatus, and maintaining a balance 
between over- and under-stimulation of the emotions, n^lecting 
or restraining some interests while leading others to a rich 
development. 

Melodies should be adapted to the child's voice as to both 



I50 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

their intervals and their compass. While revealing great indi- 
vidual differences in children, investigations show that at six 
years of age their power to discriminate tones is less keen than 
after three years of practice, though semi-tones arc usually noted 
as different. But as sensori-motor co-ordinations are still crude 
and inaccurate, the power to reproduce or imitate either single 
tones or intervals falls behind the power to recognize and to 
discriminate. The average range of the child's natural singing 
voice is about an octave, running from f to f ^, and is two or 
three tones higher than that of untrained adults. In selecting 
school songs, one must not forget that there is more danger 
of forcing the pupils' voices on the low pitches than on the high. 
This statement accords with the observation and practice of the 
best supervisors of today. 

The melodies of the earliest songs should be simple rather 
than complex. This means that they should involve such 
intervals as are easiest to recognize, appreciate, and reproduce. 
According to recent aesthetic theory, a simple melody is one in 
which every tone is directly, melodiously related to every other, 
as in the bugle-call; complex melody is the result of the inter- 
weaving of two melodies based on different tonics in such 
manner that adjacent tones are not always melodiously related. 
When the fifth, the third, and the octave are employed in song, 
then the voice and musical sense may move along lines of least 
resistance. The simplest songs consist of the elements of a 
perfect chord, as in arpeggios and bugle-calls. Later there 
should be added other tones of the five-toned scale, and finally 
those of the diatonic major scale. Chromatic steps, accidentals, 
modulations to a second tonic, the finer and more unusual inter- 
vals, as involving complex melody and also on physiological 
grounds, should be elements of only the more advanced songs. 

It is true that children differ vastly in musical ability, so that 
some would be able to cope successfully at six or eight with songs 
beyond the average child of twelve. Thus inherited predisposi- 
tions plus musical training and environment are, perhaps more 
than the physiological peculiarities characteristic of a given age, 
facts which must determine the kind of melody required. Again, 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS 1 5 1 

some children have untisual ability to follow and to imitate in 
any field, or especially in music, though they may have little 
power of independence or appreciation. But the imitative ten- 
dency must not be overworked; such songs must be employed 
from the start as make possible a pleasant transition from rote- 
singing to notation and sight-reading. Too much of the young 
child's imitation of difficult melodies is parrot-like and mechani- 
cal, without understanding or warmth of feeling. The intelli- 
gent appreciation of complex music needs to be founded on a 
hearty love of the simplest melodies. 

The earliest rh)rthms employed should be graceful, marked, 
simple, and regular, such as the child can readily beat out. 
R^^lar rhythm involves exact repetition at regular intervals. 
In irregular rhythm certain complexities are introduced in one 
phrase which have not their counterpart in any similar phrases. 
Complex music abounds in such irregular rh3rthms, which must 
be carefully distinguished from irr^ular tempo. Children, like 
many primitive peoples, naturally demand music bright in tempo, 
allegro rather than adagio; but within this tempo allegro 
there cannot be, for music at once simple and effective, much 
complexity of rhythmic subdivisions. 

The reason for these rules is found in the nature of the 
child's mind: he is less deliberative and more impulsive than 
the average adult ; less capable of sustained attention, of analyz- 
ing a presented tonal series into parts differing in their dynamic 
character, and again of tmiting parts thus formed into a unity 
which means for him one beat or one measure. His memory 
for and his discrimination of dynamic and temporal values are yet 
inaccurate; he has not learned easily to substitute four short 
beats for one long one, or to subordinate two unstressed beats 
to one stressed beat and feel the accented tone as the symbol of 
the whole measure. In other words, his rhythmic experience 
is undeveloped, his rhythmic apperceptive system uncompli- 
cated; what he is to appreciate must be forced upon him by a 
strong stimulus, and not too much shall be thus presented. 
Songs must be so selected as to aid in developing the child's 
vague feeling for rhythm into a definite and analytic compre^ 



152 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

hension of it and a ready response to weaker rhythmic stimula- 
tions. The rhythmic interest is a most prominent feature in 
all early and primitive music; only through developing and 
satisfying it can attention be weaned from rhythm and tiuned 
more to melody and thought. Finally, the two-rhythm should 
precede the three-rhythm. The former is the simpler and 
pleasanter to the child; it corresponds to such bodily rhsrthms 
as those of the pulse and walking, with which he first becomes 
familiar. 

The verse should be examined as to its artistic worth and 
its intellectual and emotional content. Its ideas should not 
transcend the pupil's understanding completely; it must at least 
be suggestive of vital experience and meaning to him, though 
his meaning may not be ours. It should arouse such emotions 
as conduce to a normal and wholesome human development It is 
through the medium of the verse that the song study may be 
correlated with other school pursuits, such as nature-study, his- 
tory, literature, and moral-religious training. Its connection 
with games, gymnastics, and dancing is brought about through 
the element of rhythm also. As in the modem music-drama 
song is closely related to the other fine arts, so in the school it 
may be correlated with any of the other arts, thus borrowing and 
lending suggestive influence and impressiveness. By a judicious 
use of this principle of correlation song may gfain in interest, 
power, and vital force. For the young, at least, music should be 
closely related to life, however much later specialization and 
maturity of aesthetic standards may tend to isolate it as a unique 
art, dwelling in a world of its own. 

It is not easy to secure all these good qualities conbined, and 
if one had to choose between the music and the verse, excellence 
in the former is the more important. If the verse be not perni- 
cious, but too difficult to comprehend, or lacking in beauty and 
poetic charm, it may still be part of a powerful song. Fine 
melody tends to obscure the defects of verse and idea; it for- 
gives rather than covers a multitude of sins. The musical aim 
of song dare not be sacrificed. Much of the empty or trashy 
school music actually in use is due to an attempt to get music 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS 153 

which, with the words, can arouse definite namable emotions ; that 
is, the expressive function of music is exalted at the expense of 
its power to impress through beautiful melody. The child of 
six has the rudiments of musical taste, and this should be devel- 
oped through simple but real melody. So far as musical training 
goes, attempts at correlation are disastrous unless a high stan- 
dard of melodic values be maintained. Other trash, such as is 
too common in many religious circles, is due to an igfnorant 
attempt to cater to childish or popular tastes. The result is a bad 
combination of verse and music, or a mere parody of religious 
emotion. All beauty may be lost in the effort to secure a 
"catchy" rhythm or a sentimental melody. It is not true that 
emotion must be aroused at all costs ; rather must it be directed 
and disciplined by pure^ art forms. 

The trouble with cheap popular songs, whether those of the 
street, the vaudeville and opera, or the Sunday school, is that they 
lack strong, unique character. They are not original, but cast in a 
common mold. As they are all much alike in rhythmic and 
melodic pattern, sensuous and stimulating rather than intellec- 
tual, they demand little effort of attention ; past experience aids 
one to give a ready and complete response; and, easily retained | 
in memory, they are on the lips of everyone when musical scores 
or performances of worthier music are not at hand. The ease 
with which many gospel hjmins and popular religious solos 
can and are adapted as dance music argues either to the religious 
character of the modern dance, or the vulgar, imreligious 
character of these songs. The verses of the popular song usually 
agree in character with the music ; they are nonsensical, maudlin, 
or vulgar. 

Some readers may feel that our standard is too puristic. 
Adults who have had good musical training can hear some such 
stuff without great damage. They either find it unpleasant, or 
relegate it to its proper place among their mere relaxations, 
which might just as well be nobler and fuller of delight if they 
could select a more artistic environment. But to bring children 
up on this material, to give it any place in the school, prevents 
the formation of any pure standards of taste in them, and materi- 



1 54 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

ally obstructs the advance of mtisic in the nation. They will 
hear enough of it outside school; within school they must be 
protected from contact with low or impure forms of the art. 
Even the principle of association must be regarded : songs other- 
wise good, but which have some unfortunate likeness with street 
songs, and through melody, rh3rthm, or verse would patently 
suggest or recall the popular favorites — such songs may well 
be avoided. The less imitable and imitative a song is the better 
it is. Some teachers would banish all love-songs from the 
school repertoire in a large city because they tend to suggest 
the treatment given this theme on the street or in the Sunday 
newspaper. But such a principle can be carried too far; we 
should not forget that most individuals (though children to a 
less degree than adults) are capable of taking different attitudes 
toward the same object; they may regard it in a serious or 
humorous way, or from a religious or a secular standpoint 

It is by no means heavy music, nor alone that of serious, 
dignified character, which belongs in the school. Great variety 
is needed in view of the differing temperaments of the pupils. 
All need the spice of occasional nonsense ; only let it be sensible 
in music and hold such a place there as does Alice in Wonder- 
land in literature — a delight to old and young, fool and philoso- 
pher. Humorous songs, such as those of Taubert, can be found 
which are refined, delicate, and classic. Light music should have 
a large place in the child's life. The rhythms which in the 
vulgar song are so marked and prominent may be toned down 
and overshadowed by melody and harmony of fine character; 
these now claim more attention, and the response is no longer 
called forth mainly by the rhythmic, sensuous, physical aspect 
of the music. There is good, classic dance music. While differ- 
ent rhythms have various effects, to lull or stimulate, it may be 
doubted whether any rh3rthm is bad in itself. Whether one 
rhythm shall incite a person to dance the two-step, or to march 
with military fervor, or to listen merely, depends on its usual 
association in the social group, and on the temperament and 
experience of the hearer; whether another rhythm shall lull one 
to sleep, or to languid, sensuous intoxication by imagery worthy 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS 155 

or unworthy, depends on the same conditions. "Rag-time" is 
to be avoided because of its vulgar origin and associations. The 
two-step rhythm, under social conditions now commonly present, 
may be degrading to taste or morals if used in excess; it first 
arouses one's animal spirits, putting vitality into the motor play 
of the body, and subduing all to its own regular form ; but this 
natural vivacity, aroused and augmented by the rhythmic stimu- 
lus, may throw away its restraint and become chaotic, anarchic. 
Artistic form first arouses the impulse, but impulse later trans- 
cends and spurns this form. 

Whether or not it is best to adapt standard songs to chil- 
dren's use is a nice question. If a great work of art, the song 
must express one sentiment which all its elements help to main- 
tain. In that case any alteration may diminish the significant 
proportion of its parts. While art as a whole is fluent and pro- 
gressive, ever becoming embodied in new forms, its individual 
creations may be regarded as fixed and finished. There is little 
reason, however, for putting music on a different footing from 
the other arts. Myths, fairy-tales, and great literary creations 
have been adapted more or less successfully for children. The 
tales of Lamb and Hawthorne, the expurgated Gulliver and 
Arabian Nights, are justified. Primary reading-books do well 
to owe their allegiance, through adaptations, to the rich stores 
of ancient story. To arrange music written for orchestra or 
chorus for pianola or organ, and so multiply the opportunity for 
listening lessons, in spite of the loss entailed, has its pedagogic 
advantages. 

From the same point of view we would say that if the words 
of a good song are unfit for school use, they may be slightly 
changed, or new verses selected provided these accord with the 
mood inherent in the music. Translations of foreign songs are 
justified because inevitable, unless we confine ourselves to the 
songs of English-speaking peoples. The melodies of old songs 
are often very simple, with the exception of a few connective 
tones whose melodic relations are less intimate or which intro- 
duce temporary modulations. Such tones may be r^^rded as 
beautifying ornaments, without which the song assumes a plainer 



156 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

character, though unmarred in its essential beauty. These tones 
might be slighted, omitted, or changed to the pitch of an adjacent 
tone in many cases, thus simplifying the melody. Some songs 
may be utilized by omitting a second theme or development 
when only the first is simple enough. 

It must be added that there is, in fact, too much rather than 
too little adaptation in music collections, and that most of it is 
controlled neither by pedagogical knowledge nor by musical 
taste. Most editors, teachers, and supervisors in the schools 
should beware of this expedient, which is not the function apper- 
taining to novices, but to skilled musicians. Great composers 
have used folk-songs as their material freely; and occasionally 
our practical teachers and editors have the skill and artistic con- 
science fitting them to adapt as well as to select music for school 
use. Finally, the principle of association must not be unduly 
magnified at this point : that the connection between given music 
and words is an old familiar one is not sufficient reason for cen- 
suring any change. Other beautiful arrangements may be 
found. Our aesthetic preferences are to be justified by prin- 
ciples; the mere fact of fondness for a particular object is not 
its own justification. 

Those songs are emotionally wholesome which stimulate the 
pupil's love of nature, home, God, and fatherland. But the 
development of an exclusive patriotism which feeds on ill-will 
toward other nations is no more desirable than that of a fanatical 
or too sectarian religion. This is especially true in our country 
to whose people's life, traditions, and art so many existing 
nations have contributed. Our schools represent a mixed race; 
hence not a narrow patriotism, but a broad sjmipathy with a 
variety of national and folk-songs, is demanded. It does not 
devolve upon educators to transform every grand foreign song 
until it breathes a distinctively American spirit. Were we to 
favor German classic aqd folk music, even at the expense of some 
of our own, we should be the better for it. 

Special emphasis should be laid upon the value of. the old 
music for school use : old hjmins, ballads, and lyrics, old national 
airs and folk-tunes, as well as the works of classical composers. 



THE SELECTION OF SCHOOL SONGS 157 

The school should be first of all a conservative force in this field. 
While song composition by pupils has the decided advantage of 
fostering the creative spirit and intensifying their interest in 
music, to make unstinted use of these productions as song mate-* 
rial would be detrimental to musical taste. All beginners need 
the richest possible experience of the best that the art affords. 
Folk-songs are of immense value because they spring from the 
heart of the people and express, not a private, but a universal, 
feeling. They have stood the test of true popularity. To gain 
their inspiration is to get into closer touch with living humanity. 
Some think to find in these national songs a revelation of 
national characteristics. Certain it is that melody and words 
together may be very expressive, and thus form good historical 
material. 

There can hardly be a valid objection to the general school 
use of folk-songs, unless it be the frequency with which these 
express the passion of love. But granting this, still among the 
large remnant which are not love-songs many may be useful. 
Distinctions also are to be drawn among love-songs. The erotic 
and excitable are to be avoided; but there is no harm — indeed 
there may be much good — to the child in songs that are pure 
and simple and express those feelings which are common to 
friendship, family affection, and sexual love. To those ballads 
which are somber in tone and full of emotional contrasts, of 
passion, jealousy, fidelity and infidelity, are to be preferred such 
lyrics as are joyous, full of life, and more serene. A good love- 
song may well replace a bad street song in the child's repertoire. 

There have been made a few empirical studies, which cannot 
be reviewed here, of children's preferences and interests in music 
Such studies indicate the topic or type of the preferred songs, 
with particular reference to the verses and their dominant senti- 
ment. They deal with masses of children, and obtain statistical 
results. The investigators are not always trained musicians, 
and the data they present are too often insufficient to determine 
whether, for example, the patriotic songs which boys like are 
worthy or cheap ; they indicate only the general lines of interest, 
the kind of sentiment which music should appeal to. Or where 



158 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

preference for particular songs is evidenced, we do not know 
whether this is to be traced more to the child's disposition or 
to the limitations or advantages of his experience and instruction. 
Hence such a study cannot indicate the merits of particular songs 
for school use ; that is to be determined by otu* developed musical 
ideals as applied to what child-study teaches us of the types of 
children's interests for different ages and sexes. Sometimes 
the interests less frequently or strongly exhibited are the very 
ones needing special stimulation. Perhaps the greatest lesson 
such studies can teach us is the need for a variety of song material 
to satisfy the diversity of needs exhibited and to develop all 
these possibilities of a richer, more significant life. 



TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY MANUAL TRAINING. 

HARVEY G. HATCH, 

SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL TRAIMZIIG, ROCXFORD, ILL. 

Without doubt there is no one stronger influence at work 
today upon educational methods than is brought together under 
the general and indefinite name "manual training." It is not 
strange that a visitor at the St. Louis educational exhibits should 
have a doubt^ as far as visible evidence is concerned, as to the 
accomplishment of other school work than manual training. 

Even admitting the truth of this visible evidence, the real 
educational significance can be shown only imperfectly in an 
exhibition, and as we individually feel the large part which 
" doing " plays in the progress of life, we see the real need for so 
large a representation in the school curriculum. 

While it is no concern of the present moment to lay stress on 
the shortcomings of early attempts, we can truthfully express 
sincere thanks for even a Russian banning. It is devoutly to 
be wished, however, that a term more expressive of present 
objectives than is commonly implied in " manual training " might 
steal into common usage. 

It was not strange that we first gave tools to children who 
could use tools with a fair degree of success, for we have so large 
an appreciation of our " practical " methods of living, not alone 
without, but within school walls. So we must not wonder that, 
to start with, high schools received the benefits of construction 
work, if, indeed, such a term could be applied to the first work 
done. 

The growth of manual training has taken place in a rather 
unnatural way, in thus taking root in the upper strata of school 
work, and finally coming to the blossoming stage at the very 
foundations of all school work. 

Courses have been made over and handed down to lower 
grades, not unlike the manner in which small boys sometimes 
fall heir to the clothing of their larger brothers. Course after 

159 



i6o THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

course, even as suit after suit, is made to do for successive genera- 
tions in the school world. In discussions among school workers 
we do not hear, or at least the writer does not hear, the problem 
attacked from the point of view of the elementary school itself. 
Perhaps it is not strange, since throughout all school work so 
unproportionate an amount of means and interest are centered in 
the superstructure. Without doubt there is an awakening in 
progress, which shall draw unto the first-graders more of their 
own. 

Construction work under the name of manual training is 
already strongly intrenched in the elementary grades, but, so far 
as having a philosophic foundation is concerned, it has come to 
be more by a process of imitation of activities suited to higher 
grades than by a real need and true application of work suited to 
its own life. It must be clearly evident to one sympathetic with 
child-life that a set course of exercises does not reach the needs of 
a restless child whose chief concern is to gain some idea as to the 
meaning of the complex life about him. To be sure, there is a 
physical organism at work, but there is hardly enough center 
to it to be satisfied with, or even to get much good from, any 
form of activity which has for its purpose the accomplishment of 
results other than can come within the child's own experience and 
appreciation. We cannot tempt these small muscles into accurate 
work, or the semblance of accurate work, wholly without the 
worker's choice. Somewhere between that kind of school activity 
called " busy work " and a more rigid or set form of occupation 
lies the true manual training for elementary grades; and for 
practical application in the common run of schools, where depend- 
ence for execution has to be made upon the r^;nlar teacher of the 
grade, it seems that work of such a character is most readily 
adopted. 

With the conditions of ordinary elementary grades, it seems 
almost needless to have in mind such a word as " technique," and 
it is to be doubted if we should, had the beginnings of manual 
training been freer from a severely practical or commercial bias. 

Having in mind the boy of six or seven who is just beginning 
to emerge from his infant bondage, it is especially hard to see in 



TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY MANUAL TRAINING i6i 

him any natural adaptability to occupations which would involve 
technical and mechanical processes, or that could even be implied 
as technical. So my argument is not so strong against as is it 
alert in running away " where no man pursueth." 

Human sympathy founded in a desire for a healthful, robust 
physical machine would naturally help us to avoid such forms as 
would tend to the use of small muscles or the development of 
ideas not directly serviceable in the life of children. 

If the term is forced upon us and we must be technical, then 
let us search thoroughly the conditions of child-life and make the 
endeavor to have our efforts count for the most in building up 
strong, powerful tendencies that shall come in good stead as life 
progresses. 

Opportunities come to the teacher in elementary grades to 
give work which will call out the greatest amount of individuality 
regardless of process or the tools involved. There will always 
be the opportunity to call tools and materials by proper names, 
and even this little would accrue to no mean advantage by the 
time higher grades are reached. 

Emphasis could well be laid on this one idea, but it should 
not be construed as an objection to take the place of work involv- 
ing ideas of wholes or correct mental images, which arc results 
quite sufficient at this time, and will turn out to be the best kind 
of seed planted for more technical results later on. 

In order to give children of these lowest grades an opportunity 
to practice the right kind of technique, I should want a room for 
their own use, and equipment would grow as demands were 
made by the workers themselves. I have the fear that my room 
would hardly be recognizable as a shop, but it would be a place of 
all kinds of materials and a place in which all kinds of spontaneous 
ideas would have a chance to take such definite form as children 
would give. Evidently there would be but little need of dictation 
in a shop of this kind. 

Two very strong personal experiences make me believe in 
giving to children of elementary grades more opportunity for 
individual expression than is their privilege in rooms where rows 
of seats and desks are the traditional forms of furniture. First, I 



1 62 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

can bring back from boyhood days the memory of the great 
delight of happy times spent in ransacking the remote, dark cor- 
ners of an old garret. To be found there were odd pieces of 
furniture, boxes, old clothing, and in fact all manner of traps and 
findings that go to fill one of these resourceful places. How keen 
was the delight in making old chairs do service as four-in-hands» 
and again these same chairs could stretch out into long trains of 
cars with no important feature missing. Old boxes and boards 
would at one time serve as a store, while at another they would 
become transformed into buildings and railroad stations. 

Another object-lesson came to me in the neighborhood of a 
social settlement The city had provided a playground; old 
buildings were removed, and in their stead came a snK)othly 
covered cinder lot with a flag-pole and a few seats. Qose by this 
so-called playground was one which the neighborhood inadvert- 
ently provided. Not a flag-pole was here, nor seats, but every- 
thing that a civilized people discards and casts upon a city dump. 
There were children here always ; after school and during school 
one could see little groups of ** workers " building such castles as 
fancy and old bricks can fashion. In fact, constructive play ran 
rampant, and everything immediately essential to vivid imagina- 
tion was here. The mere absence of a few technical details made 
no difference in the construction of these '^ imitation" houses. 
What a golden opportunity to impress a social faithfulness to the 
"technique" of right living! 

It is undoubtedly the place of the school to take a hand in 
giving to children opportunity to work off emotional enthusiasm, 
and it becomes more necessary for them to have this oiq)ortunity 
to give motor expression to this busy work which surrounds them, 
as cities become more crowded, and the act of living becomes con- 
fined to smaller spots; and, as I write this, it is impossible to 
refrain from the thoughts of those forlorn and ghostly places 
generally provided for play purposes in the basements of ordinary 
schools. What possibilities of usefulness even in the adaptation 
of the underground regions to the real play-needs of children! 

In a general way I have tried to show the need of giving 
children in the elementary grades opportunity to give expression 



TECHNIQUE IN ELEMENTARY MANUAL TRAINING 163 

s in any kind of material readily accessible. By confining 
J and the person too closely we confine expression when 
nand is for broad expression. As a matter of manual 
f, let us make special endeavor to widen the scope of 
\ both indoors and more, if possible, outdoors, for ele- 
y grades. I have been utterly unable to see any application 
idea of technique in these grades, as understood in the 
grades ; that it is in the field of the manual-training worker 
gfnize as technical the formation of those elements of char- 
lat help us to become better workmen because of the ability 
o control ourselves in the midst of other workers. Each 
of child-develoiMnent yields its own peculiar contribution 
complete art of living, and in the elementary grades it 
Dpportune to emphasize the technique of social responsi- 
It is noticeable in schools where manual training of ordi- 
pe is first introduced in the seventh and eighth grades that 
Idren do not at first understand their suddenly acquired 
n. Consequently, if some idea of this social responsibility 
stl freedom can be gained in the elementary play-shop, we 
to have a child better able to handle himself and express 
' in the technique of tool manipulation in the higher 



HAND-WORK IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. 

IDA HOOD CLARK, 

SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL TRAINING, MILWAUKXS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Perhaps the most important problem that confronts the 
educational world of today is just what shall be taught in the 
elementary schools where the greatest number of our children are 
trained. 

Up to the past few years the kindergarten has been the only 
natural school. Many of us have been under the impression that 
child-nature utterly changed upon entering the first grade; so 
the natural activities were promptly discontinued and the dreary, 
mechanical processes for the education of these young children 
as promptly begun, teachers in these primary grades teaching 
with infinite patience, many things the children would have 
found out for themselves a year or so later. But now the spirit 
of Froebel is penetrating this waste desert of the elementary 
school, and changes are coming into schools of fevery grade. 
So the kindergarten methods have won their places, and wood, 
chalk, clay, scissors, tools, etc., are in use to make young fingers 
deft. 

These changes began at the top of our educational system 
and are fast working downward. All these new buildings which 
have appeared of late in all our thriving colleges and universities 
— these workrooms and laboratories — show that a liberal edu- 
cation means skill in getting and using knowledge ; that wisdom 
comes from searching books and searching nature; that in the 
finest human natures the brain and the hand are in close league. 

The future of hand-work or self-expression is the future of 
all elementary education. It may be called the entering wedge 
to the new American development. 

Arnold has said: "Religion is morality touched with emo- 
tion." We might say that the kindergarten is activity touched 
with sentiment, but self-directed to be of educational value. 
Creation is said to be the highest activity of the mind; so the 

X64 



HAND-WORK IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 165 

child who is trained to create is trained to think, to explore all 
the questions of the past and the present. These single creations 
in the kindergarten and primary school, crude as they usually 
are, but expressing the individuality of the child who made them, 
mean opening the way into personal freedom, as self-expression 
is the essential element of liberty. 

Froebel believed that the three primal race-occupations — 
weaving for clothing, planting for food, and building for shelter 
— were necessary for normal development. May we not make 
these occupations, and the activities connected with them, a basis 
through which we may bring the children to a better understand- 
ing of the other subjects contained in the school curriculum ? 

In this article I shall try to touch upon some of the vital 
questions which present themselves in the teaching of this hand- 
work in our public schools, where we are hampered by too many 
pupils for one teacher and an overcrowded course of study. 
As the present course of study is arranged in the average public 
school, it is impossible to do very much more than merely to 
teach some form of hand-work in each grade; but even in its 
isolated form it is sure to appeal to those most interested in such 
a way that later the educational value may be easily demonstrated. 

But this hand-work can never be a thing in itself; it must 
be a part of the whole and every teacher must have something to 
do with it, as it is only when it fits into a general scheme that it 
becomes valuable and educational. Therefore I think the super- 
visors of primary work, drawing, and manual training, should 
plan a course of study for the elementary school. These three 
persons must then work together with the assistance and 
co-operation of the grade teachers, and I feel sure that the best 
results will follow. 

It is impossible for us to do this all at once, or to fashion an 
iron-clad course of study; but it is the duty of every teacher 
to accept what is commonly called truth in modem pedagogy, 
and then each one must work out the scheme that will best fit 
his own particular field. I would suggest here that a plan for 
correlation of subjects be tried in one building, and the results 
carefully noted and demonstrated. 



1 66 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Another question of great importance is: Should boys and 
g^rls have the same kind of hand-work? Pedagogically speak- 
ing, I do not see any good reason why boys and girls should 
not all have the same kind of hand- work; but with the present 
course of study it seems advisable to give the children of the first 
four grades a variety of hand-work of the same kind for boys 
and girls — a variety that shall cover the range of young chil- 
dren's interest and bring them in contact with many materials 
and processes. The girls of the fifth and sixth grades may sew 
and do some work in designing and making baskets. The boys 
of the fifth and sixth grades also take the basketry-work and 
do the knife-work in thin woods. Some work in Venetian iron- 
work may also be brought in in these grades. 

I do not consider the above work, as outlined for the boys 
of the fifth and sixth g^des, sufficient to develop their resistive 
powers. I believe they can do much more, and that tool-work 
should be at least a part of their work in manual training. But 
here again the public-sdiool problem faces us. The work in 
the first ^ grades is usually and necessarily done in the r^;ular 
schoolroom. I look fonvard to the time when all our school 
buildings diall contain reasonably well-equipped shops and labo- 
ratories in which to teach these activities, as they are related to 
the course of study. Then our hand-work need not be confined 
to certain grades. 

I am planning now to have the boys in the fifth and sixth 
grades make a simple equipment, such as benches, cabinets, etc ; 
and where the buildings have an extra room that may be used« 
we hope gradually to fit up a crude shop where the work of 
these grades may be done. The boys will learn many valuable 
lessons in fitting up these shops, and, besides learning that a 
great deal can be done with a simple equipment, when they get 
to the seventh- and eighth-grade shops, where a complete equip- 
ment is furnished because here more technique is essential, they 
will fully appreciate the value of the more elaborate equipment. 

The girls of the seventh and eighth grades take domestic 



If we could have more time and money for these grades, I 



HAND-WORK IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 167 

should Strongly urge that boys and girls of these grades take 
both shop-work and domestic science; as in the interest of an 
all-around culture, as well as an intelligent understanding of the 
human body and its physical nourishment and develoimient, it 
is so essential that the pupils of this age be given these forms 
of manual training. 

In the wood-work of these grades, we have a fine oppor- 
tunity to cultivate in these pupils a love for trees, woods, and 
furniture of different countries. Much of their history may con- 
sist of comparisons of these subjects. 

Then, too, the principle of service may be brought in. Let 
the children make some article that mother and father will use 
and value. The sentiment thus interwoven is not an idle one. 
It is said that all the great and beautiful things made and done 
in the world — the great pictures, symphonies, poems, stories, 
buildings that have needed the human spirit — were done as 
a result of sentiment — the sentiment of hope and love. 

Visitors to the Palace of Education and Social Economy at 
the World's Fair may be interested in studying the exhibits of a 
few schools, where it seemed to me correlation of subjects had 
been emphasized. Papers containing illustrated work in school 
gardening and nature-study done in the Hyannis State Normal 
School, in Massachussetts, were most interesting. A scheme 
for elementary geography, nature-study, and literature, based 
upon some related activities, as illustrated and done by the chil- 
dren of the public schools of Salt Lake City, Utah, was very 
suggestive and showed excellent results. A historical rug, 
designed, planned, and woven by the students of the Utah State 
Normal School, at Salt Lake City, representing the history of 
the develo^Hnent of the state, and made for a present for the 
president of the school, told the story of the unified plan for the 
correlation of subjects as being worked out by these progressive 
people with admirable results. 

I found the written work of the public schools of St. Louis 
quite in harmony with the idea of correlation, although they 
have not as yet attempted to emphasize the relation of their 
constructive work to the other subjects in their curriculum. The 



J 



t6S THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

constructive work of die kindei^gartens of Louisville, ELy., aeemed 
to me the most practical and ednfTitinnat I have seen. 

The correlation of art and manual training was very marked 
in the higfa>-scfaool exhibits of St. Paul and Minneapolis some 
beautiful and artistic work being shown. 

I believe many cities are alive to die tact that related work 
is necessary; but just how it shall be done has not as yet been 
proved to their satisfaction. 

To do much toward die reconstruction of our course of study, 
we shall need to omit two classes of study altogedier to make 
room for better dungs. We must omit, first, those subjects dot 
are abstract; and, secondly, those that are involved in other 
9ub jectSk We should then have left the peaking, reading, writ- 
ing of English, and of either Frendi or German, science and Lee - 
hand drawing, pfayscal culture, inclnding ^orts of all kinds, 
music and dramatic expre»ion. Ba^ng all these on the rdated 
activities, it seems to me we shall be able to produce vigor o us 
bodies and warm hearts, as well as mformed minds. 

Our country is waking up to the necesaty of a diange in 
t^ur mediods of instruction in public schools. Let us as teachers 
be die leaders in die movement wiudi sbstR give us larger sdiool 
buildings, ampler playgrounds, summer-vacation schools, a gym- 
nasium in every sdiool building, less pupils for one teacher, 
salaries diat shall attract die best talent our colI^;es and univer- 
sities a£Ford — teachers whose in^ration is die love of little 
dildren and interest in didr devdopment into all-around good 
citizens — the object of all education. 



CORRELATION AND TECHNICAL SEQUENCE. 

ELIZABETH EUPHROSYNE LANGLEY, 

THB UNIVBRSITY OF CHICAGO SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. 

Is technical sequence interfered with by the practical applica- 
tion of the principles of correlation? This is a question often 
asked, and usually with the implication that correlation and tech- 
nical sequence are in their nature opposed. 

The term " correlation " has come by misuse to imply so much 
of sentimentality and personal idiosyncrasy that it can be used 
only guardedly and with full definition. To the untrained teacher 
grasping after new ideas the word " correlation " seems to mean 
a haphazard throwing together of ideas presumably related — a 
method whereby the work of each day determines the work of the 
next day, with no reference to any larger plan. The uninitiated 
teacher who, with a few hours at her disposal, endeavors to gain 
from a school of so-called advanced pedagogical ideas some prac- 
tical conception of the magical word "correlation," watches 
teacher and pupil, and wonders by what necromancy or inside 
information or expert mind-reading the teacher knows just the 
psychical moment in the child's mind when reading should give 
way to clay-modeling, and clay-modeling, in its turn, to mathe- 
matics. I am quite sure that the only definite ideas this visitor 
takes away are, that correlation is only a happy alternation of 
mental and manual labor, and that the child's will rules. 

Correlation cannot, however, be so lightly dismissed. True 
correlation is an interrelation of subject-matter from the ^stand- 
point of education. It endeavors to find out the essential kinship 
of certain portions of the subject-matter in the curriculum, but 
the chief attention is focused on the child, so that these related 
materials may be properly adjusted to the various periods of his 
development. The scheme is planned to keep pace with his grow- 
ing powers, and it allows great freedom and flexibility to meet 
individual needs. True correlation thinks of the child as the 
center, and endeavors to bring him into touch with the greatest 

169 



lyo THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

possible number of the forces that work about him. The endeavor 
is to make the child alert to these forces, and, so far as may be, 
himself to manipulate some of them. Correlation is not, then, 
a method of teaching by inspiration, a method depending on the 
happy instinct of the moment, but it is an ordered scheme. It 
implies definite, coherent, systematic, well-knit plans ; in a word, 
it means organization. 

"Technique" is only another name for the skill requisite to 
produce workmanlike results. Sequence of technique in wood- 
working is the arrangement of articles to be made in such an 
order that any given process shall succeed processes of less diflS- 
culty. Technique as an aim and technical sequence as a demand 
find their best illustration in the Russian system which puts its 
stress on processes as such rather than on completed articles. 
According to the Russian ideal, good technique is its own reward 
for being. The acquirement of technique is an isolated thing; 
it considers itself alone; its aim is single. If fine adjustment of 
tool to material results in an excellent series of exercises, its pur- 
pose is attained. Its plans are definite and unvarying. 

Now, it would seem that a scheme so rigid and inflexible in 
its methods, so single and dominant in its aim, could not be per- 
fectly conserved, and yet fit into a scheme so pliant and so complex 
and so sensitive to varying needs as is correlation. But the whole 
statement is based on a false assumption, namely, that only by a 
rigid attention to technique for its own sake can a high d^^ee of 
technical skill be obtained. Experience, however, shows that only 
now and then is there a child that can be roused to do the best that 
is in him by the appeal of pure technique. Such an appeal is 
intellectual in its nature and belongs to a later stage of develop- 
ment. The child's best workmanship, even when judged by 
purely technical tests of excellence, follows in the line of his 
keenest interest. If a task is set for a boy by the teacher, from the 
point of view of the teacher, it becomes to the boy merely an 
exercise, and therefore a bore. To take the simplest possible illus- 
tration : a child may be taught to saw and plane and chisel till he 
knows how to saw and plane and chisel, and it can all be done on 
pieces of wood that are thrown away when the exercises arc 



CORRELATION AND TECHNICAL SEQUENCE 171 

learned. But he will learn these operations, not only with more 
happiness by the way, but also more quickly and accurately, if 
he is compelled to do the tool-work well in order to complete a 
sled or a house, or any article in which he has particular delight 
and which will be a permanent possession. Even a series of 
models planned by the teacher and imitated by the child is too 
rigid and artificial. The child imitates rather than creates, and 
this fact alone greatly lessens the educational efficiency of the 
system. It is unbelievable that the interest of a body of children 
should follow a series of models as it would follow articles of 
individual selection. For example, when it comes to making 
rulers, two children may have some especial interest in that model, 
but to the rest of the class it is an exercise. And I must insist that 
the quickest road to good workmanship is the road of interest. 

One caution is undoubtedly needed here. Rousing the child's 
interest by giving him freedom of selection in the article to be 
made does not imply absolute lack of direction. It is the province 
of the teacher to see that whatever the child chooses to make he 
makes well. Hasty, shabby, dishonest work is non-educational, 
and should not be allowed. But, as a rule, when the child once 
feels, not only the freedom, but the responsibility, of his choice, he 
puts his best and most eager and persistent effort into it, and 
secures the best results possible to him. 

What has so far been said is that excellence of technique 
follows most easily and naturally and certainly along the path of 
interest. Now, no scheme of education has been devised whereby 
the interest on the part of the children is so general, so sustained, 
and so fruitful as in correlation. The idea of correlation is not 
that the child is preparing for life, but that he is living, and the 
aim is to surround him with natural conditions, and then watch 
and direct him as he develops under these conditions. The way 
in which correlation stimulates interest in the special departments 
of hand-work may be illustrated by a single example drawn from 
the work of the first grade. 

The development of the home was the center of thought and 
work for one year. The special teacher of wood-work planned 
with the children and the grade teacher the kind of house which 



172 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

should be made. The children decided upon its shape and 
approximate size. All of the time allowed for special work was 
spent in the wood-woildng department until the house was finally 
put together. Then the children wished to furnish it The mak- 
ing of designs for wall paper, for rugs, and for furniture came 
next in order. Here was the need for drawing, and that subject 
now occupied all the periods set apart for ^)ecial work. But the 
drawing teacher worked in full co-operation with the grade 
teacher and with the special teachers who would hereafter aid in 
carrying out the plans. In the making of these designs full 
opportunity was given for inventiveness in form and color. The 
only suggestions given the children came through samples of 
artistic wall paper hung about the grade room, without comment 
When the designs were ready, the children b^;an the weaving of 
rugs in the various materials of their individual choice, and the 
painting of their wall paper. Later they returned to the wood- 
working room for the construction of their furniture.* Thus the 
time set apart for special work was divided among three depart- 
ments — drawing, wood- working, and weaving — but all under 
the control of the central idea emanating from the grade room. 
The interest was ctmiulative. Each new day added to the interest 
of the day before. The children wove rugs, painted wall paper, 
built houses, and made furniture with unflagging zeal, surprising 
energy, and with results of workmanship amazing for children six 
or seven years of age. Each completed house, neatly painted on 
the outside, with stairs and an attic, and a full complement of 
doors and windows, with stained floors and flowered walls, with 
rugs and curtains, with chairs, tables, and settles, meant more to 
its owner, its maker, than any house that could belong to him in 
later life. It was a concrete embodiment of his thinking and 
doing for a year. He had thought of something, he had made it, 
he could look at it, he could keep it. In the process of making, his 
fund of knowledge had been largely increased, his powers of 
observation quickened, and, further, his skill in hand-work in 
three directions had been, by the way and incidentally, as it were, 

* The plan had been for the children to make this furniture in cardboard, but 
they objected, saying they wanted wood because that would last. 



CORRELATION AND TECHNICAL SEQUENCE 173 

but most really, increased more than it could have been had the 
whole attention been put upon the hand-work apart from the 
correlated idea. 

What I have tried to say is that correlation in the elementary 
school does not only not interfere with technique, but that through 
the avenues of interest it results in a technique of superior quality. 
And I have meant to imply that correlation is a larger thing than 
technique, and that it also has many features of great educational 
value not thought of in any system where technique is pursued 
for its own sake. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLAYHOUSE MADE BY 
FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN IN THE FRANCIS W. 
PARKER SCHOOL. 

ROSE PHILLIPS AMD GRACE DEWEY, 

TEACHERS. 

The work in history, manual training, and aj^Iied arts, based 
on the children's interest and experience in the home and its 




Fig. I.— Plan of first floor. 

activities, centered around the making and furnishing of a doll- 
house for the kindergarten. 

During the process of construction frequent comparisons were 
made with the homes of the children, and the simple homes of 
primitive peoples. 

Attention to the arrangement of rooms in the school building 

174 



PLAYHOUSE MADE BY FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN 



175 



enabled the children to draw plans of one floor. Each drew also 
a plan of one floor in his own home. Individual plans for the 
dollhouse were then made, which were very unpractical in the 
number and arrangement of rooms. Criticism by the children 
and teachers led finally to the simple plan illustrated in Figs. 
I and 2. 

A dry-goods box 3' long, 2' 7" wide, and 2' 8" high was 



f 



i 



In^K 



^00 m 



JNu^Aerj 



+ 



U 



—I- 



-I 



I 



K.II 



J 



.J 



^••(t 



:a.j 



r—rti 






4--^ 



Fig. 2. — Plan of second floor. 



f 



secured for the outside construction (see Plate II, A). The 
length of this was measured by the children, and planed poplar 
boards approximating the length were given them, to make ready 
for flooring. The lower floor was laid by them, the upper one 
being placed without their assistance. 

The wall partitions having been made ready in the same way, 
a variety of opinions was expressed as to size and location of 
doorways, the children often referring to the comfort of expected 



176 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 



inmates. The boards were cut to admit of these spaces before 
being placed. 

The furniture-making gave much pleasure. After a talk on 
the necessity of strength and good appearance, the children offered 
their {dans for a chair — vnth no suggestion of cither of the 
above qualities in them. These plans were vnllingly discarded 
when a chair was shown made in the foUovnng way (Fig. 3) : 





Fig. 3. — Chair. (Stock, one-fourth inch whitewood.) 

Plans for such chairs were then made on paper from the 
following written directions : 

Draw a rectangle 6 inches kmg and 3^ inches wide. 

Draw a line across the center. 

Draw a line i inch ahove the center. 

Draw a line 1^ inches above the center. 

Pot a dot in the middle of the center line. 

Put a dot on the line above f^ of an inch from the edge. 

Pttt a dot on the next line above 1% inches from the same edge. 

Put a dot on the top line f{ of an inch from the same edge. 



PLAYHOUSE MADE BY FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN 



177 



By connecting these dots, as seen in the drawing above 
(Fig. 3), one side of the chair was drawn. The other half of the 
rectangle was used for the second side of the chair. This drawing 
was again made on the rectangle of wood. 

Directions were given in a similar way for all the furniture. 
The bedsteads were made from the following plan (Fig. 4) : 



t 



^^'i'^ 



our I 



^ 



^ 



Cut* ON tni4 ilHC 




-1 



T 



1 




Fig. 4. — Bedstead. (Stock, three-eighths inch whitewood.) 

The dining-room and living-room tables are made on the 
same plan, except for the round top of the dining-room table 

(Fig. 5). 

Kitchen and pantry cupboards were made from chalk-boxes 



178 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 



cut to the proper size, shelves being added. A swing-seat, see- 
saw, and sand-box for the attic playroom were also made. 

Stair-steps i^ inches wide were cut, and placed in step- 
ladder fashion, as follows (Fig. 6) . 

After measuring the walls of the rooms, the position and size 
of the windows were determined. Openings were made vnth 





Fig. 5. — Table. (Stock, one-fourth inch whitewood.) 

augur and saw, and the glass was held in place with frames inside 
and out. 

For the papering of the walls the children and teachers were 
asked to contribute from paper remnants at home. With the aid 
of the teacher of art, a color scheme for each side of the house 
was chosen ; and the children instinctively selected small designs. 
The opinion of one child was that " big flowers would be bigger 
than the people in the house." 

In very generous response to a suggestion, the sixth g^de 
painted borders in water-color for some of the rooms. The tan- 
colored walls of the living-room and dining-room are bordered 
with buttercups and cat-tails respectively ; the light-blue walls of 
the nursery, with a charming border of children at a party. Two 
of the border units which were not needed were used as wall 



PLAYHOUSE MADE BY FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN 



179 



decorations; one being of a cecropia moth that came from its 
cocoon in the schoolroom. (See Plate II, B and C.) 

Mattresses, pillows, hemstitched sheets and pillowcases, 
blankets, quilts, and comforts, for two beds, were also made by 
the sixth grade. (The kindergarten will make an outfit for one 
bed.) 

Window curtains and /TTIT!"! 

hemstitched linen table- 
cloths were as willingly made 
by the fifth grade. (The 
sewing was begun under the 
supervision of the grade 
teacher, but finished at 
home.) 

Bricks for a chimney 
were made by the second 
grade, but, because of lack of 
time for baking and glazing, 
they will be kept for future 
use. 

The interest and aid of 
these groups of older children were thoroughly enjoyed by the 
first grade. 

The colors chosen for the outside painting of the house were 
stone-color and brown. The painting, staining of the furniture, 
and papering were done in springtime, when the same kinds of 
work were being done in the children's homes. This fact gave 
zest to the work in school, as well as suggestions as to how the 
work should be done. 

Rugs of colored worsted were woven on simple looms. The 
looms were made by the children of this and another first g^de. 
The weaving process was exceedingly slow and tiresome, and at 
the end of the year not one rug was completed. One has been fin- 
ished during vacation, and three more may be finished at home. 

Next year the second grade will weave rugs for us on better 
looms, by which more rapid results may be secured. The weav- 
ing by the first grade will be of a larger kind — raffia mats for 
the kitchen and bathroom, and hammocks for the attic playroom. 




Fig. 6.— Stairs. 



THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION. 

REPORT OF THE OCTOBER MEETING. 
MRS. FRANK HUGH MONTGOMERY, 

SECRETAKY. 

The Parents' Association of the School of Education met at 
the school building on Thursday evening, October 20. The 
meeting was called to order by Dean Owen, who introduced the 
new president, Mr. Charles A. Heath. 

Mr. Heath stated that the Parents' Association had done a 
good work in the past and hoped to do a larger in the future, 
and affirmed that parents and teachers were alike necessary 
to its well-being. He said that the work which had been done 
would have been impossible without the co-operation of the 
teachers. He emphasized the fact that discussion was open to all 
present. With pleasant wit, and apt stories of illustration of the 
differences between the old days and those of the new education, 
he made each feel at home and as if he had a part to play in 
making the association of value. 

The secretary then gave a list of the chairmen of committees 
as follows : 

Mrs. William Kent, chairman of the Finance Committee. 
Mrs. Wilbur S. Jackman, chairman of the Home Committee. 
Mrs. John O'Connor, chairman of the Education Committee. 
Mrs. Warren McArthur, chairman of the Social Committee. 

The secretary also outlined the work proposed for the year 
by the Program Committee. The plan was to have an evening 
devoted to each of the following subjects : " The Practical Side 
of the Child's Work;" "The Social Life;" "The Curriculum of 
the Elementary School ; " " The Curriculum of the High School ; " 
" The Physical Well-Being of the Child ; " " Athletics and Play ; " 
"The Child at Home;" and "Methods of Teaching;" with an 
evening devoted to the reports of the various committees and a 
discussion of the plans for the ensuing year. 

It was voted, after a speech by the treasurer, Mr. A. V. Booth, 

180 



THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION l8l 

that the dues be $2 a year, which would pay for the notices of 
meetings, circulars, refreshments, etc. 

The topic of the evening, " The Place of Industrial Work in 
the Home and the School," was introduced by Miss Clara 
Mitchell, who spoke chiefly of that side of the work in the Ele- 
mentary School. She said that there industrial work consists in 
spinning, weaving, dyeing, in sewing and cutting of garments. In 
the lowest grades the work is confined to the use of primitive 
materials, such as the gathering and preparing of flax and grasses. 
But the end is the control of their own powers on the part of the 
children, rather than the gathering of materials. The children pre- 
pare their own flax or wool, spin it, and make their own spindles 
and dyes. The object is to have them gain in power, and in 
knowledge of materials and processes, and to become as accom- 
plished as possible in color, design — in whatever is necessary 
to the education of taste. The children must know how to 
make, but they must also gain a knowledge of the history of 
fabrics, and some knowledge of the scientific facts underlying the 
processes. They must know what they are about. They like 
to feel that they are true to fundamental conditions. The end 
will be a socialized whole. The habit of making something of 
which they themselves can be the judges increases their power 
of judgment. Such work also affords scope for originality and 
initiative. In addition, the work is so related to other subjects 
that through the work of their hands they come into the culture 
which belongs to them. Miss Mitchell concluded by giving a 
concrete example of the work of seven-year-old children, their 
second year in school. They studied sheep and their fleeces, 
invented spindles, wove, designed, and were told the great shep- 
herd stories, such as those of the Hebrews. She read the story of 
Abraham and the visit of the angels as written by a six-year-old 
child who in the process of his industrial work had learned to 
read and write. 

The next speaker was Mrs. Norton. She said that in her talk 
she should bear in mind two questions that were frequently asked 
her : " Why do you have boys learn to cook ? " and, ? Why do 
you have little children learn to cook?" She said that cooking 



1 82 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

was valuable as ( i ) manual training, and especially in developing 
delicacy of manipulation; (2) as applied science, the interest 
being very direct; (3) in social development. In this last respect, 
cooking had a higher social value than almost any other form of 
industrial work. It developed a sense of personal responsibility, 
of the dignity of labor, a control of environment, and a power of 
initiative, and gave a training in the economics of the consump- 
tion of time, material, and money. It was a good effect that work, 
often considered menial, should have a place in the high-school 
curriculum. The student gained a new interest in and apprecia- 
tion of the home. With the younger children in especial there 
was an added interest in home life; and there was surely need for 
that in these days, and for boys quite as much as for girls. Little 
children came with great spontaneity to this work, and as it stood 
in such close relation to the other work in the school, the effects 
were very clearly marked. Mrs. Norton ended with a plea for 
co-operation by the home in the work of the high school as an 
essential part of the curriculum. 

Mrs. William Hill then spoke on "Industrial Work in the 
Home." Mrs. Hill said that the assumption had been that our 
children were a product of evolution, being of finer clay than their 
parents, and that for them all physical hardship should be 
removed. But with the new education ideas had changed. Inter- 
est in colonial life and handicrafts had arisen and was played over 
in the schools. Valuable as this was, there was an omission of 
two important periods, for originally handicraft was, first, home 
education and, second, productive labor. At present the result 
was a change of basis of loyalty from the home to the school. 
The child did all of the interesting things at school, and at home 
expected to be entertained and to entertain. Mrs. Hill thought 
that perhaps the transfer from a smaller to a larger social unit 
was an advantage. The thing was to find something to take the 
place of the old industries in the home. In order to find out what 
children did -at home, she had gone over the blanks filled out the 
preceding year by parents of the Elementary School children. 
Out of 228 pupils 195 had answered the question as to whether 
any work outside of the school was done by the children. Ninety- 



THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 183 

seven answered in the affirmative. Music had the largest repre- 
sentation. The other things enumerated were dancing, home 
study, a language, play, housekeeping, gymnastics, manual train- 
ing, and Simday-school lessons. The home used to represent 
productive labor. We must invent something new. The ideal of 
education is productive labor. It must be adapted to our present 
needs. Booker T. Washington had shown his students how to 
react upon their environment. It remained for us to accomplish 
the same with our more complex conditions. The aspect of home 
industry was democratizing. The emancipation of the woman 
from old-time household drudgery had come, €is had that of the 
child, from " being seen and not heard." These changes have not 
met with universal approval. But what had met with universal 
disapproval had been the emancipation of the servants. If our 
home was considered a place in which to develop industries, 
instead of a place in which to display our prosperity, we might 
attain greater results. . We need the co-operation of the family in 
eliminating the servant problem. Through our new knowledge 
of the science of food-values great strides may be made. Such 
co-operation had many practical aspects, and there were great 
possibilities in making use of the help of our children, if we could 
have patience with the child's slowness and his tendency to let his 
interest be sidetracked. 

Mrs. Errant expressed herself as increasingly in sympathy 
with each speaker, and told in detail of ways in which she had 
tried household industries in the development of her own family. 
She had found training in the care of their own rooms and. 
clothing, and especially in cooking, to result in the training of 
eye, ear, and touch, and to engender responsibility and adapt- 
ability. She had made great use of the summer vacations and 
had seized the time when the children had shown the strongest 
interest. But she had found that the great problem was that they 
had not the time to devote to the home which they should have. 

Mr. Jackman next spoke as parent and teacher. He con- 
sidered the keynote of the Parents' Association to be to bring 
together the influence of the home and the school in the training 
of children. He told of the way in which the children were help- 



1 84 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

ing in the beautifying of the grounds by planting bulbs. He 
thought the work must result in something really worth while. 
He said if the parents could send in a list of what was needed in 
the home in the way of shelves, etc., the school would be glad to 
make them. We must not always be looking back to primitive 
conditions, but find the needs of our own. He urged that the 
association had an opporttmity to take hold of the larger possi- 
bilities of the school. He said the school needed an assembly hall 
and a gymnasium, and that a farm could be used with great profit 
in teaching the children somt of the conditions of rural life. He 
pleaded for the interest of the parents in these matters, and ended 
with a description of the plans of the magazine, the Elementary 
School Teacher. 

Mr. Owen expressed his great regret that Mr. Belfield could 
not be present and present his own field of manual training, in 
which he had labored so long and so successfully. He said that 
the equipment of the manual-training building was second to 
none in the country. He thought that the fimdamental thing in 
industrial training was not technical skill, not to get immediate 
returns, but, broadly speaking, moral and spiritual results. The 
high-school work had a great reinforcement when this work was 
brought into the curriculum, and he wanted to do exactly the 
same thing for the girls as for the boys. 

The meeting adjourned for refreshment and for social inter- 
course in the adjoining room. 



WEIHNACHTSLIED (CHRISTMAS SONG). 



Andante con moto. 



RICHARD STRAUSS, OP. I 




W . I J J J J i j J f jij J cjja 



Schlaf wohl, dn Him-melfl-kna- be, du, 8chlarwohl,da siis - ses 
Sleep well, thou heaven's ba - by dear, sleep well, O Sav - iour 




r r i r r cifg 



^ 



s 



J J J Ji/Jr: 




Kind. Dich f&-cbeln£n-ge - lein in Rnh, mit sanftem Himmels- 
child. By angels* wings thon*rt fanned to rest, with heav* nly breezes 





-» 



*J l ^ J J j l [ ;^J j i r r r 




wind. Wir ar - men Hir-ten sing- en dir ein herz^lich Wie-gen- 
mild. We hum-ble shepherds sing to ^ee, a lov-ing, gen-tle 



^m 




f I ! ■' I J I I I J e B 



1 85 



1 86 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 




PP RU. ^ ^ ^ _ . 

ij i i' 1^ ^ 



2Z 



m 



lied - lein fur; 
lul - la - by; 



Scblar, Him-tnel8 - kind-lein, 8cbla - fe. 
Sleep, beav-en*8 ba - by, sleep. 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 



The new education trails in its wake a procession of mourners. 
They are they who mourn because the children of today are less 

advanced in attainment, less efficient in training^, and 
^ less tractable in mind than they were of yore. True 

Mourners '^ '^ 

or false as this may be, it seems that either with the 
aidx>f the schools, or in spite of them, humanity is wise in a larger 
number of things, it displays skill in wider fields, and it is sensi- 
tive to a greater diversity of influences than ever before. Educa- 
tion is a response to conditions; it justifies itself in the public 
demand. It hardly seems credible that the new education responds 
less well to the conditions of the new times than did the old to the 
conditions of other days. 

The difference between the old and the new education is not 
merely one of degree; it is fundamentally a difference in kind. 

The old sought attainment, discipline, and docility 
^.^ of mind througfh the performance of tasks that were 

Difference ® '^ 

imposed from without. The new seeks the same 
ends through the growth of the initiative within. 

Education is not a matter of tasks ; and this is the pitfall that 
catches most of the critics who compare the old with the new. 

If education were the result of tasks arbitrarily 
Teacher Not a jj^^p^g^j . ^^^ jf ^^ ^j^j g^^ ^^gj^g f^^ ^^ pupils that 
Taskmaster r- ' r r 

were difficult enough to hold them to the top notch 
of effort ; and if the new levied only those that were so easy that 
the pupils became dawdlers, then indeed should the mourners con- 
tinue to mourn. 

187 



1 88 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

But here is the difference that is world-wide : the new, reject- 
ing the idea of imposing tasks, seeks to establish conditions that 

challenge the personal initiative. The old, therefore, 
wt' ti prized and measured attainment as a quantitative 

result; the new measures it alone by quality. The 
old recognized as training and discipline the so-called voluntary 
attention which seemed to be mainly the ability to stare, ox-like, a 
disagreeable, uninteresting, or unintelligible thing out of counte- 
nance. The new believes in the training and discipline that come 
from the pupil's effort to follow up from premise to conclusion 
something that mightily interests him. The old found satisfac- 
tion in the state of mind that was quietly receptive ; the new sees 
hope in the turbulence and unrest of alert inquiry. These are 
irreconcilable differences in kind. 

The principles of the new education are frequently misunder- 
stood, wrongly interpreted, and misapplied. The doctrine of per- 
sonal initiative is sometimes overworked. Children 
initiAti occasionally imtiate proceedmgs that, if pursued, 

would result in the eviction of their elders from 
under the parental roof. The privileges of the counter-initiative 
on the part of the old folk should always be recognized. The 
resultant of the two movements should be better mutual under- 
standing and better adaptation. 

He who demands the right of initiative in the household or 
community, be he old or young, must assume a ddinite responsi- 
bility for making it more pleasantly habitable. That is what the 
household or the community gets out of the deal. This cultivates 
that feeling of respect for the rights of others which, the mourners 
say, the new education does not properly inculcate. There is no 
conflict, therefore, between the freest play of the initiative and the 
most perfect form of governmental control, because the whole 
matter is placed at once upon the highest ethical grounds. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 189 

There are those who believe that the initiative is all there is to 
it; that the new education is the doctrine, literally, of endless 
initiatiTe Not beginnings ! If it works out that way in practice, it 
SndleM is usually because the teacher is a kind of pedagogi- 

Beginniiigfi cal kangaroo. The true initiative is the reaction to 
a clearly discerned purpose. The attainment of the end, the 
completion of the work, is the final test by which we determine the 
sanity and educational worth of the initiative. 

The keynote of the new education is motive; to establish and 

maintain the natural conditions which will enable the pupil to 

^ ^, realize it, is the sole function of the teacher and all 

XotiTe 

the machinery of the school. Purpose is derived 
from a recognized need; the new education measures its 
depth by the quality of the supply furnished by the pupil. 
The initiative involves responsibility for the result. The new 
education grants the freedom of the initiative to the child, but it 
places at the same time the responsibility of deepening his appre- 
ciation of the importance of the end upon the teacher and the 
parent. 

The ultimate product of the new education is a responsible 
human being. This is indeed the highest result of all education — 

new or old — and there never has been any true edu- 
^^^ cation which did not end in such a goal. Here is the 

weak spot in that duplex educational machine of today, the school 
and the home. Both school and home often seem bent upon shield- 
ing the child from responsibility, instead of placing him under 
those natural conditions which tend to develop it. There are girls 
in the grammar grades — thousands of them — who, did occasion 
demand, could step into the center of a household and organize 
and manage it; there are boys in the grammar grades — thou- 
sands of them — that, were it actually necessary, could go right 
out into the teeth of the world and support their mother and 
rejoice in doing it. Such demands would, indeed, be too severe. 
Heaven forbid that childhood and youth should be worn thread- 



I90 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

bare by those g^nding exactions that often come to them because 
of the irresponsibilities or misfortunes of others. But between 
this extreme and the other, where they do not have any respon- 
sibility, there is an infinite distance. From the day when the 
little toddler neatly folds and lays away in her toy bureau the 
dress of her doll until she takes the helm of an establishment of 
her own, both she and her brother should be actual participants 
in due proportion in the thoughts and the work of the household 
and commimity. It is not necessary, it is not even right, that 
these responsibilities should be heavy ; but it is absolutely essen- 
tial that they should be real. They must be worth something; 
they must stand for something, not only for ends that lie within 
the children themselves; they must count for something also 
toward the joy, the happiness, and the welfare of others. This 
is the heart of the new education. Let the mourners be com- 
forted. W. S. J. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



The Appleton Arithmetic, Books I, II. By J. W. A. Young, University of 
Chicago, and L. L. Jackson, State Normal School, Brockport, N. Y. 
Appleton (Third and last volume to appear soon). 

In these times great courage and good judgment are prime requisites on the 
part of qualified men to produce successfully a new series of texts on arithmetic. 
Particularly is this true in view of the facts that so great a niunber are upon the 
market, and that neither the publishers nor the public are prepared fitly to recog- 
nize and support what is pedagogically best It must be conceded, however, upon 
impartial investigation, that the trained, experienced, and able educators, Messrs. 
Young and Jackson, have succeeded admirably, both from a pedagogic and from 
a practical standpoint, in giving the people of this country two books of their 
series which stand at the head of such publications. 

In these books stress has been put upon the useful in a teachable way, while 
the obsolete has been omitted. A minimum of theory is presented, and that 
in the main incidentally. The arrangement of the subject-matter wisely follows 
the mental development of the child rather than the logical order. The problems 
are modem, systematic, interesting, and well calculated to impress the topics they 
illustrate. Frequently they are solved experimentally, in ways which appeal 
agreeably to children. 

The pictures and diagrams are primarily for instruction. They will gain 
and hold the attention of learners because they deal with objects and scenes 
intrinsically interesting and within the experience of the young. The mechanical 
execution is attractive. 

The frequent reviews are admirable. So also is the frequent recurrence to 
subjects as the maturity and broader grasp of the student enables him to master 
the topics more completely. Surely the introduction of the simplified weights 
is correctly done, especially in connection with the ingenious practical uses to be 
actually exemplified within the classroom. 

A reader of the books is favorably impressed by the forms introduced to 
illustrate business transactions, such as gas bill, lease, money order, receipt, check, 
and cash account. 

The principles are made evident by means of well-graded problems, drawn 
from every-day life in original ways. The devices used are valuable and sug- 
gestive as to correct methods of imparting the elements of mathematical 
knowledge. 

The index is a new feature in elementary arithmetics, both appropriate and 
necessary in connection with the pedagogical order of topics. 

Such are some of the reasons why these books are considered a distinct 
advance over previous arithmetics. They should aid in securing superior results 
in training the young where they are intelligently and sympathetically used. 

PuBuc High School. =• ^- ^'^"»' P''^- 

Easton, Pa. 

191 



192 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The Ship of State. By Those at the Helm. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1904. 
Pp. 264. 

A BOOK written in language so well chosen that all who read may understand. 
Were such books more often read, there would be less absurd criticism of the 
heads of departments. The duties of our representatires at Washington should be 
known by every citizen. An excellent idea of them can be had by those who will 
take the time to read this little book. It should be in every school library. The 
portrait illustrations are very good. Those of the Senate chamber, the House of 
Representatives, and the upper deck of a battleship should be much better or left 
out entirely. 

William M. Giffin. 



BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS RECEIVED. 

BOOKS. 

Caoss. Siku Mamer. (New York: American Book Co.) ^.40. 
BIacDonalo. Conciliation. (New York: American Book Co.) ^^as. 
Chasles Dickens. Christmas Stories, (New York: American Book Co.) $0.50. 
Tannek. Elementary Algebra. (New York: American Book Co.) $1. 
GoFF AND BIaynb. First Principles of Agriculture. (New York : American Book 

Co.) ^.80. 
Walker. Our Birds and Their Nestlings. (New York: American Book Co.) 

^.60. 
Caster. Nature Study with Common Things. (New York : American Book Co.) 

^.60. 
Smith. Grammar School Arithmetic. (Boston: Ginn & Co.) ^.65. 
Parker. Uncle Robert's Geography ; I V : "A Rirer Journey." (New York : 

D. Appleton & Co.) 
Bardeen. Fifty-five Years Old. (Syracuse, N. Y. : C W. Bardeen.) $1. 

PAMPHLETS. 

Chancellor. Graded City SpeUer. f^itm York: The Macmillan Co.) $0.56. 

Second Year Grade, Part 1 : Second Year Grade, Part II ; Third Year 

Grade, Part I; Third Year Grade, Part II; Fourth Year Grade, Part I; 

Fourth Year Grade, Part 11 ; Fifth Year Grade. 
Bulletin No. i, July, 1904. Association of Teachers of Mathematics in the Middle 

States and Maryland. (New York: Published by the Association.) 
Alexander Melville Bell. English Visible Speech and its Typography Bht- 

cidated. (Washington, D. C: Gibson Bros.) 
Reports of an Investigation concerning the Cost of Maintaining the PubUc School 

System of the City of New York. Department of Finance, New Yoric, Jtme, 

1904. (New York: Martin R. Brown Co.) 
The Cause and Prevention of Consumption. Circular issued by the Illinois State 

Board of Health, 1904. 



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Wm. A. Hammond, M. D., Stirxttm-Gtaeroi {rrtirtd) 
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HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & COMPANY 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO 



XTbe filementat? School XTeacber 

Editor . . Wilbur S. Jackman 
Assistant Editor, Bertha Payne 

WITH THB CO-<^BRATI0M OP 

The Faculty of the University of Chicago School of Education 



CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER, J904 

NOTES ON THE WORK OF THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

Wilbur S. Jackman 193 

THE CURRICULUM OF THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL - - - - 20a 

AVENUES OF LANGUAGE-EXPRESSION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

Della J. Long 225 

THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN - Mrs. Porter Lander MacClintock 252 

PARENTS' AND TEACHERS' ORGANIZATIONS ... - Helen M. Heffsran 241 

THE MEETING OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION - Mrs. Frank Hugh Montgomekt 244 

WORK OF THE HOME COMMITTEE OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 

Mrs. Wilbur S. Jackman ^ 

ANNOUNCEMENT FOR JANUARY . . . 250 

EDITORIAL NOTES Wilbur S. Jackman 251 

High-School Conference ; Report This Year ; Shortening the Carricalam ; Not a Question of 
Scissors and Paste; Mechanics versus Psychology -and Pedagogy; The " All- Around ** Teacher 
versus the Special Teacher; How to Preserve the ** All- Around " Idea; Upon What the Sac* 
cess of the Plan Depends; Application of the Plan to the High School; Pedagogy and 
Biology. 



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THIS second edition of Dr. 
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Tbe Living Age for 1904 has contained important article* relating to 
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Completed May, 1904 

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Editors-ia>Cbief : 
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ininoJuDuy Eeatinwn'wltiiDut IdJditIoUi* book. 
THE NEW PltOJECTINQ MICKOHCOPE 

wlib priOectloD vy9 plect. medUucopa [Or ibowlug 

THE NEW PHOJECTION HPErTRO- 

SC'OPEH Ann POLARlSCOPE!« UUcbable Id 



.■■Um SIMM as KiUI' 






«M Slid" ™ R^.wXa. 

hMMtmra HIMoi ■■ Dilalliaf AnkllHtartlD^lBB. 
■>SU4»<n]il>il». ^^ 



WIIXIAM5. BROWN & EABLE. 
DcpL ^2 »IS Ctaestnul SL, PhltK. 



Yilemro know and Ihe A-™//aw« Vnum 

SONGS OF ALL THE COLLEGES 
iMch II alike iniublc ioc Ihe collcEiu ol 



JAMES F. McCULOlIOfl TEACWRS* AGENCY 

A SCHOU AMI COliEGC BUREAU 



MOW '•>'»'''X^I° "AGISTER. VaondeiiK. 
CiKJW c„r r,Bht .Tdde th™i(;h ,hc ycr. Member- 



« * NOBIX. IhibU^ar 



Hundridi of T«acheri Hive Annually Been BmellM 

The Cl&rk ibtm y»„ 

TeacHers* Agency 



' CHICAGO 




;^ot Cdiristmafi €»mB ^ Ullft ^erty ii^ictu 



ONE CENT EACH for 3$ or more; "^ for fi.OO. Post 

.J /wSon md lN>«li"oi BibrSluiR IKI^ from 1^ >i 

Each let ia > poftbllo. ot AnirelHadl or SIjA hr 

" ''"JllifoiiJ''™' n"«B "n™ K"fa^™iIKil •Mmpo far C«ta]« 

CSiiHnc M"dl>o*u. Tie dai JS TAcmJ**!! tor $1.40 C'M MbUI. PiHi Eip 

THE^PERRY PICTURES COMPANV\ 80x501, Maiden^ 



$130. in CasK 

To Everyone Who Names the Ten 

Most Popular Books 



UNTIL January 3 1st next (1905) we shall break the sets of our new Library of the 
World's Famous Books and sell you any volume or volumes you choose. There are 
20 volumes in the set Which 10 volumes out of the 20 will prove to be 
the most popular 7 

Everyone u^ho predicts before Dec. 15th which ten books we shall sell 
before midnight of January 31st in larger numbers than any of the other ten — in other words, 
who name the ten most popular ones — will receive $150* in cash. It is not neces- 
sary to name the ten in the order in which they sell, simply 
name the ten that sell more than any of the other ten. 

Everyone who predicts correctly after Dec 15th and before Jan. Isl, will 
receive $100* in casli. 

The date that governs the amount of these prizes will be the date you mall your predictions, as 
shown by the postmark on the envelope. 

We believe we shall secure more friends and more publicity for the Library in this way than bj 
spending one hundred thousand dollars in magazine and newspaper advertising. 

We plan to add to this Library from time to time, and expect to do a larger annual business wtdi it 
than has ever been done with any one set of books. So much to explain why we can afford to pay 
these large prizes, although we do not hope to make any profit on the present sale. 

These are the Twenty Volumes 

I. Tak ol Two Cities 6. ]uc Eyre 1 1. Vamtty Fair t6. BoMob 

a. Danrui'f Deaceat ol Mas 7. ]oka Halifax u. Tom Browi't Sckool Days 17. Irrbf*! Sketch Book 

3. Pint Vidia 8. Lona Dooie 13. hut ci the Moktcait 18. Eaetaoa's Ciaayi 

4. Hypatia 9. Darwia'a Origii ol Spedea 14. Prtacc ol the Houeol Dtrid 19. Tlelsa 

5. Ivatkoe 10. Uadc Tea's Gabim 15. RoUaaot Crtsoe ao. Last Days of fos^ 

These twenty volumes represent a wide range of taste, but each one is unquestionabljF among the 
leaders of its class. Any one who is familiar with these twenty books will never lack a subject of con 
versation in any company. This prize offer will secure many new readers for these standard works, 
which should be in every home where the English language is read and spoken. Hon. William T. 
Harris. V. S. Commiaaioner of Educa.tion« writea : 

Dkar Mr. Merrill— I am gbd yon an going to introduce a Ubrary of such good books into each 
family oi our land. 

There are boola which furnish keys to our experience and whkh explain to us great historical epochs 
and the growth of important national ideas— the birth of new connctions whicn by and by cause reTO> 
hitionik political, industrial, and educationaL Vou hare books in your selection that are eminent 
examples of several types. You will deserve well of your country if you can persuade the people to buy 
and r^ such books. Yours truly, WILLIAM T. flARRIS. 

Dr. Edward Everett Hale writea: 

** I am niQch int er e s t e d in your plan. The only wonder is that It has not been carried out before. 
Your list seems to me a very good one. and while, of course, I think I could improve it perhaps, I am 
sure that if you can circulate these books as you propose, it will be a great advantage to us all.**^ 

Truly yours, EDWARD E. HALE. 

The Waahington Poat, of Washington, D. C, one of the best newspapers in the United Stateii 

will decide who are the successful contestants, and to what prize each one is entided. 
As to our responsibility, look up Merrill ana Baker, New York, in Dun or Bradstreet. 

How the Prizes Will Be AweLrded 

The entire reputation of our concern, with more than a million dollars capital and eleven yean of 
successful book publishing, is pledged to the fair and square awarding and payment of these prises. 
No one in any way connected with our establishment or with The Washington Post will be allowed to 
compete. Each prediction wiU be numbered, dated, and re^stered in a manner that will prevent oib- 
take or fraud. The correctness of the awarding of the prizes will be certified to by Gunn, Ricnards & G)., 
the well-known firm of expert accountants and business engineers,' of 43 Wall Street, New York. 
The names of the ten most popular books will be published in the leading newspapers by Feb. 10. For 



$ 1 50> to Everyone who NamosthoTon Host Popular Books 

convenience of the Jud^ of the contest, and to prevent any possible confusion with the rest of our 
bosiness, this contest will be conducted entirely from Washington, D. C. Address all Inquiries and 
predictions to Dept. ai. World's Famous Book Contest, care The Washington Post* Wash- 
hgtony O. C. 

Use Your Own BroLins and Consult Your Friends 



Look over the list carefully and make up your mind which 
ten volumes you would choose tor yourself if you could have 
ten ot the twenty, and only ten. If you have average taste in 
books yon won't be far out of the way in naming the ten. 

Many learned and bookish people, among them Sir John 
Lubbock, have published lists of what they considered the 
world's best hundred books, and some of the magazines have 
pubhshed articles regarding the world's best boolck Look up 
and see how the twenty mentioned here are rated in such lists. 

Consult your local book dealer and find out which ten he 



thinks will sell the best— which he has sold the roost of. 

Consult the Librarian of any hbmy to which you hav« 
access. 

Ask public and high school teachers and profenors vrhich 
ten are the best. 

Then make your prediction. The more intelKgenoe you 
put into making your predictions the greater your prospect 
of success. 

B\it do tKls qxilckly — at onc»-^ou nwiat d^tor- 
mine oulokly to aeour« one off the larger prisee* 



Who Mslv Predict. Limit as to Time SLnd Number 

The price of each volume is $1.00. Each book is good, honest value for the dollar. For each vol- 
ume you buy you are entided to make one prediction — that is, name the ten volumes which you think 
will prove most popular — will sell better than the other ten. You may buy any number of volumes up 
to twenty and maJce as many different predictions as you buy books, ^ut no person will be aUowed 
to make more than twenty predictions. 

Your Money BoLck if You Wish 

Any time within one week after you receive your books (one or more) you may return any or all of 
them and we will return your money — II for each book delivered to us in as good condition as you 
received it. We wouldn't make this offer if the books were not a// ^'g^fi would we ? This return 
privilefce applies to books bought by mail before Jan. 15th. Hooks ordered after Jan. 15th will not be 
returnable, because any withdrawals after that would. complicate awarding the prizes. 

Those Who Answer Before Dec. 15 Win Most, Skill Being ICqueLl 



Tlie smallMt prize ($100) is worth having for nothing— and 
it really coitt you nothing, Ixcaixse (ti every dollar you invest 
yoo reorive full value in boolcs. 

Each volume is carefully printed from good readable type 
on anusually expensive and handsome laid paper, very white, 
with ample margins. There are appropriate full-page illustra* 
tlooa, an average of 6H to the volume. The books are consid- 
erably larger than the popular novel size and are bound in 
ribbed silk vellum, handsome and durable, with gilt tops and 
an ornamental back design stamped in gold. They will be a 
crefit to your library shelves. 



Each book is full value for a dollar, and we guarantee that 
this price will never be reduced or cut. Not a volume of this 
edition will ever be sold for less than One Dollar. The entire 
object of this plan would be defeated if you were not pleased 
with the txwks you buy. We cannot hope to make any profit 
out of this initial sale. Our profits must come out of future 
sales in completing the set of which you buy a volume or more 
now, and in selling sets to your neighbors or friends who will 
kam of our library by seeing yoiur boolcs. Thus, as you must 
see, oxMx success <l4»per\ds on yo\ir oon\pl«t4» satls- 
ffACtlon ^Pirlth evety book you buy* 



An IdesLl Christmas Gift 

Can you conceive of a more appropriate Christmas gift than these books? They are ever welcome 
companions of the old and the young. You can give away the book and keep for yourself this most 
onosual opportunity to secure one of the prizes. 

Simpson Cra.wford Company, New York 
JordsLn Ma-rsh Co.» ... Boston 
Siegel Cooper & Co., - - ChicsLgo 

These three stores will sell these books during the contest Your right to predict will be the same 
whether you buy by mail from Washington, or at any of these stores. At the stores you can examine 
the books before buying. These store sales will be counted, of course, in the totals. You may be 
sore thtsr storM woald not do this unless tliey were confident tlut we would do exactly 
MB we promise. 

If you cannot -visit one t>f these stores, send |1.00 for each book you want to Dept* aiy WORLD'S 
FAMOUS BOOK CONTEST, Washington Post, Washington, D. C, and the books will be sent you 
and the blanks on which to make your predictions. If you want further particulars before ordering, 
address Dept. a i, WORLD'S FAMOUS BOOK CONTEST, Wasliiagtoa Post, WaslUngton, D. C. 

MERRILL & baker; Publishers, New York City 




CHARLES «. RUSSELL 



Will be given free to every purchaser pf the new book 

HOPE HATHAWAY 

By FRANCES PARKER 

Send at once and secure these 
eight pictures of Western life. 
Exact size and true reproduc- 
tions of originals, each bearing 
the artist's signature, and all 
ready for framing. 





"Hope Hathaway" is 
another strong Weslern 
story o£ Montana ranch 
life by the author of 
"Marjie of the Lower 
Ranch." 




Send at once for 
"Hope Hathaway" 

and receive these eight 
Stunning Pictures. 



At all booksellers' or sent postpaid by the publishers. Price. $1.50. 




C. n. CLARK PUBLISHING COMPANY (Inc.). BOSTON. MASS. 




BCOKJ" 




THE NEW CHRISTY-RILEY BOOK 

Out to Old Aunt Mary's 

UNIFORM WITH THE 
FAMOUS CHRISTY-RILEY BOOK 
"AN OLD SWEETHEART 
OF MINE" 

This ii ihe first puhlii-ation of the com- 
plete version ot the lainous poem, consisting 
oi liventy sunzas, of which iburtccn h«ve 
never before been printed. 

By J*MES Whitcomh Rllet, with forty 
illiisiraiions by How aid Chandler t hristy. 

Beauiifully decoraitd. Primed in two col- 
ors. Octavo, cloth, boxed, Ji.oo postpaid. 
AN OLD SWEETHEART OF MINE 
By James Whitcomb RiLty, with nine- 
teen liill-page pivturcs bv Howard Chandler 
Christy, The author's reading version com- 
plete. Octavo, boxed, Ji.oo postpaid. 

AL'THOK-S EDITION,— Tbt i)n*ing> rcpio- 
ductd in phot.-jiayun-, pirmed on sprcijl pip«, bnuti- 




If 

I 



THE CIFT-BOOK OF THE YEAR 

In Love's Garden 



Drawing! by John Cecil Ci.ay 

" In Love's Garden " is the exquisite 
elaboration of a dtoll fancy. Maidens fair 
of every zone are turned to flowers; in 
picturing them ihiu Mr. Clay has nude a 
nurvelously attractive volume, — a volume 
■fter the heart of all lovers of beautitul wom- 
en and all lovers of beautiful books. 



The plan 
work establish Mr. Cli 
of the pretty girl. 



of this 






The book 
with more il 
8x11 inches. 



a printed on special paper, 
lan forty drawings in color. 
decorated cover. 

3 (in a box J postpaid. 




i/aC^'^tfff^ 



iyjasSiffJ^. 



*<*ff^* 



^/^f^-^ 



BOOKS BY JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY 



ILLUSTRATED GIFT BOOKS 

RILEY CHILD-RHYMES. A collircrion o( ihr &tc.rita of Mr. Rilry'i di: 
fbl Cbild-Rbymn, llluimicd by Will Viwir. 

RILEY LOVE LYRICS. Mr. Riley'i Ion »np iUmmtui with fifty ii 
from lift by W. B. Dyer. 

E»ch of ibe alxrer a bound in cloth, iima, $1.15 ponp^id. 

RIUEY FARM-RHVMES. The fj.orito of Mr. Rikv'l »ngl of country 
lUuEQitcd by Will Vawtei. Clolh, ijmo, Ji.oo net. (Poit'igc 11 ana.) 



-e. fn.5°;'»'f-"tf. t'7.50- 




THE TRAIL TO BOYLAND 

The wide ippeal and (ndaring quilitv of Mt. Neihil 
poemi lemind one of Eugene Field u hit beK. 

B; W. D. Neiiit. Five full-page dnwinp by W 
VnrtB. Ilmo, cloth, Ji. 00 net. (Poitige 8 centi.] 



THE BALLADS OF BOURBONNAIS 

I in the dcliEhtfuI diilecl of ihe 



n the Kinkilcee Cou 



A DEFECTIVE 
SANTA CLAU8 

Thii is an enlirely new poem 
in Mr. Rilcy'i happiest vein 
tnd maicblcss child dialect. 

The book U fragrant with the 
kiiid]y spirit of Christmas, of 
chitdhood'a innocence and hu- 



The ec»I«>y ofnht child «-ho 
telU ihe laie and -the roIlickjEg 



^iskk 



TWO IN A ZOO 



FoTiv illuiin 




Ptofuirly illuiinted bj 



A N«w Christinas Book 
by James Whitsomb RIUj 



Jrollery of the poem and pic- 
tures are extremely inteciioua. 
"A Defccbve Sanla Claiw" 
is profusely illustrated by 
Will Vawter and C. M. Relyea 
:lo[h, 
(Postage 10 



AT THE BIG HOUSE 




FAMOUS BOOKS FOR CHILDREN 

All !>]r L. FnANK Baum. f 1.15 cub, potcpiid. 

THE WIZARD OF OZ. The uoty of Dacothy't remukible DiTell with 
the Scirecnw, the Tin Woodnun and the Cawudly Lion. 

Primed on tinted piper ind lividlly iUuitnted by W. W. Denibvr. 

THE MAGICAL MONARCH OF MO. Fully illuniited in color by 
Fnnk Verbeck. Uniform with "The Wiard of 0«." 

THE ENCHANTED ISLAND OF YEW. Illuiirated in color by Finny 
Y. Cory. Uniform with "The Wiaid of Oi." 

DOT AND TOT OF MERRYLAND. New edition, lUiiitnted in color 
by W. W. Dtnilow. Unifoim with " The Wiurd al Ui." 

THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF SANTA CLAUS. Ptofiiiely 

niuttrated in colon, by Miiy C. Clitk. Uniform with "The Wiiord ofOl.'' 

WITH PIOTUittS IN COLOR, SI.2B KACH, POSTPAID 



HEBOBBSK 0012,0 



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•WW'-'' 







THE 


COST 


no«l,*TheC« 

c«.,- people - 
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ninMrPtiillip') 
.■«egenubd.. * 
ihinglr Amen- ■ 


boneit, proipe 
•niled."— &//« 




B» D«TjD G> 


.«*M P-a»-. ^' 



THE 
GRAFTERS 

■'•Ttc CnAcn' > du 
ihc bol mmpk* of ■ 




THE WELL IN THE WOOD 

Hire H 1 book for chiWnn th»i Kill » ml itoij. 
linle |irl futeni 4 (pny ol' EnEninur'i NighiiluilF \a h 



^T^^n^ 



A CtNCHAM ROSE 

urluhlc book [>f irildia lit^, 




FANTA8MA LAND 

The »J.eniu™ of Dittty in " F.ntHnu Luid" trt 

Underne»lb the limple lunadve a wblle inriciim rf \ltt, 
X only gtown-up« c»n ippmiitt. A book of Ent 
emmment fur aU. 

Bt CmA.L.. RAtKOHD M*MD[.*. With DHiy 







HER INFINITE VARIETY [ FOLLY FOR THE WISE 

"A dcli(ht lo ihe eye, ind i triUv bragtiful gift." I Owof rhr moirnhilinidngbmikiof nonfruKtvniwrf. 

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hjndjgr Chfiiiy. i i-no, tloih, Ji.io pMtpiiii^ Jiimo. crloih, ti.oQ net. (Pomge lo cena.) 



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■TBEBOBBSMEninLa 



LvbtfTr: 




A. C. McClurg & Co. invite the 
public to visit their establishment 
and see the many changes that 
have been made in order to add 
to the pleasure and convenience 
of their patrons. 

Two entire floors are now devoted to the display of the 
most complete stock of books and stationery in this 
country. This makes it possible to have wider aisles, 
a more logical arrangement and classification, admir- 
able light, and shelves and tables easier of access, in 
both salesrooms. 

COn the first floor 
New and standard books of all kinds, new importations 
in rare books and fine bindings, fine stationery and 
engraving, and beautiful articles In metals and leather. 

C On the second floor 
Books for children, theological and church books, sci- 
entific works, books at reduced prices, office supplies, 
inexpensive stationery, school books and supplies, and 
children's games. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 

2IS-321 Wabwh Avenue 



An Introduction to the Bible 
for Teachers of Children 

By GEORGIA LOUISE CHAMBERLIN 



Aim of the Lcskms 

The Lessons aim to introduce the 
Bible to the child in such a way 

1. That he will be interested in its contents. 

2. That he will acquire some familiarity with 
the location of the rarious books of the Bible, of 
the several kinds of books, and of the specific 
character of the contents of each book or group 
of books. 

3. That, having this knowledge, he will acquire 
a facility in handling the Bible which will be of 
the greatest service to him as he advances. 

4. That he will, at least to some extent, come 
to regard the contents of the several books from 
the point of view of the writers of these books, 
and will therefore be better able to appreciate the 
teaching which they contain. 

5. That by constant story-telling, and informal 
conversation in class, he will gain the power of 
onembarrassed self-expression. 

Contents of the T.ciions 

The book presents forty lessons, each 
lesson containing : 

1. Indication of the Scripture material to be 
presented, and carefully selected chapter and 
page references to outside material which may 
be used in the teacher's preparation of the lesson. 

2. Detailed suggestions as to the method to 
be pursued in the preparation of the lesson. 

3. A specific program for the presentation of 
the lesson in class. 

4. A system of preserving the results of the 
work of the pupils through written class 
exercises. 

5. An assignment of home reading and mem- 
orizing which continues the work through the 
week in an interesting way, and by bridging the 
chasm between Sundays, insures steady progress. 



This is made definite and precise by the use of 
the *' Reminder'* cards, on one side of which the 
reading is assigned, the other being for the 
pupil's report on this specific work. 

6. Suggestions to parents for supplementary ' 
work with the children at home. 

Distincthre Featufcs 

The distinctive features of the book 
may be classified as follows : 

1. It requires the children to use the Bible at 
home and in class. 

2. It introduces written work in class thioagh 
an attractive little book which the teacher caa 
put into the hands of each pupil and in which 
the pupil regularly records the results of his 
work. This booklet, entitled TJU Books tf tke 
Bible, is handsomely illustrated. There is a 
pencil attached and space on the cover for the 
child's name. His interest in it will increaae 
with its use. 

3. The work demanded from the children boUi 
at home and in class commands their respect 
and interest at an age when such interest and 
respect are difficult to hold, and compares 
favorably with work which they are required to 
do in the dav-school. 

4. The distinctive religious teaching is not 
forced upon the child, but is so embodied in the 
material presented that it cannot escape his 
notice. 

5. By making suggestions to the parents in 
connection with each lesson it brings the relig- 
ious training of the home and the Sunday school 
into harmony, and makes the work continuous, 
at the same time enlisting the interest of the 
parent in the school. 

6. It introduces through the child the study of 
the Bible in homes where it might otherwise be 
neglected. 



244 pp., i2mo, cloth ; postpaid, $1.00. The Notebooks, 40 pp., are 10 cents 
each, net. The Reminder Cards, 20 cents per hundred. 



At a£f Booksellers, or direct from 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Sunday-School Teachers! 



iStudies 

in the Gospel 

According^ 

to Mark 



KKlfKST D. BURTON 



Constructive Bible Studies 

SECONDARY SERIES 

For Intermediate Classes 



[we now have one or more 
text-books for the primary, 
intermediate, and advanced 
classes of the sunday school] 



THE pupils for whom this book is intended are at an age and stage of advance- 
ment at which they need two things : First, to learn how to study a book of the 
Bible ; second, for their own moral and religious welfare to know the life of Jesus. 
This book accomplishes both these. The religious purpose kept constantly in mind 
is attained not by sacrificing the intellectual aim ; but through its achievement the 
pupil learns the facts of the life of Jesus, absorbs his teaching, breathes in his spirit 
in the process of interpreting the gospel of Mark. 

The value of the book is greatly increased by questions which make it possible 
for the student to discover whether he has grasped the meaning of the passage under 
study. These questions have three aims: (i) to cultivate the pupil's power of atten- 
tion, (a) to lead him to investigate those questions of interpretation which attention 
alone will not solve, and (3) to induce him to reflect upon and apply the truths 
gained by interpretation. A dictionary and full explanatory notes furnish definitions 
and such other aids to interpretation as the student is believed to need. A typical 
page, therefore, contains a portion of the text of the Gospel, explanatory notes with 
references to the dictionary, and interpretative questions. 

The book has already been tested by two years' experience, and the results have 
been such as to justify the method, from the point of view both of training the pupil 
in the art of interpretation and of the religious benefit derived from such study. 

We are perfecting a plan whereby a Sunday school may place our books in 
the hands of its acholare at an immediate expense no greater than that at 
present involved in supplying the ordinary "lesson helps." We shall be glad 
to famish the particulars of this plan to anyone interested. 

• 

Sttadies in tHe Gospel According to Mark 

278 pp. and two maps, i2mo, cloth, postpaid $1.00 
AT ALL BOOKSELLERS, OR DIRECT FROM 

^he University of Chicag^o Press 



LIGHT WAVES 
and THEIR USES 

By A. A. MiCHELSON 

HSAD OP THE DKrAKTMBMT OP PHYSICS IM THE 

uNivBKsrrv op Chicago 



Thia is not a book for the scientitt alone ; 
it is simple enough to be understood by 
the layman and contains an accurate and 
instractiTO risnnU of what has been 
accomplished in the study of light waves. 



THESE lectures, delivered at the 
Lowell Institute, pmved so popu- 
lar and interesting that it was 
determined to make them available in 
book form. This volume will be found 
of great practical value by all who 
have to solve engineering or mechani- 
cal problems that call for extreme 
accuracy, such as the manufacture of 
instruments, tools, and machinery. 
Numerous practical applications of re- 
cent theories, together with accurate 
illustrations and descriptions of appa- 
ratus add materially to the value of the 
book. Students of physics and astron- 
omy will find here an admirable con- 
densation of the somewhat scattered 
literature of the subject, presented in 
an original and entertaining manner 
and yet with no sacrifice of scientific 
accuracy. The subjects discussed are 
as follows : 

Wave Motion and Interference — Compariw>n of the 
Efficiency of the MicitMCope, Telescope, and Inter- 
ferometer — Application of Interference Methods to 
Measurements of Distances and Angles — Appltca- 
don of Interference Methods to Spectroscopy — Light 
Waves as Standards of Length — Analysis of Uie 
Action of Magnetism on Light Waves by the Inter- 
ferometer and the Echelon — Application of Inter- 
ference Methods to Astronomy — The Ether. 

$2.00, net; postpaid, $2.12 

The University of Chicago Press 

CHICAOO, ILLmOIS 



.X904 



Please send me a copy of Micbelson's Light Waves 
and Their Uses. I ^yj^j^;! $a>xs in payment for same. 




The American Institute 

Outline Courses of Bible Study 



FOR 

HOHE AND CLASS WORK 

* 

The Life of Christ 

By Ernest D. Burton 

The Foresbadowhss of the Christ 

By William R. Harper 

The Foundkg of the Christiaii Chorch 

By Ernest D. Burton 

The Work of the Old Testament Sages 

By William R. Harper 

The Social and Ethical Teachhg of Jesas 

By Shailer Mathews 

The Worli of the Old Testament Priests 

By William R. Harper 

50 Celts. Net For Eadi Select PoslpaU i54 Certs. 



o4dMpt€d to 

Adish Sunday-fcliool QaMcs, 
Church BiUe OaMCS, The 
Young Peopk^t Society, 
The Prayer Meeting, The 
Social Qub^ Private Study 



Each course in neat pamphlet containing 
directions for study for each day and review 
questions with space for written answers for 
each month. 

No reference books required. 



For sjtk by 



mni\}ttfAt^ of Chicago Tf^ttfU 

CMcago and 156 FttOi Avtnae, JVSnv YcHk 



A HEW BOOK 

By 

Pzetideiit 

WllUam Rainey Hazper 

of 
The Unhrenity of Chicago 



RELIGION 

AND THE 

HIGHER LIFE 



•?i 



A COLLECTION of addresses, more or less informal, delivered by the author to companies 
'^^' of young men and women. The topics are the practical questions of the religious life 
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VOLUME V NUMBER 4 



The Elementary School Teacher 

DECEMBER, 1904 

NOTES ON THE WORK OF THE UNIVERSITY 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



WILBUR S. JACKMAN 
Principal 



It is the intention to present from time to time in the pages 
of the Elementary School Teacher a brief summary of work being 
done in the University Elementary School. It is not the intention 
to set this forth as representing perfection in any way, but merely 
for the purpose of giving the patrons and all other friends of the 
school some idea of what is being attempted. These notes, there- 
fore, will appear mainly in the form of reports from pupils and 
teachers with but little or no argument, exposition, or comment. 
Discussions of the work, embodying the reasons therefor, will 
appear in more formal papers which the teachers will prepare as 
they may seem to be needed. The following report is on domestic 
science and textiles. A report of a " morning exercise " is also 
given, showing the way in which the whole school is kept in 
touch with the work of the different parts. The following notes 
are upon what has been done during the fall. 



COOKING AND SCIENCE 



JENNIE SNOW 
Primary Grades 

JOSEPHINE T. BERRY 
Grammar Grades 



Each group of children recites twice a week, except in the first grade. 

One period is for science and preparatory work, and the other for cooking. 

First grade. — The work is fruit juices, fruit, and grains. The children 

193 



194 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

have made grape juice and lemonade. A great deal of number work in 
measuring has been done, such as: How many fourths in one cup? How 
many halves ? How many fourths in one-half ? 12 X 2 = 24 ; 6 X 2 = 12 ; etc. 
The science work connected with this is being done in the grade room. 

Second grade. — The work here is fruit, seeds, and different parts of the 
plant used for food. It is following closely along the science work. Con- 
siderable written work and number has come into the work. The children 
have made grape juice, jelly, and candied apples. 

Third grade. — The science work in the room has been planned as a study 
of evaporation and of the comparative amount of water in different fruits. The 
cooking has followed along the same lines. The children have made jelly 
and plum butter, and are now making raisins. A fair amount of work has 
been done in science. We have tried to let the children answer some of their 
own questions. In watching their jelly boil, and noticing the vapor from it, one 
child asked: "Is there water in grape juice?" To answer it we let them 
distil some grape juice, and they found it contained water. Work with 
vegetables will follow. 

Fourth grade. — The subject here is sugar — what it does, where it is 
found, and how manufactured. The children have canned pears and candied 
pineapple. They have found by experimenting that sugar will help fruit to 
keep its shape. 

Fifth grade. — General purpose: to prepare dishes for a Thanksgiving 
luncheon. 

1. Canned pumpkin for pies : Colonial method of preservation by drying ; 
present method by canning. 

Object of canning: (a) to kill germs by boiling; (6) to exclude germs 
by canning air-tight. We examined molds on the pumpkin after a piece had 
been kept for two weeks, and found them to be tree-like, or branching, in form. 
Later, when some of the canned pumpkin spoiled, we examined the white 
mold developed in the top of the can. 

2. Cranberry marmalade: Cranberries growing wild in Massachusetts 
were early used by colonists. Marmalades are like jelly, except that they con- 
tain pulp as well as juice. The reason they keep is that germs do not thrive 
in such heavy mixtures or in large amounts of sugar. 

3. Hasty pudding: Meal a starch food; proved by iodine test. Expan- 
sion of starch, when heated with moisture. Necessity of cooking starch foods 
a long time at boiling temperature. The same process carried on in the fire- 
place in colonial times, on swinging cranes, and in iron kettles. From this 
lesson children gathered admirably the idea of the difficulty of colonial cooking. 
In their history work they had milled the com. 

4. Com bread: Principle of combination — (a) dry ingredients together; 
(Jb) wet ingn'cdients together; (r) dry and wet mixed together. Use of soda 
and sour milk for lightening. 

The chief object of these lessons has been to illustrate the colonial history 
work; so there is no logical development of science subject-matter. 



WORK OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 195 

Sixth grade. — General topic: fermentation. 

1. Study of agents causing deterioration in foods, by means of (a) mold 
on fruits; (b) gas forming in spoiling pumpkin; (r) micro-organisms in 
colonies in gelatine cultures, collected from the air of the schoolroom and 
halls. Methods of checking the work of these organisms — of preservation; 
drying, salting, smoking, pickling, preserving, canning, etc. 

2. Examples : Types (a) dried apples done in lower grades ; {b) apples, 
cured or dried in salt, sugar, or spices; (c) preserved peaches; (d) canned 
pears; (e) canned tomatoes ; (/) Spanish pickles. 

3. Practical lessons : 

a) Preserved peaches: (i) Method of work: peaches cooked in sauce- 
pans, then canned. (2) Preservation effected by cooking with sugar, and 
sealing. Boiling kills the inclosed germs. Sugar is a poor medium for 
bacteria. Sealing keeps other germs out. 

b) Canned pears. Method of work: fruit cooked in cans, surrounded by 
boiling water. Object and principle the same as in preserved peaches. 

c) Canned tomatoes. Method the same as in canned pears: preserving 
agents — heat, and acid of the tomatoes. 

d) Spanish pickles. Preserving agents — vinegar and spices. 

e) Experiment: Collect micro-organisms from air on gelatine plates. 
Examine the forms thus obtained as an introduction to the lesson to follow 
next week, on yeast. 



TEXTILES 



LELIA PURDY 



Fifth grade. — The children suggested various things which they would 
like to make. Hand-bags ; some to be made for their own use at school for 
carrying books, pencils, erasers, dust-cloths, thumb-tacks, etc.; others were 
thought of as Christmas presents. It was necessary to make a general study 
of materials in order to make an intelligent selection for the hand-bags. Linen, 
rather than cotton, wool, or silk, was decided upon as being more appropriate, 
since it is durable, may be obtained in a coarse weave, and is adaptable to the 
cross-stitch. It furnishes a variety of neutral shades in the natural color. 

The first problem in designing the hand-bags was involved in determining 
length and width ; then the relation of the wide space to the narrower space, 
and the adaptability of the individual design to these spaces, and to the hand- 
bag as a whole. The children were limited in choice only by the fact that no 
finished article was to measure more than eight inches in width. 

A rough outline indicating general proportion of the hand-bag, and a large 
suggestion q{ the design showing whether it was to be an all-over pattern, a 
horizontal stripe or stripes, or a center design, was first drawn with charcoal 



196 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

on rough manila paper. A piece of "try paper" was used to make several 
di£Ferent units, using various combinations of the straight line and dot As 
soon as a desirable unit was invented, each child repeated it in various ways 
to find the most effective arrangement The children were limited to the 
straight line and dot as a motive in their patterns, but were free to use them 
as they chose in the design. 

After each pupil had worked on the invention of a unit until he was for 
the time being satisfied, the group was shown other designs. These were 
studied with reference to spacing and grouping of the straight line and dot 
These designs ranged from the simple straight-line-and-dot motive to the all- 
over pattern with a leaf, stem, or blossom motive, suitable for cross-stitch, 
embroidery, or stenciling. In textiles they could be applied to rugs, table- 
covers, curtains, pillow-covers, and articles of apparel. These designs were 
also studied for the purpose of getting a general idea of the possibilities of 
design, and of its application to certain material. The children were 
encouraged to study and criticise designs of wall paper, tapestries, rugs, etc, 
outside of the class. 

After this general study and criticism of designs, a number of the class 
decided to improve their own designs by rearranging or adding to them. The 
children understood that they studied these designs, not to copy, but to enrich 
their ideas. One little girl said, when an all-over pattern of the holly leaf and 
berry as a motive was shown : ** Oh, please, take it away quick ! It is so pretty 
I'm afraid HI copy it if I look at it any longer." 

As soon as the designs in the straight line and dot were finished they 
transferred them to cross-section paper in dark and light, using a lead-pencil 
for convenience, since the unit of ten had to be changed in order to adapt it to 
the squares. When the design was shown in dark and light, it was necessary 
to select the colors for the cross-stitch pattern. The children tried various 
combinations with colored "school crayons" to find something pleasing. In 
making their choice of colors of floss they were advised to use only one and 
were limited to two colors. 

After the designs were finished in color on the cross-section paper, a 
detailed outline of them was taken on rice paper to use as a guide in trans- 
ferring them to the linen with a piece of carbon paper. In order to get the 
pattern straight with the material, it was necessary to make a " working edge " 
by raveling the warp threads. We then examined some pieces of weaving 
being done on the hand-loom and the Jacquard loom. Those who had been at 
the World's Fair talked of the weaving which they had seen from various 
countries. This led to the thought of how much of the textile industry forms 
a part of the social and commercial world. 

While the patterns were in process of making the children worked at 
various times in committees, dyeing the floss they were to use for woridng the 
cross-stitch design into the linen. Before this work was done, the whole group 



WORK OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 197 

wrote the formula for dyeing, such as : indigo vat — water, 2 gallons ; indigo, 
I ounce; zinc dust, i ounce; slacked lime, i ounce. 

As the work progressed, we frequently needed to refer to operations in 
mathematics that involved linear and liquid measure, units of weight, and the 
use of fractions. 

After the pupils had made an indigo vat and had done some dyeing in it, 
they wrote a letter to Miss Pierce describing the process to her. Some work 
in chemistry on the absorption of oxygen came in here. The misspelled words 
furnished the subject for a spelling lesson. 

Some colored floss that was too bright was neutralized by boiling it with 
logwood chips after they had been soaked over night The thread was colored 
yellow by boiling the white skeins in a solution of fustic chips which had 
been soaked over night, first boiling it an hour in an alum mordant 

The children are now applying their designs by working them on linen in 
the cross-stitch. 



A MORNING EXERaSE 

This exercise occupied the time allowed for the meeting on two mornings 
— two periods of about ten minutes each. After the reading and a song, the 
pupils stood in their places, in turn (the smaller pupils mounting chairs that 
they might be the better seen and more clearly heard), and each showed a 
specimen of what the class had prepared in their class work. Each then gave 
a simple description or explanation of what had been done. 

Reading, first morning, ''The Chocolate Cat," Eugene Field; second 
morning, ** The Johnny Cake." The pupils then reported as follows : 

First grade. — Lemonade: I had half a lemon. I got one-fourth cup of 
lemon juice from it. I put four tablespoons of sugar into the lemon juice and 
filled the cup up with water. 

Grape juice: I put my grapes into a sauce-pan. I covered them over with 
water. I put them on the stove. I boiled them till the skins came off. Then 
I drained them and put four tablespoons of sugar to them and boiled them a 
little more. This is a bottle of the grape juice. 

Second grade, — Grape jelly: First we washed the grapes. We picked 
them off the stems, and then we broke them open. We put them on to boil. 
We strained them and put just as much sugar as we had juice. Then we 
boiled them again until they were thick. We poured the juice into glasses and 
left it over night to get hard. Then we took it home. This (holding it up) is 
a glass of the jelly. 

Taffy apples: We made taffy apples for our Hallowe'en party. We cut 
out the stems and put in sticks. We took three cups of sugar, one-third as 
much water, and some vinegar, and let it boil. We put the thermometer in 
until it went up to 290" ; then we put the apples in. We took them out and 



198 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

turned them around and around. Then we put them on an oiled plate to get 
hard. 

Third grade. — When we boiled our grape jelly we saw the steam come oflF. 
We wondered if there was water in the grapes. We tried to find out. We 
took two flasks (flasks held up). We put grape juice into one and lighted 
the gas under it. At first the steam could not get all the way up the 
tube, but at last it did. It dropped into the other flask, and we had 
enough so each one could taste it. It tasted like soft water. We wanted to 
see if the boiled juice would jelly without sugar. We poured it into a glass, 
and this is it. (Turning glass upside down.) 

Raisins : We wanted to make raisins. We took two kinds of g^pes, and 
each child put one bunch in a lye dip. We just washed the other bunch. We 
wanted to see which would be raisins first. This is the way they look. They 
have been drying for two weeks. We wanted to see how much they would 
lose, so we weighed them. We are going to weigh them again when they 
are dry. 

Fourth grade. — Canned pears: We wanted to can some pears for our 
luncheons. We wanted to know how to can them so they would stay whole. 
We experimented to find out. Some made a syrup and cooked some pears in it, 
and they stayed whole. Some cooked their pears in water and then added the 
sugar, and they broke up. We decided to make our syrup first and cook our 
pears in it. This is a can that William and I put up. 

Candied pineapple: We candied some pineapple. We made a syrup of 
one quarter cup of sugar and two tablespoons of juice. We cooked the pine- 
apple in it until it was soft and the syrup very thick. This (showing a piece) 
is a piece we made. 

Fifth grade. — Com bread : We were making preparations for a Thanks- 
giving dinner, as the Pilgrims used to have it. We know they had com and 
not for a long time wheat, so we thought they probably had com bread, and 
we made some. First we got our dry things together, and mixed them. They 
were : one-half cup of com meal, one teaspoon of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon 
of soda, one saltspoon of salt. Then we mixed our wet things — one-third cup 
of sour milk, one tablespoon of beaten egg, one teaspoon of melted butter. 
Then we mixed all together, and put the dough in an oiled pan, and into the 
oven. We baked it fifteen or twenty minutes. 

Cranberry jelly: We made cranberry jelly for our Thanksgiving dinner. 
The cranberries grew wild in Massachusetts ,and the colonists had them with 
wild turkey. We took a cup of cranberries and picked them over, and washed 
them. Then we put them into a sauce-pan with half a cup of water. We let 
them boil until the shells broke open, and the juice came out. Then we put 
them through a strainer, and had half a cup of juice left. We put half a cup 
of sugar in the juice and cooked it a little while. Then we poured it in hot 
jelly glasses. 



WORK OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 199 

Canning pumpkin: We were canning some pumpkin for Thanksgiving 
pies. First we took all the soft part out of the pumpkin. Then we cut it up 
and peeled it. Then we cut the good part up into little pieces, and put them 
into a Mason jar, and just laid the cover on. Next we put the jar into a 
sauce-pan filled with cold water and let the water boil, so that it would kill 
all the microbes that would make the pumpkin spoil. I forgot to tell that we 
put cold water in the jar with the pumpkin, and the pumpkin cooked till it was 
soft Then we screwed the cover on tight, and put the jars away. Some of 
them spoiled. We thought that we either had not boiled the pumpkin long 
enough, or else the microbes had got in after we boiled them. 

Sixth grade. — An experiment : The sixth grade has been finding different 
ways of preserving food. We knew that we could hang things, like apples, 
up in small pieces, and that they would dry and then keep. The microbes will 
not grow on it then because there is no water; so it will not spoil. One day 
we used salt to draw the water out of green tomatoes. So we thought maybe 
we could draw the water out of fruit with it too. We put pieces of apple 
covered with salt, and sugar and spices too, away, and they kept. The apple 
was dry, and did not spoil. 

Preserving peaches : We are still trying to find a way of putting up fruit 
so that no germs will be in it. Now I'm going to tell you how we preserved 
some peaches. First we pared them, and <:ut them in halves, and took the stones 
out. Then we got one-half cup of sugar and one-half cup of water, and boiled 
them together, stirring till the sugar was dissolved. Then we put the peaches 
in, and boiled them until they were soft. Then we boiled the jars, and filled 
them with peaches and syrup up to the top. Then we put on the rubber and 
screwed the top on tight. We used the sugar to keep the germs from growing. 
Germs do not like sugar. We boiled it to kill the germs that were in it. We 
boiled the jars to kill the germs in them. And we filled them to the top and 
screwed the covers on tight, so that no more could get in. 



THANKSGIVING PROGRAM 

I 

Music — " Come, Ye Thankful People, Come ! " 

Reading — Canticle of the Sun. 

Music — " We Plough the Fields and Scatter." 

Reading — Bible Selections. 

Music — " I Will Praise Th«^ O Lord ! " 

II 

Music — " Song of the Harvest " College Class 

Sentences — "The World is So Full," "The Milkweed Babies". ..First Grade 
Music — " O'er Our Fields " '. Primary Grades 



200 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Sentences — Autumn Second Grade 

Reading — "When the Frost is on the Pumpkin " Fifth Grade 

Music — " Thanksgiving Song " Seventh Grade 

Reading — Auttmin Miss Fleming 

Music — " Autumn Gales " Upper Grades 

Original Verses (see below) — " Autumn " Sixth Grade 

Open to the house for sentiments on autumn and Thanksgiving. 

Play — "01d English Harvest Scene" Third Grade 

Music — "French Harvest Song" Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades 

In a French harvest play given at the Thanksgiving celebration, the 
fourth-grade children were to represent owls who would sing to the harvesters 
at night. They were given the French stanza with the suggestion that they 
set it to music This they did, each child offering a musical setting for a 
phrase, until the song was completed. Such melodies as did not lit into the 
spirit and purpose of the song were rejected by the class. The melody as it 
stands is the work of six of the children. 

LE HIBOU 




J r C I "* I 



Hou, hon, hoa, boo, fait le h i-bon. Je r6-fl6-chis, qnand le monde parle 

m 




Jijjijj ijiilf 



/%Ji 




Quand il dort, je tra-yail-le, hon, hou, hoo. ... 




ijijjijjj " 



WORK OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 201 

Play — " Corn-Husking " Seventh Grade 

(Bringing in the com; reading, "Columbia's Emblem;" entrance of 
farmers ; entrance of buskers ; reading, " Com Ballad ; ** dialogue, 
" Huskers ; " rounds, ** Three Blind Mice," " Scotland's Buming ; " giving 
of prize ; song, " Flow Gently, Sweet Afton ; " dance, " Money Musk ; " 
exit to supper.) Note: This play will appear in full in a later issue of 

this journal. 



AUTUMN PICTURED IN ORIGINAL VERSE BY PUPILS IN THE 

SIXTH GRADE 



The autumn has come, the trees are bare; 
The squirrel is getting of nuts his share; 
The birds have already ceased their song. 
And the wind is whistling the whole day long. 



The glorious autumn days have come; 
The bees have stopped their busy hum; 
The leaves are dropping from the trees, 
And the grass is bending in the breeze. 
The leaves are turning gold and red, 
And dropping to their winter bed. 
Each day is growing a little shorter. 
And the farmers dare not loiter. 
Each day is growing colder, 
And the wind is growing bolder. 



The leaves are red and yellow, 

The apples ripe and mellow; 

The plants their seeds are scattering; 

The nuts are downward pattering; 

The robins south are flying. 

And all the flowers are dying. 



The squirrels their nuts are storing. 
The wind will soon be roaring. 
While the crows are calling. 
And the brown oak leaves are falling. 
Heavy frosts are descending. 
The autumn days are ending. 



i 



THE CURRICULUM OF THE UNIVERSITY 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

AN OUTLINE 

The curriculum of the University Elementary School is in a 
formative stage. A full statement covering the work for a year 
at this time is impossible, but the following outline is presented in 
barest detail for two reasons. First, in its preparation the teachers 
have been called upon to take at least a preliminary view of the 
principles which should control the development of a course of 
study ; second, even this meager statement, mainly from the side 
of material, of what the school seeks to accomplish will give the 
patrons and others a clue which will enable them, perhaps, to 
begin an intelligent study of the school. While the outlines are 
written for the Autumn Quarter, it will be understood that they 
embody much work that will be extended into the winter and, 
indeed, continued throughout the year. 



OUTLINE FOR THE KINDERGARTEN 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



ANNA ELIZABETH ALLEN 



The artificial division of the kindergarten work into subjects that conform 
to three of the other grades is made, first, that the relation between the 
different grades of the school may be more clearly perceived, and, second, 
that these subjects may be seen in their most elementary forms. No such 
divisions will be apparent naturally to the observer, as the work is based 
upon the formation of a community. Everything that will enhance the value 
of this community ideal and make it practical will be used. The plan is 
shaped to this end. The children will be kept out of doors as much as possible, 
when the weather permits, collecting seeds and leaves, working in their gai^en, 
and taking excursions to the lake and parks. 

The cooking as done in the kindergarten is not for the sake of cooking, 
as involving scientific control, but for the social side of the industry. The 
children assist the teachers as they would help their mothers at home. 

Nature (beginnings of science and geography). — Comparison of our pres- 
ent surroundings with those of our summer outings. Watching for birds with 

202 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 203 

which we became familiar last spring, and finding out which ones are left. 
Gathering, classification, and comparison of seeds: (i) growth in and out of 
pods; (2) how distributed. Method of keeping fruit and vegetables during 
the winter. Excursions to parks to watch for birds. Collection of cocoons, 
caterpillars, and leaves, and comparison of landscape with that of our summer 
outing. Excursions to garden to gather seeds and harvest our products. 
Planting of crocus and tulip bulbs. Points of the compass: (i) direction of 
homes from schoolhouse; direction of homes from shops, church, railroads; 
(2) direction of wind, and kinds of winds from the different directions. 
Effect of rain, wind, and sun on familiar areas — home yard, playground, 
garden. Effect of sun in ripening vegetables in garden. 

Social life (history). — Present conditions in our homes: (i) economic: 
(a) supplies and furnishings for kitchen, bedrooms, parlor, dining-room, 
bathroom, etc; (6) heating; (c) clothing; (2) social: (a) individual 
rights; (b) entertainment of guests, and relation between host and guest 
emphasized; Thanksgiving and Hallowe'en parties; Christmas entertainment 
and tree. 

Number. — Used as a limitation in groups of 2, 3, 4, and 5. Simplest 
addition and subtraction as needed and spontaneously done by the children. 
Groups made use of: (i) taking partners in skipping, in marching, and in 
games; (2) committees for housekeeping; (3) blocks necessary for certain 
building ; (4) number of inches in limiting building. Measurement in cooking. 

Literature. — Mother Goose melodies; repetition stories, such as "The 
Old Woman Who Found a Sixpence." Nonsense rhymes: "The Tree" 
(Bjomson) ; "Til Tell You How the Leaves Came Down" (Coolidge) ; 
and other poems. Thanksgiving and other stories : " Little Table, Dish Up " 
(from the Norwegian); "The Invisible Cap" (Cooke's Nature Myths); 
"The Night before Christmas" (anonymous); "The Magic Curtain;" "St. 
Christopher ; " " Story of the First Christmas." 

Clay and Color. — Modeling: marbles and balls (for playthings), flower- 
pots, tea-rests, fruit, vegetables, cocoons, nests, etc. Painting: experimenting 
with colors in paint-box; painting landscapes as seen from our windows, 
fruits, vegetables, etc Decorating: Christmas presents, fiower-pots, and 
tea-rests. 

Hand-work. — Christmas presents. 

Cooking. — (Tanning pumpkins from our gardens ; making for our Thanks- 
giving party — jelly, grape juice, and cookies; for Christmas, candy. 

Games and dramatic work. — Simple romping games : " Cat and Mouse ; " 
" Ck)ing to Jerusalem ; " " CThanging Chairs ; " " Hide and Seek ; " " Hiding the 
Slipper." Nature games: flying seeds; birds and bird life; caterpillar and 
cocoon. Dramatizing stories. 

Music. — Simple scale songs from Primer of Vocal Music (E. Smith). 
Tone-placing: appropriate seasonal songs from collections by Eleanor Smith, 
Neidlinger, Hill, and Gaynor. Rhythm: simple skipping; marching and 
running in time; fiying as birds and seeds; jumping and hopping. 



204 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

OUTLINE FOR FIRST GRADE 

AUTUMN QUASTES 



ELSIE A. WYGANT 



It is difficult to classify the work of little children into the usual depart- 
ments of learning, as science, geography, sociology, etc^ the names seeming 
too large for the very simple work which must make up the beginning of 
knowledge. Yet, because the effort is to give the children experiences and 
observations which shall make a working basis for these subjects later, the 
names are retained. On the Mother hand, a test of the unity of the work would 
be the lack of any sense of division or classification in the minds of the chil- 
dren. They should have simply a problem to the solving of which readini^ 
writing, number, and the other subjects should lend themselves as tools. 

The following outline covers only the work for the fall quarter. 

Beginnings of history. — The farm as the source of food supply. Work 
out processes of flour- and butter-making. The children who had the farm 
work last year will begin with the building of a house irom the standpoint of 
the necessity for shelter. Stories will be told of how primitive peoples, the 
Eskimos, and tropical peoples have met this necessity. The conditions which 
have determined the types of shelter will be made as graphic as possible, and 
the children will invent so much of the primitiye ways as time and the vivid- 
ness of their images allow. Field trips in connection with this work will be 
taken to a farm, to the Field Museum, and to a modem house in the process of 
construction. 

Nature study (beginnings of science and geography). — Landscape: (a) 
vegetation (change of foliage, ripening of fruit, maturing of seed) ; (b) ani- 
mal life (hibernation and metamorphosis) ; (c) daily record of temperature 
as explaining the above changes. Study of the trees to continue throu^ the 
year. Gire of pets in the indosure below our windows. Collection and classi- 
fication of pebbles. Making of crystals. (For details see S^ember number 
of the Elementary School Teacher, p. j6.) Physiographic point; wave-action. 
Points of compass learned and held in mind during field trips. 

Literature. — The daily hearing or reciting of a poem. The poems to be 
selected largely from The Posy Ring and Robert Louis Stevenson's Child's 
Garden of Verse. Stories : .£oIus and the Bag of Winds," Hermes, Phaethon, 
Philemon and Baucis, Bellerophon, Browning's story of ''Muleykdi'* and 
" The Pied Piper of HamUn ; " Kipling's " Just So Stories," and " Tomaii and 
the Elephants ; " stories of Christmas in Holland, Italy, and Norway, and the 
legend of St CThristopher. Gassic fairy-tales. 

Reading and writing. — Reading will be used daily in connection with the 
other work. Recognition of words and sentences on the bladcboard by the 
younger group. The older group will also have leaflets in script and print, and 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 205 

the reading of rhymes and jingles from various first readers. Daily use of 
phonics as a help to ear-training and enunciation. Both groups will write 
upon the blackboard and upon large paper with marking crayon and soft 
pencils. 

Number, — The number work grows out of the problems which arise prin- 
cipally in connection with cooking, manual training, and science. The manual 
training will demand linear measure; one-half, one-fourth, and one-eighth of 
an inch; and ability to make rectangles, circles, and triangles. Cooking 
requires the recognition and use of standard units of measure, ability to tell 
time, and the use of the fractions one-half, one-third, one-fourth, and one- 
eighth. The science utilizes counting to one hundred by one's and two's, as in 
the reading of the thermometer and the use of metric system of weights. The 
constant use of the foot-ruler makes familiar the numbers up to twelve. Comr 
bining and separating these in actual work emphasize their relations, and 
with these the fundamental processes are all touched upon. Reading and 
writing of two-figure numbers. 

Manual training. — A large dry-goods box will be remodeled for the house, 
and the necessary partitions, doors, windows, and stairs will be made. Gird- 
board : book-covers, box for minerals, case for tree collection. Cloth : duster 
for desks, and Christmas presents. Paper: envelopes, picture-frames, circle- 
makers, etc 

Cooking. — The cooking will be in connection with the science work. The 
amount of juice in various fruits will be noted by the making of lemonade, 
grape juice, orangeade, cranberry jelly, apple sauce, and attempts to use the 
dry fruits, as bananas, etc. Drying of apples and peaches. Find edible seeds 
and prepare them for eating, as com, wheat, oats, nuts, etc Making of butter. 

Art. — Seeds and leaves will be used as units of design; later stenciled 
units. Design to be applied to a frieze for the wall, book-covers, and Christ- 
mas presents. Illustrations in paint, colored crayon, and chalk, of stories, and 
of activities seen upon the field trips. Drawing, painting, and modeling will be 
used in science and upon field trips as records and to further observation. In 
this work good spacing and some idea of composition will be kept in mind. 

Music. — Special work in ear-training. Singing and notation of the scale 
and simple musical phrases. The children will be encouraged to originate 
texts and music for these melodies. Songs will be taught for school festivals, 
for the seasons, and to illustrate the work of the grade. 



OUTLINE FOR SECOND GRADE 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



ELSABETH VANE PORT 



Social life and history. — Autumn: food — a review of its sources and a 
study of its distribution in the city; winter: clothing; spring: shelter. 
Autumn: (a) Fruits and vegetables — gathering, packing, transportation. 



2o6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

boats, docks, stores; visits to fann and truck garden, (b) Grain — kinds, 
growth, harvesting, hauling, trains, elevators, mills; visits to g^n elevator 
and flour mill, (r) Meat and fish — very general idea of packing and shipping 
of meat; fisheries, sailboats, nets, fishermen's lives. (</) Dairy products — 
short review of dairy farm and visit, if possible, to Walker-Gordon Laboratory. 
In all this work many transient pictures will be made on the sand-table of 
farms, lake, docks, city, etc. In order to give a little more meaning to these 
occupations and have the children see the fundamental processes beneath the 
complicated ones, some of the primitive ways of obtaining and preparing food 
will be discussed and tried : (a) experiments in the making of primitive out- 
door fires; (b) roasting potatoes and chestnuts; (r) roasting meat; (d) 
boiling meat in the water heated by hot stones ; (e) baking eggs in clay; (/) 
baking fish on boards; (g) primitive grinding of grain and making of flat 
cakes; (A) making butter (i) in skin bags, (2) in primitive chums. For 
illustrative stories see Literature. 

Geography. — The study of direction, which has been dealt with in the two 
previous years, will be taken up again in the second grade, with still further 
meaning. The children will discover the direction of the school from their 
homes, the parks, the lake, down-town, etc Large, simple maps will be 
made in the sand-pan and on the board showing the relative position of the 
school to the elevators, the farm, and Beverly Hills. In order to do this, a 
rough idea of distance will be necessary. This will be gained chiefly through 
noting the time necessary to get to certain places. 

Nature-study. — The work of the first quarter will be largely observation 
of the changes in nature due to cooler weather and approaching winter. Each 
day some one item will be added to the record. From these a kind of calendar 
will be made and printed for the children's reading. The records will be of 
general observation of insects, birds, flowers, vegetables, weeds, and trees. 
In order to make the observation more definite, some individual from each of 
the above classes will be selected for special study. These will be found on 
various trips to the garden, Midway, parks, lots, farm, and Beverly Hills. 
The changes in the rising and setting of the sun will be noted, and also the 
lengthening of the noon shadows and lowering temperature ; daily observation 
of clouds, wind, rain, frost, and snow. In connection with cooking there will 
be a special classification and study of seeds, their manner of storing food, and 
their protective coverings as used for food by us. Seeds will be collected and 
experiments made to find out how they use their food supply. The children 
will plant crocus bulbs in the court-yard. 

Literature. — Hiawatha's fishing ; story of Mondamin ; Ab and the pitfall ; 
Mammoth Feast; Ceres; Ruth. These stories are chosen particularly as 
illustrative of the primitive cooking and food-getting. In addition, the children 
will have many of Stevenson's and other short poems, and one or two nature- 
myths and fairy-tales. 

Reading and xvriting. — The children will read constantly from the black- 
board, and will have written and printed lesson slips in connection with history 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 207 

and science. They will use the first simple readers also. With the work in 
phonics certain games or exercises of pronunciation of syllables will be used 
in order to help in getting clear, clean enunciation. Writing will be necessary 
in the keeping of records of observations, in making stories, and in keeping 
recipes. The children will begin wordbooks, in which will be kept the words 
learned during the year. 

Number, — The cooking, making, and account-keeping will bring about a 
familiarity with the more common units of measure, with the writing of money, 
and with fractions such as two-thirds, three-fourths, and three-eighths. Inci- 
dental to the other work will come drill in addition and subtraction and the 
multiplication tables of two's and three's. Writing and reading numbers of 
four places. 

Manual training. — The principal piece of hand-work for the quarter will 
be the making of a grocery store as a present for the first g^de. The children 
will also make boxes for seed collections and insects, portfolios, and Christmas 
presents. 

Cooking. — Making of grape juice and preserving fruit. Preparing apples 
in different ways. Cooking oatmeal. Parching sweet com. Popping com. 
Christmas candy. 

Art. — (a) Painting of landscape, with particular view to showing 
autumnal changes, (h) Drawing of figures — harvesting and loading fmit, 
churning, fishing; farm animals; work in color and clay illustrative of 
primitive hunting and cooking, (r) Designs for portfolios. 

Music. — Special work in ear-training. Analysis of two- three- and four- 
pulse rhythm. Singing and notation of short songs. The children will be 
encouraged to originate simple melodies with their texts. Songs for festivals 
and the seasons, and such as will correlate with the work of the grade, will 
be chosen. 



OUTLINE FOR THIRD GRADE 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



GUDRUN THORNE-THOMSEN 



History. — Subject for the year: trade, transportation, era of early dis- 
covery. Autumn quarter: visits to South Water Street, Illinois Central 
freight d^pot, docks, wharfs, steamers, a large grocery store. Trace some 
natural, also some manufactured, goods from their sources to the consumer. 
Study the function of a store. The children to have charge of the materials 
needed for their g^de. Fitting out of a store, the children taking turns to be 
salesmen, bookkeepers, etc. Early Norse and early Greeks. Geography of 
these countries as a background. Study of products of different localities, 
barter, exchange. 



2o8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Geography. — Typical environments: Norway — mountains, fjord-coast, 
islands, bays, harbors; climatic conditions, sunless winters of the north, mid- 
night sun in summer; snow and ice; forests with their animal life; the sea 
with its life. Greece — river-valleys, hills, coasts, islands; climate. 

Nature-study. — Field trips (to some of the following places) to study the 
autumn aspect of the landscape: (i) our garden; (2) Beverly Hills; (3) south 
shore; (4) north shore; (5) swamp; (6) Purington; (7) the prairie. Materials 
gathered on these excursions will be the basis for study in the school: (i) 
plants; (2) insects; (3) soil; (4) snakes; (5) toads and frogs. Points for 
study: How do plants come back to us in the spring? Comparison between the 
plants as now seen, and as studied in the spring. This will involve a study of 
the parts of plants and their function. Enlarged roots and underground stems, 
such as beets, parsnips, turnips, potatoes, left to sprout ; the reason why. The 
purpose of the fruit to the plant. The reason for color and form, and for 
shells in nuts. Other devices of plants for distributing seeds. The children 
will plant tulip, crocus, and hyacinth bulbs in front of the school building. 
Window-boxes will be made to hold plants for study ; also flowers for decora- 
tion of room. Insects: How do insects come back in the spring? Study 
butterflies, moths, ants, and bees. Insect-cages, ant-houses, and possibly a 
beehive will house the insects for close observation. It will also be possible to 
see snakes and toads burrow in the sand and to keep them until spring. 
Soil: Characteristics of the soils from the different areas visited and their 
properties. Sand and its formation; swamp soil and its formation; garden 
soil and its formation; clay and its formation. Economic uses of these soils. 
Metals (work related to history) : copper, iron, and lead ; where found, 
mining, uses. The children will make furnaces; melt, mold, and cast in 
lead. Experiments related to cooking. 

Literature and oral reading. — The children will be told several Norse 
sagas of the Vikings ; stories from the saga of King Harold the Fair Haired 
and the Volsunga saga; the Odyssey, parts read by children from Palmer's 
translation, parts read, or told by the teacher ; Norse myths : " Thor's Journey 
to Jotunheim," " The Death of Balder," " The Gift of the Dwarfs ; " Greek 
myths : ** Apollo and the python," " Athena and Perseus," " Hermes and the 
Cave of Winds ; " faiiy-tales to be told to the children : " The Land East of 
the Sun and West of the Moon," " The Seven Swans." Through the simple, 
picturesque language of the sagas and the Odyssey, as also from the direct 
childlike imaginings of the fairy-tales, the children will learn to appreciate, 
and unconsciously to imitate, the classic style. Poems will be studied with a 
view to rendering them in a beautiful way to others : " Windy Nights," " The 
Shadow," " The Lamplighter," by Robert Louis Stevenson. For Thanksgiving 
exercises : Greek autumn festival dramatized. For Christmas : a Norwegian 
Christmas scene. 

' Reading and writing. — For some of the children considerable phonic drills 
and reading of very easy stories. CXher children will read for information in 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 209 

history, geog^phy, and science. All the children will keep records of their 
work in written form. Through the necessity of making these written records, 
spelling, rules of gnunmar, punctuation, and capitalization will be taught. 

Number. — If the children are actually doing work which has social value, 
they will gain accurate knowledge of the activities in which they are engaged. 
The children will keep a record of all their expenses for materials used in the 
school, and will have charge of a store which will distribute this material. In 
cooking, weights and measures will be learned. The children also will keep 
accounts of the cost of ingredients. Proportions will be worked out in cook- 
ing recipes. Number is demanded in almost all the experimental science work, 
and in construction in wood and cardboard. Outcome : automatic use of easy 
numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, short division, and easy fractions. 

Manual training. — Making of portfolios, boards for drinking-cups) Christ- 
mas gifts — sleds, boats, wagons. 

Cooking. — Drying of grapes for raisins (evaporation). Comparison of 
the amount of water in different fruits. Making of plum butter and the reason 
for sealing it for winter use (molds). Study of starch. Starch grains in 
different vegetables ; the effect of heat on them ; the cooking temperature of 
starch; the thickening power of starch. Cooking of vegetables, white sauce, 
and soups. Christmas candies. 

Art. — Drawing and painting: records of the study of plants, seeds, and 
fruits; autumn scenes (nature-study). Blackboard drawing of hills, moun- 
tains, plains, coasts, animals in the northern forests (geography). Scenes 
illustrating early transportation, men on rafts, in dugouts, people exchanging 
products (history). Stories illustrated (literature). Designs to decorate port- 
folios ; also to decorate bowls and vases made in clay. Clay-modeling : vases ; 
bowls for school and home use ; Christmas presents. 



OUTLINE FOR FOURTH GRADE 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



GERTRUDE VAN HOESEN 



During the previous years the children have been getting acquainted with 
their environment, and know to a certain degree what the prominent features 
are. But the important characteristic of movement — change — has not been 
emphasized. In the fourth grade the children study the growth of Chicago, 
not as a closed book, but as an interesting, progressive drama, worthy of close 
attention. It is necessary, therefore, that the study of the simpler social 
organs go hand in hand with the history of the city. The story of their 
beginnings, their growth, and the reasons for instituting them will explain 



2IO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

their present conditions. It is also necessary that a study of the present 
physiographic condition be made, for it is only through this phase that 
the children can get any idea of what our city means. For Chicago illustrates 
man's struggle and conquest over physiographic conditions. The work has 
been planned with the idea of giving the children some idea of the relation of 
a city's growth to a geographical situation. 

HISTORY 

I. Civics. 

1. Water-supply: (a) Present condition. Visit the pumping stations. 
How is the water carried to our homes? Laying of water-mains, (b) Story 
of the first crib, (r) Examination of water. Experiments in purifying — 
(i) filtering, (2) distilling. What is the city doing to furnish pure water? 

2. Drainage: (a) Sewerage — how laid. (6) Story of the reclaiming of 
the swamps. 

3. Illumination: How is the city lighted? Comparison with other cities. 
History of the illumination of the dty. 

II. I. History of Chicago at the time when only Indians lived here: 
(a) Study of the old water routes. (6) Appearance of the country, (c) 
Industries, (d) Transportation means and routes to the East 

2. Early French traders. 

3. Story of Marquette and Joliet 

GEOGKAPHY 

I. Field work. 

1. South shore. 

2. Swamp at Seventy-fifth Street. 

3. North shore. 

4. Purington clay-beds. 

Special points to be made in land formation : 

1. Building coasts — south shore: (a) Formation of sand-bars, (fi) 
Gradual change from inclosed lagoon through the swamp formation to dry 
land, (r) Explanation of ridges. 

2. Wearing coasts — north shore: (a) Formation of difiFs. (Jb) Forma- 
tion of ravines, (r) River action. 

3. Swamp formation — Seventy-fifth Street: (a) Conditions for forma- 
tion, (h) Conditions for change. 

4. Clay-beds at Purington: (a) Examination of clay. (&) Examination 
of pebbles found in clay; comparison with pebbles on the lake shore, (c) 
Formation of clay. (</) Its use ; visit the brick yards. 

II. I. Geography and topography of Illinois : (a) Its old river routes. (6) 
Its relation to Lake Michigan, and to the Chicago and Calumet Rivers. 

2. The St. Lawrence Basin in its relation to Chicago, i. e, a waterway 
from the Old Worid to the New. 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 2 1 1 

NATURE-STUDY 

I. Bird life: Identify and study the habits of as many of our common 
birds as can be found. This will lead to a study of our winter birds, as it is 
too late in the season to find the birds that are here for the sunmier. The 
class will use Lange's Birds of Indiana. 

II. Field work. 

Note. — On all excursions a camera will be used, but the children will also 
carry and use sketching materials. 

The excursions noted below will form one of the basic points in the study 
of Chicago : 

1. South shore. 

2. Beverly Hills. 

3. Purington clay-beds. 

4. Swamp. 

5. North shore. 
Special points : 

1. A comparative study of plant life on these areas: (a) The collection 
and identification of plants. (&) The identification of the trees; note 
especially (i) where found, i. e., the nature of the soil; (2) mode of growth 
— reason for it. (c) Examination of soils, if necessary to discover the relation 
of soil constituency to growth, (d) How do these plants scatter their seeds? 

2. A comparative study of animal life: (a) Habits of these animals — 
food, homes, etc. (b) Their preparation for winter. 

The class will reproduce on the sand-pan the special typical features of 
each area. 

ni. Weather record. Special points : 

1. Slant of sun's rays. Measurement taken weekly by means of the 
skiameter. The only point made this term will be the fact that the slant varies 
and the relation of variation to the position of the sun in the sky. 

2. Average temperature. 

IV. Experimental science in connection with cooking. 

V. The children will make a tulip bed under the front windows, and 
plant crocus and snowdrop on the lawn. They will fill the window-boxes 
with house-plants, of which they will have the care, and start a number of 
different bulbs indoors. They will also set out several varieties of small fruits. 

ENGUSH 

I. Literature. 

1. Story of Siegfried. 

2. Group of Rides: (a) "John Gilpin's Ride." (b) "How the Good 
News was Carried from Ghent to Aix." (c ) " Sheridan's Ride." (rf) " Paul 
Revere's Ride." 

3. Poems and stories of heroism. 



212 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

II. Speech, oral reading, and dramatic art. 

1. The dramatization of some part in the celebration of the autumn 
festivals; e. g., Hallowe'en, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. 

2. The study of the " Group of Rides " mentioned under Literature. 

3. The telling of favorite stories. 

The children will not be expected to read the poems and stories at first 
An endeavor to establish a feeling for the beauty of style will be made by 
reading to them beautiful poems and stories. These stories and poems may 
or may not be read later by the pupils. 

III. Reading. 

1. For information, in connection with the work under consideration. 

2. For pleasure: (a) fairy-stories and fables, {h) Robert Louis Steven- 
son's poems, (r) The poems mentioned under Literature, (d) Parts of 
Baldwin's Siegfried, (e) Stories of animals. 

If the class, or members of it, are unable to read silently the reading 
matter which is necessary, a systematic drill in phonics will be carried on 
which will give those children the necessary help. 

IV. Spelling. The children will each keep a book in which will be written 
every word that is misspelled and every word for which any child has asked 
during a written lesson. By learning these words the children get command 
of the vocabulary necessary to the work of the year. 

V. Writing. The natural demands of the subjects of study for writing 
is constant. The children will write papers of many kinds : 

1. Records: (a) of science work; (b) of excursion; (c) of cooking, 
i. e., recipe books. 

2. Stories. 

3. Letters. 

4. Expense accounts. 

5. Songs. 

Skill to be acquired through the above work: G>rrect use of capitals, 
period, interrogation point, and quotation marks; the use of the apostrophe 
in possessives and some contractions; and a few very simple uses of the 
comma ; very simple paragraphing. 

FRENCH 

Chansons de jeu: " Savez-vous planter des choux?" "II ctait une 
bcrgcre ; " " Le mer est bien tranquille ; " " Sur le pont d* Avignon ; " " Au 
clair de la lune." 

Stories of Marquette and Joliet at St. Ignace ; story of Marquette's winter 
at Chicago; fairy-tales told, read, and dramatized. French luncheon and 
games once a week. Reference grammar and reader: Part I of Beginners* 
Book in French, by Mile. Sophia Doriot. 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 213 

GERMAN (first YEAR) 

Instruction mostly oral. The expressions for every-day activities will be 
learned. We shall have a great many games, rhymes, riddles, songs, and 
dialogues. 

ARrrHMETIC 

In the correlation necessary to the general work of the grade, the follow- 
ing should be the outcome in arithmetical knowledge : 

1. Familiarity with the use of the multiplication tables through the 12's. 

2. Tables of dry and liquid measures in connection with cooking and 
history. . 

3. Tables of linear, square, and cubic measures in connection with manual 
training and nature-study. 

4. Ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers as rapidly 
as is consistent with the general development of the individual child. 

5. Use of simple fractions and decimals in connection with nature-study, 
cooking, and manual training. 

6. Keeping of simple accounts. 

MANUAL TRAINING 

Wood : Screen — cleaning and staining a table in grouproom ; Christmas 
gifti. Cardboard: Portfolios for work. Clay: Sec Art. 

COOKING 

Study of sugar: Making of vinegar for Christmas candies. Vinegar 
plant — what it is and what it does. Acids and what they are. Canning 
peaches and pears. Making candied pineapple. Where sugar is found, and 
how it is manufactured. Foods in which we find sugar. Christmas candies. 

ART 

I. Drawing and painting. 

1. Landscapes: (a) Inmiediate landscape showing autumnal changes. 
(b) Typical areas visited. 

2. Trees and plants growing on the areas visited. 

3. Illustrative work. 

4. Designs : (a) For portfolios, (b) For pottery, 
II. Qay. 

1. Animals in connection with nature-study. 

2. Statuettes and tiles in connection with history and literature. 

3. Pottery: (c) For use in school, i. e., jardinieres, (b) For Christmas 
presents. 

MUSIC 

Voice-training. Exercises in the sharp keys for sight-reading and nota- 
tion. Each group will be encouraged to write a composite original song on a 
topic suggested by the children. They will notate this song in their music 
notebooks. Harvest, Thanksgiving, and Christmas songs will be given; also 
German and French dramatic songs. 



214 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

OUTLINE FOR FIFTH GRADE * 

AUTUMN QUAKnX 



CATHERINE PIERCE 



The work for the quarter is mainly grouped about the history which is 
an attempt to meet the needs of the children's widening social interest, and 
also about the field work which give them a closer acquaintance with their 
immediate surroundings. 



The history of the previous grade is that of Chicago itself. The history of 
this grade takes a backward step to that earlier period which helped make 
Chicago possible and which is familiar to the children through ^mily tradition. 

Study of the Pljrmouth colony — occupations, industries, and development 
of self-government (a) Home — occupations of family; appearence of 
house; manners, dress, and customs. (&) Farm — occupations, (c) Village 
(Plymouth as type) — history of settlement; town meetings; trade and 
occupations. 

The children will spin, ^e, and weave; make candles and soap; arrange 
a colonial room; make drawings and sketches of each other dressed in 
colonial costume and carrying on typical occupations. 



1. Study of geographic conditions influencing the settlement and develop- 
ment of New England. 

2. Field work in areas about Chicago that show physiographic likeness to 
the New England region: (a) Stony Island (gladation) ; (b) Glencoe 
(stream action and wearing coast). 

3. Stu^ of the topography and climate of North America as a whole. 

4. Use of political maps in connection with the study of current events. 

5. Making of maps in sand and chalk-modeling; making sketches and 
models in sand-pan of areas visited in field trips. 

SOENCB 

1. Field work. Study of plant societies in swamp, ridge, and meadow. 
Relation of plants to soil and water, and their methods of reproduction. 

2. Garden. Preparation of a tulip-bed and planting of bulbs on the school 
grounds. 

3. Meteorology. Observations recorded to enable an understanding of the 
climate of North America: (a) rainfall and temperature; (&) sun slant and 
length of day; (r) relation of sun slant to temperature. 

4. Experiments connected with a study of colonial industries : (a) Textile 
work — study of fibers used; dyeing — action of adds and alkalis on vegetable 

^ Prepared largely by Mary Reed ; on leave of absence for 1904-5. 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 2 1 5 

and animal fibers. (&) Cooking — relation of heat to food; study of starch, 
(r) Soap-making — action of acids on alkalis. 

5. Written records of all work done and observations made, illustrated by 
drawings, sketches, and photographs. 

LITERATURE AND ORAL READING 

The literature is selected to supplement the work in the history of the 
Plymouth colony. The children will read selections from Bradford's Plymouth 
Plantation and Hawthorne's Grandfather's Chair, also Longfellow's "Miles 
Standish." For more dramatic expression Tennyson's "The Revenge" will 
be studied carefully. Some simple dramatization may be made, should the 
work in history or literature call for it. 

ENGUSH 

Through records kept in the science and geography lessons and frequent 
composition work connected with history, it is expected that the children 
will gain a fre^ and correct use of written English. Attention will be given to 
paragraphing, to punctuation, and to principal parts of the sentence. 

FRENCH 

The most popular French historic rounds will be dramatically sung and 
played by the children of the fifth grade. The conversation at the French 
luncheons and the vocabulary needed in the playing of French games will give 
the idiomatic twist of the language so characteristic of a people. The reading 
will center around Acadian life, its relation to Normandy, the friendship of 
the French for the Indians, etc. The thought of the reading lesson will be 
illustrated by the dramatic presentation of the most characteristic events of 
Acadian life. For a reference grammar the grade will use Part II of 
Beginners' Book in French, by Mile. Doriot 

GERMAN (second YEAR) 

Short review of last year's vocabulary. In grammar, singular and plural 
of very common nouns. We shall read Foster's Geschichten und MarcHen. 
Conversation: dialogues, questions, etc., about every-day life Nursery 
rhymes, riddles, songs, and simple poems. 

NUMBER 

The number work ot the quarter will be correlated with the subjects given 
below. Exercise will be given in fundamental processes whenever necessary. 

1. Working-plans for looms and Christmas work requiring scale drawing; 
linear and square measure and cost of material. 

2. Addition and subtraction of decimals through use of metric weights; 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions through use of 
recipes. 

3. Linear and square measure through field work and making of tulip- 
bed: fractions and decimals in use of rain-gauge; long division in averaging 
of temperature and rainfall. 



2l6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

4. The keeping of simple accounts will be taught in connection with the 
children's use of the school-supply fund. 

HANI>-W0RK 

1. Textiles: spinning, dyeing of threads; weaving rug for colonial 
room; making small bags worked in cross-stitch, and samplers. 

2. Manual training: (a) making of looms, trenchers, and hornbooks as 
required in the textile work and history study; (h) making articles for 
Christmas gifts, with special attention to working-drawings and technical 
excellence. 

COOKING 

1. The making of dishes illustrating the methods of colonial cooking, 
including the milling of com for flour and cooking by an open fire; prepara- 
tion of a Thanksgiving luncheon; making Christmas candies, using vinegar 
made by the fourth grade. 

2. A study of starch. 

AKT 

1. Design : The art for the quarter will be the more formal presentation 
of the principles of design growing out of the work in textiles and manual 
training. 

2. Color: Records of field work and seasonal changes; illustrations of 
poems studied; studies of colonial costumes. 

MUSIC 

Season songs. Exercises for sight-reading and notation. One original 
song with its notation. Characteristic songs in French and German, and one 
typical Puritan hymn. 



OUTLINE FOR SIXTH GRADE 

AXrrUMN QUARTER 



ANNA HIGGINS 



. HISTORY 

The aim of the work in history is to broaden the view of colonial life in 
America, by adding the life of the French to that of the English and Dutch 
already studied, to compare the French and the English life in the New World, 
going back into the home countries to account for the contest, with emphasis 
on the differences in their ideas of government. The climax will be the 
coming together of the French and English in the New World, the failure of 
the French, and the success of the English, in the French and Indian War. 

The class will study the French in America, their coming, something of 
the life at home and the conditions in the Old World that led to their coming ; 
the great fishing industries in America; their interesting contact with the 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 217 

Indians (Parkman and Champlain's journals) ; their colonial life; a seignior- 
age; the soldier, the explorer, the trader, the missionary (Parkman and 
Bourinot) ; their life in Canada ; their spreading out ; the voyages to the 
Mississippi ; La Salle, Marquette, Joliet (Louisiana Historical Society Papers ; 
Jesuit relations ; visit to Chicago Historical Society) ; the causes and 
results of the French and Indian War. Sand-modeling, map-drawing, and 
illustration with pencil and water-colors will be an integral part of the work. 
A seigniorage will be built. 

Then will follow the struggle of the English colonists with the mother- 
country. Stress will be laid upon the great industrial feature of the struggle, 
and the ideals of the colonists as to government Here we shall come in 
touch with France again in an interesting way. 

The last quarter will be devoted to Greece, and we shall try to show that 
there have been struggles for liberty in times long past. A glimpse of the 
Greek fighting his Bunker Hill at Marathon will be followed by a study of 
Greek physical culture and games. The civic pride of the Athenians will be 
shown by a study of the Parthenon, and the children will consider the work 
of the civic improvement associations of our own city. 

GEOGRAPHY 

North America : (a) Topography, mountains, plains — central and coastal ; 
interpretation of existing conditions. (&) Mountains, glaciers; excursion to 
Stony Island; mining and miner's life; smelting of ores, (c) Rivers; St. 
Lawrence, Mississippi ; structural study, and how they affected the settlement 
of the country. (Here touching the history, the early French settlers in 
Canada and the Mississippi Valley.) 

Sand models, chalk models, and maps will be made by the class. 

SCIKNCB 

1. Field work: Preparation of plants and animals for change of season, 
especially underground provision of plants, bulbs, roots, etc.; collection for 
mounting; form and structure of bulbs and other underground forms; ani- 
mals that migrate and animals that hibernate. 

2. Garden work: (a) Care of strawberries planted in the spring, pre- 
paring them for winter and for next year's growth. (&) Gathering of potatoes 
planted in the spring, (c) Planting of tulips around the fountain ; preparation 
of the beds for winter, {d) Planting of daffodils in pots for winter blooming. 

3. Change in weather affecting plants and animal life; distribution of 
sunshine; variation of temperature; rainfall. 

4. Heating of houses ; simple experiments in heat. 

LITERATUUS 

The literature will add to the picture of the French life at home and in 
America at the time of the exploration and settlement of Canada and the 
Mississippi Valley by the French. Harriet Martineau's Peasant and Prince; 



2l8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

selections from Parker's Seats of the Mighty; selections from Evangeline, 
The story of St. Francis will give an idea of the missionary spirit. Will read 
the " Flowers of St. Francis," and Whittier's " The Fisherman." 

FRENCH 

Chansons de jeu: "Avoine, Avoine, Avoine;" "Malbrough s'en va-t-en 
guerre ; " " Frere Jacques ; " " Quand Biron voulut danser ; " " Au clair de la 
lune ; " " Noel." 

Stories of La Salle at the court of Louis XIV. La Salle with Illinois 
Indians — their habits and customs; paints — ochres, clays. Indian feasts. 

History of the potato: Peru to Paris; dramatic reception of the potato 
at the French court. 

Parmentieu and Franklin — their work for the poor; the instigating of 
bread-making under supervision of the French government 

Imaginary trip to Paris ; French life and habits ; the market-place, store, 
etc. 

Reference grammar: Le Francois pratique, by Paul Bercy; Contes et 
l^endes. 

GERMAN (third YEAR) 

Singular and plural nouns; use of the definite article. Read Foster's 
Geschichten und Marchen, G>nversation based upon animal stories and 
anecdotes. This class will give a Christmas play. 

MATHEMATICS 

Drawing to a scale ; fundamental processes with integers and fractions in 
building a French seigniorage in history. 

2. Comparisons of areas in history and geography. 

3. Values of products in geography. 

4. Planting of tulip-bed calls for circumference and area of circle: (a) 
Area of triangle ; meaning and history of some units of measure ; cutting and 
drawing different kinds of triangles, comparing areas with areas of rectangles ; 
find area of triangle, (b) Circle: radius, diameter, circumference; cutting 
and laying triangle on circle ; find relation of circumference to diameter ; find 
area of circle; find area of part of circle. 

In all the work mathematical expression will be emphasized, and the 
equation or mathematical sentence used. 

MANUAL TRAINING 

The class will plant bulbs in the schoolrooms for early blooming. For 
these they will need window-boxes, which they will make. They will plant 
tulips around the fountain in the court. This bed will need to be protected* 
and the children will build a rail around the bed. They will also make some 
hotbed covers. They will make a large loom in connection with their textile 
work. 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 219 

TEXTILES 

Weaving of coarse linen and wool. From the linen they will make a 
table-cover for the schoolroom. Construction of looms. Flower-pot covers 
made, and made from raffia. Making of costumes needed in the school. Use 
of the sewing-machine. 

CX)0KING 

Fruit cooking, canning, and preserving by different methods. Experi- 
ments with the keeping of fruits under different conditions will lead to the 
study of fermentation, which will be considered further in connection with 
the use of yeast in bread-making. The bread-making will extend into the 
Winter Quarter, to be followed by work in batters and dough, and experiments 
in methods of lightening them. 

ART 

Illustration of history — sea, boats, coast; some pictures of the French 
country and life at home, and some of the life in the new country. Illustration 
of description and story in literature. Illustration in geog^phy. Landscape 
work in nature-study. Christmas booklets. 

MUSIC 

Voice culture. Exercises in all keys for sight-reading and notation. 
Original songs as musical self-expression; for example, a song of the 
French explorers, or setting to music *' The Fishennan " in the Songs of Labor. 
Songs of the harvest, of Thanksgiving, and of Christmas. French and Ger- 
man songs for plays and games. 

GYMNASIUM 

Games, indoor and outdoor, will be a feature of the work: "Fox and 
Goose," " Dodge Ball," " Three Deep," battle-ball and basket-ball, etc Rhythm 
work — skip, slide, and hop dancing-steps. Free exercises in the gynmasium, 
and in the classroom for rest. Apparatus work on the ladders, rings, ropes, 
poles, and beams. 



OUTLINE FOR SEVENTH GRADE 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



HARRY ORRIN GILLETTE 



HISTORY 

Note on the year's work, — Expansion of the United States from the 
thirteen states to its present limits, and the development of the nation industri- 
ally, socially, and politically. Consideration of some of the important present 
social and civic problems. Gassroom study and reference reading; visits to 
the rooms of the Chicago Historical Society and the Field Columbian Museum. 
Excursions to great industrial plants: ore docks, steel mills, an oil refinery, 
a grain elevator, and the McCormick Harvester Works. 



220 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Outline far the quarter.— The expansion of the United States. The rise 
and development of industries, such as agriculture, transportation, mining, 
manufacture, communication. 

1. The social and industrial causes of the Revolution. 

2. The thirteen original states, their industries, their social and political 
conditions. 

3. The Appalachian Mountains as a barrier. 

4. The gradual settlement of Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Northwest 
Territory. Pioneer life. The pioneer spirit. Transportation on land and 
water. The work of George Rogers Clark. The Louisiana Purchase and 
Lewis and Clark. 

5. The rise of industries. Economic, civic, and social conditions. 

GEOGRAPHY 

The geography of the year includes that of North and South America; 
its relation to the expansion of the American people. 
Outline for the quarter. — North America. 

1. The thirteen original states — the coastal plain, and the New England 
region. 

2. The character of the Appalachian Mountains which constituted them so 
great a barrier. 

3. The Great Valley, the Piedmont Plateau, and the Allegheny Plateau. 

4. Kentucky and Tennessee, the states first settled west of the mountains, 
and the reasons why they were settled first. 

5. The Northwest Territory; Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wis- 
consin. 

6. The Mississippi Valley as a whole: the Ohio Valley; the Mississippi 
Valley; the Missouri Valley. 

Excursions to industrial plants (see history outline), and to the north 
shore for the study of ravines. Out-of-door sketching, map-drawing, chalk- 
modeling. 

SCIENCB 

I. Physiology and field geography. 

1. Field work: (a) The physiological processes as seen in different plants 
and animals, modified by the seasons, as seen in the field ; seasonal changes ; 
hibernation and migration. (&) Seed formation and distribution, considered 
as a means of reproduction, (c) Planting of small fruits — raspberries, black- 
berries, gooseberries, etc. — in the garden; care of seeds gathered in our 
garden. Geographical — map-drawing and modeling of typical topographic 
forms — sketching, (d) Gathering material for room aquaria. 

2. Physiology: (a) Respiration: our organs of respiration, considered 
briefly; making and identification of oxygen and carbon dioxide; our means 
of respiration compared with those of lower animals and with plants; 
osmosis; the ventilation of the school-building and the home; work out 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 221 

relation of respiration to heat and work in body; amounts of oxygen and 
carbon dioxide, {h) Digestion: our organs of digestion as compared with 
those of lower animals; the teeth and the juices of the mouth; effect of 
saliva on starch foods ; experiments with saliva and starch ; the stomach and 
its juices; experiments with pepsin; the rest of the alimentary canal and its 
juices ; different classes of foods, (c) The blood — food, oxygen, and waste 
carrier ; function of the blood ; circulation as seen in a frog's foot ; organs of 
circulation, (d) The muscles, {e) The bones. (/) The nerves and nervous 
system, {g) The members of the body working together, {k) Ideal condi- 
tions for health. 

ORAL READING AND LITERATURE 

Critical study of Longfellow's " The Building of the Ship ; " Browning's 
"Herve Kiel," "Incident of the French Camp;" Kipling's "Ballad of the 
East and West ; " Thanksgiving Bible readings. 

Home reading of stories giving something of the spirit of the times which 
the children are studying in history, such as Eggleston's The Hoosier School 
Master; a biography of Daniel Boone; a story of George Rogers Clark, and 
parts of Roosevelt's The Winning of the West, 

ENGLISH 

Reports and records of much of the work. As much attention is paid to 
the form and correctness of the papers as to the content. Principles of 
language which must be observed in composition. 

FRENCH 

Chansons de jeu: "La tour, prends garde;" "Qu'est-ce qui passe ici si 
tard?" "Quand Biron voulut danser;" "Au clair de la lune;" "Noel." 

Stories : Study of Quebec and Montreal. Contrast between life in France 
and Quebec; costumes and manner of dress. Dramatic rendering of Joliet at 
St. Louis. Quebec. Arrival of French troups. Extracts from Moliere's 
plays then being given at the court of Louis XIV. 

Reference grammar : Part II of Le Frangais pratique, by Paul Bercy. 

GERMAN 

A quick review of last year's work in grammar, especially of the singular 
and plural of nouns, the definite article, and the use of the nominative and 
possessive cases. The new work will be the declension of German nouns, 
singular and plural, if this work can be based upon a certain knowledge of 
English grammar. 

Reading the easier stories from Alter und Nener, by Seligmann. The 
stories will lead to talks about different places (cities, castles, etc.) of Germany. 
A few poems and songs will be learned. 

MATHEMATICS 

Working knowledge of the simpler applications of percentage and interest. 
New principles will be worked out at the time the pupil needs them to solve 
a problem actually arising in his school activities ; the many uses and applica- 
tions of these principles in present-day life. 



222 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Problems involved in history (the measurement of land, industrial prot>- 
lems, etc.) ; in geography (drawing of maps to scale, etc) ; in woodwork and 
manual training (drawing of plans, exact measurement, etc) ; in experimental 
science (percentages, etc). 

Field work: indirect measurement of heights and distances by the use of 
angles and triangles. 

Personal accounts of expenditures for school materials. This account will 
be presented to the parents once a quarter, or oftener. 

Problems not directly involved in their other work, but problems of the 
day, which require a knowledge of the principles of percentage and interest 
for their solution. 

WOODWORK (manual TRAINING) 

Making notebook covers; window-boxes for winter flowering plants; 
drawing-board and T-square; drawing plans and making a laboratory table 
for the grouproom. 

AST 

A continuation of the study of composition and design. Out-of-door 
sketching. Expression work in history, geography, and science. 

PHYSICAL CULTURE 

Gymnasium five half-hours a week — two half-hours given to the girls, 
two half-hours to the boys, and one half-hour to the boys and girls together 
for games. Pla3rtime at noon, games supervised by assistants in the depart- 
ment of physical culture. Supplemented by frequent short exercises in the 
classrooms between recitations. 

MUSIC 

Structure of the scale. Key relationships. Notation of familiar songs. 
Two-part exercises for sight-reading. Harvest, Thanksgiving, and Christmas 
songs. Songs for French and (German plays and dramatic games. 



OUTLINE FOR EIGHTH GRADE 

AUTUMN QUARTER 



KATHARINE M. STILWELL 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 

The period of discovery and growth of geography. Invention of printing. 

1. What the ancients knew: Ideas of the Greeks. Map of Herodotus. 
The Romans. Pomponius Mila. Ptolemy's geography and map. 

2. The Crusades : Routes of travel from Europe to the East. The era- 

# 

saders. Jerasalem. Saracenic civilization. The mariner's compass. Increase 
of geographical knowledge. Effect of the Crusades upon the routes of travel. 
Rise of Venice. 



CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 223 

3. Marco Polo : Journeys of the Polos. Geography of the places visited. 
Effect of these travels upon the knowledge of geography. Compare this 
knowledge with what we know of these regions today. Breaking up of routes 
of trade. 

4. Invention of printing: The first printing-press. Books of the Middle 
Ages. Visit the Newberry Library and the library of the Art Institute to 
examine illuminated manuscripts. The class will illuminate a manuscript. 
Compare such a book with modem books. Mural paintings. Study the life of 
St Francis and the Giotto frescoes at Assisi. Effect of printing upon knowl- 
edge. History of bookbinding. Visit a bookbindery. The class will bind 
material needed for use in the school. It is hoped they may be able to do 
some practical printing. 

NATURE-STUDY 

1. Weather observations: Daily reading of the instruments and posting 
of bulletins for the use of the school. Value of government weather reports. 
Some study of the instruments. 

2. The seasonal changes : Animal and vegetable life. An investigation of 
some of the causes of these changes. 

UTERATUKE 

Aldrich, Friar Jerome and His Beautiful Book; Longfellow, "The Ser- 
mon of St. Francis/' "Venice," "Monte Cossino," "King Robert of Sicily;" 
Arnold, " The Little Flowers of St Francis " (selections) ; Joaquin Miller, 
" Columbus ; " Lockhard, Spanish Ballads. 

GERMAN 

1. Review of singular and plural of nouns, and the use of the definite 
article. The class will take up the possessive and dative cases of nouns and the 
conjugation of regular verbs. 

2. We shall read stories from Guerber's Mdrchen und Ersahlungen, Vol. I. 

3. Conversation will be based upon German historical legends. 

FRENCH 

Dramatic : Study of children's crusade ; Saint Louis, Blanche de Castille, 
etc; Marseille, Paris. Reading: "Le petit Robinson de Paris," by Foa; 
"Sans famille," by Hector Malot. Memorizing of selections from Modem 
French Lyrics, by B. S. Bowen. 

Reference grammar: Paul Bercy. 

Special attention will be given to the four conjugations, irregular verbs 
in continual use — such as faire, aller, pouvoir, savoir, the plural of nouns, the 
formation of the feminine of adjectives, the formation of adverbs, the irregular 
comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs, negative words. 

MATHEMATICS 

Mathematics will be taught as its use is required in other subjects. A 
knowledge of longitude and time, and of how to find latitude and to measure 
angles, is necessary to the geography. The building of the toolhouse will 



224 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

furnish an abundance of material for number and form work, and many 
lessons will be based on this subject In addition, all previous work will be 
reviewed, and viewed as generalized number. 

MANUAL TRAINING 

I. Mechanical drawing: Simple geometric constructions, leading up to 
more complex drawing, such as orthographic and isometric projections. This 
is to be a preparation for the detailed drawing of the interior of a toolhouse 
which is to be built on our campus by some of the children. In all the drawing 
articles actually to be made in wood by the children will serve as models. 

II. Woodworking: The making of Christmas presents. This work will 
be purely individual. The children, after a conference with the teacher, will 
make a rough sketch for proportion and outline, and after reducing it to a 
mechanical drawing will make it. The child will pay for the lumber, finish, 
etc., used in making the present. 

III. Sewing: The girls will devote two hours per week to sewing. They 
will make articles of clothing for their own use. 

MUSIC 

Study of chromatic and harmonic minor scales. Part-songs with intro- 
duction of bass. Unison songs. Composition of original melodies. 

Songs : " September Gale," Eleanor Smith ; " A King in Thale," Zelter ; 
"The Crusade," Franz Schubert. Thanksgiving songs: "Wake, Viol and 
Flute ! " E. Richter ; " Harvest Hymn," Sir George Elory ; " We Plow the 
Fields," Glazer ; " Song of the Com," E. Dalcroix. Christmas songs : " Ye 
Shepherds, Arise ! " Karl Reinecke ; " O, heiliges Kind," German folksong ; 
"Now He Who Knows Old Christmas," old French carol. 



AVENUES OF LANGUAGE-EXPRESSION IN THE 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ^ 



DELLA J. LONG 
The University of Chicago 



In considering the place of language in the school, the fact 
presents itself at the outset that there is no significance in lan- 
guage apart from the function which it serves; that there is, in 
truth, no such thing as language by itself. For language has 
grown out of the instinctive desire for expression which is so 
gjeat a part of the social self^ and out of the evolving needs of 
man which could be met alone through communication. Where- 
ever conditions of social intercourse exist language must inevit- 
ably develop. It is a pervasive element of human life, nmning out 
from every part of our thought and feeling and activity. 

It is with the aim of perfecting this natural growth that pro- 
vision is made in the school for language-study ; but the limita- 
tion of this provision to a few lines of subject-matter and to 
certain periods in the day is made with a view to the restrictions 
imposed on the public school by its size, not in relation to the 
true function of language or to its natural process of growth. 
Such restriction is, perhaps, necessary; but these special "ave- 
nues" which we are forced to select serve their purpose only 
so far as they grant the same reason for language in school as in 
the world at large; that is, a desire in the individual to com- 
municate some part of his own interests or to share those of 
others. The term "expression" sometimes seems to imply the 
mere putting forth of thought, but it is impossible to conceive of 
any natural expression whose very reason for being does not 
involve relations with others. 

The primary period is the time of all times for language- 
development. During these years the social and other objective 

^ Paper read before The Elementary Department of the National Educational 
Association. 

225 



226 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

interests which express themselves largely through language are 
at their height ; the time of reflective thinking, when independent 
effort increases and outward expression becomes less necessary, 
has not yet dawned; nor have the reserve and shyness of the 
later years of childhood developed. This is the time when chil- 
dren love to talk. They come into the distinctive inheritance of 
the race in the most direct way possible, by plunging into the use 
of language as soon and as fast as the need for it is felt. 

The two factors in this acquisition are the hearing of speech 
and the child's own speech utterance. The two woric together, 
the utterance objectifying the auditory images, testing them 
over and over, and so developing and co-ordinating the speech 
organism. All through this period the ear is the organ of sense- 
appeal. It is the organ through which the feelings are most 
stimulated — and this is the time when feeling is the dominant 
force — and the only means by which direct contact with lan- 
guage is reached. 

On this basis an earnest appeal is made for oral expression 
in the primary school. The interpretation of symbols through 
the eye is a later development, and the writing of these symbols 
adds to the complication. Reading and writing have their 
beginnings in the primary school, but they depend upon a free and 
continuing use of oral language, and are only an outgrowth of it, 
and a small outgrowth, all through this time when the foundation 
itself is forming. It is not unusual, however, for much of the 
"language work" even in the second and third grades to be 
written. Aside from the reversal of the natural order in this, the 
nervous strain is very great in the effort for mechanical accuracy 
before either muscidar growth or general co-ordination is equal 
to the task. 

As to the content of what is expressed, if we believe that 
language has educative significance only so far as it helps to 
carry on phases of the life of those who use it, the question is 
answered. Then any interest or activity native to the child of 
the primary school is a natural avenue for language-expression. 
So far as we allow the children to increase our knowledge of 
what these inherent interests are, we have an increasing basis of 
choice. 



AVENUES OF LANGUAGE-EXPRESSION 227 

First of all is the absorption in the objective working out of 
life — play, and the constant doing of things. From this clue the 
hand-work and co-operative construction in the school have 
grown. And in all this language is the natural accompaniment. 
Making the playhouse or the garden, modeling a village or weav- 
ing a basket, demands interchange of ideas, the explanation of 
plans and means, and the social intercourse in itself so essential 
at this age. Nor is the language in connection with all this 
merely haphazard. The direction given, however, arises from 
the demands of the activity itself. For example, success in results 
is found to depend upon saying exactly what is meant; an 
increased vocabulary is needed; and interpretation of plans and 
directions and records becomes necessary. 

This same kind of activity, although without so much organi- 
zation, fills the child's life out of school, and it is only fair that 
he be given in school an opportunity to talk and hear about what 
is of the greatest possible importance to him. 

The story must always be a source of inspiration for the 
child's growth in language, if alone for the reasons that it is an 
inherent demand of the little child and that it allows him to hear 
the language spoken. For the need of hearing a very great deal 
of speech can hardly be overemphasized. That the language he 
hears be of the best and beautifully spoken is most essential, since 
his ear will never again be so susceptible to nice differences of 
pronunciation and entmciation. 

Because a child loves to hear a story over and over, it does 
not always follow that he is ready to retell it himself. Part of his 
enjoyment lies in the story-teller's mastery of the language and in 
the sound of the words, and largely through the simple and 
beautiful language of literature that first vague sense of beauty 
and delight in artistic expression is to begin. When the thought 
has been so absorbed that the child has a desire to express it 
again to others, and when he has sufficient language-control to 
do this with satisfaction to himself — that is, without self- 
consciousness — the retold story is not mere reproduction, but 
becomes something given by the child himself. 

The aims of the literature in the primary school are often 



228 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

largely defeated by demand for constant reproduction, especially 
by the great amount of written reproduction in the upper primary 
grades. We have all seen classes, after reading or listening to a 
fine story, and proving by their discussion an appreciation of its 
essential meaning, turn listlessly to the writing of it. There 
would seem to be more reason, and so more inspiration^ in the 
simple compositions which have their origin in what the chil- 
dren themselves are doing, as has been suggested, and in certain 
j)hases of the nature-study. 

Since the elementary science deals with relations whose 
acquaintance the child makes for himself, it is inseparable from 
language; for language is a most convenient and available tool 
for probing into the facts of the real world about which children 
are so curious. There is one tendency in the treatment o| the 
nature-study, however, which detracts from its value as a means 
of language-development; that is, dealing with the various nature 
elements in terms of human experience and human relations 
until those terms become merely conventional symbols. 

The primitive poetry in giving human feeling and purpose 
to the wind, streams, storms, etc., is fundamental in the race, 
and often appears in the child's own interpretation of nature; 
and certainly the little child understands the nature-processes by 
analogy to his own life. But to continue the phraseology of the 
beginning nature-study too long seems highly artificial. Nor is 
the imagination of the child appealed to by the mere giving of 
unreal names to familiar objects. His fancy rather enables him 
to conceive of unseen forces as realities, and to compass great 
stretches of time. In a way, he is better able than are we to gra^ 
the story of the great building process that began the earth and 
made the rocks or the soil. Such subject-matter, dealing with the 
very processes of life itself, has peculiar fascination for children, 
and the language through which it is thought out must, from the 
nature of the thought-content, be charged with vitality and ful- 
ness of meaning. 

Although there is a universal theory that language-training 
below the high school should come principally through the work 
and the life of the school as a whole, a large part of the time 



AVENUES OF LANGUAGE-EXPRESSION 229 

assigned to English is still devoted to the study of grammar. That 
the reward of much of our grammar-study is so slight is largely due 
to the fact that our English grammar still rests on a Latin con- 
ception. The inflections have largely disappeared from English, 
and still many grammars continue to regard them as an important 
element. When the time comes for the study of the relations 
between words, sentences, etc., we should be able to presuiqx)se a 
considerable power of abstraction in the pupils. Much of the 
grammar prepared for the grades nevertheless goes beyond the 
power of students below the high school. That the study of the 
science does not assure ability to use language is shown by the 
meagemess of language, both spoken and written, of students 
who have been brought up on grammar, but who have not been 
accustomed to express themselves freely or to hear good, efficient 
English. The premature study of structure, moreover, given 
before experience with realities has been sufficient to develop 
interest in structure, prejudices pupils against a study which 
should have value later. This does not imply a disparagement of 
grammar-study. I only mean to say in this connection that my 
observation in the intermediate and grammar grades has not 
made clear the relation between a knowledge of the technique of 
language and a full, free development of power to use the 
language. 

There is, to be sure, more need of form-study in the upper 
grades, since the increasing field of thought brings greater need 
of understanding the possibilities of language for expressing 
finer differences of meaning. But this knowledge of structtu'e 
can come only through considering the word or sentence in the 
closest possible relation to the thought it conveys. If the child 
could once understand that he studies the relations between words 
because he can, thereby, make them a more efficient medium for 
his own use, not because there is a system of relations inherent in 
the words themselves, the feeling of remoteness, of unreality, 
about this technical study would surely be lessened. 

In the upper grades literature and art have a still larger place 
in bringing in both the thought of the great world and models of 
perfect expression; and often the poem or picture, when it has 
served this purpose, is made the basis for testing some bit of the 



230 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

technical knowledge just referred to. For several reasons, this 
is an unfortunate use of a work of art. There is a gjeat dash to 
the feelings in dropping suddenly from the inspiration of some- 
thing beautiful to a survey of the outer form of that beauty. To 
make a list of nouns from a stirring poem not only perverts the 
purpose of the poem, but brings a disfavor upon the nouns which 
they do not deserve. For interest in them can come only through 
learning of their use, and this is to be discovered in the very act 
of their service, not in disembodied lists. 

When pupils come to a conscious scrutiny of language, the 
ctdtivation of a feeling for the word that gives just the shade of 
meaning or the full force of an action, learning to appreciate the 
greater strength in directness, the habit of clear imaging, recall 
of parts read which have made special appeal — all this goes with 
the discussion of acts and motives and the use of personal experi- 
ence in interpretation. Of all this, the habit of imaging is most 
important in the development of language through literature. 
This means, of course, not merely visualizing, but includes all the 
unconscious motor expression so characteristic of children. 

At this time, when verbal memory is at its height — that is, in 
the intermediate grades — the beginning of a permanent literary 
store may well be made, but there is a dissipation of energy in 
" learning by heart " anything that does not come within the true 
meaning of that phrase. If we could reduce the number of frag- 
ments committed to memory, choosing instead a smaller ntmiber 
of entire poems, we should, perhaps, be surer that they would 
last as a permanent source of pleasure. A small girl of my 
acquaintance innocently alluded to the " memory jams *' she had 
been learning, little appreciating the fineness of her phrase. 

If we were to sum up our perplexity over the written work, 
would it not be that the results show perfunctory effort ? There 
are, of course, always special cases where genuine interest is 
unmistakable; but, on the whole, it is clear that the aim of the 
written work is to make the use of correct form habitual. When 
we attempt to explain the lack of spontaneity back of the written 
pages, we are again confronted by the futility of pursuing 
language-culture through the composition as a means in itself. 
This is made plain by the fact that when the child recognizes a 



AVENUES OF LANGUAGE-EXPRESSION 231 

genuine reason for his writing, it becomes a genuine effort on his 
part. This does not exclude the observance of correct form, but 
makes it a subordinate part of the aim. So long as there is a real 
interest in the writing from the child's point of view, the subject 
is a minor matter. But writing for the sake of writing, on the 
theory that "practice makes perfect," precludes the motive which 
alone gives language value. There must be some outcome beyond 
the page written ; for example, the letter that is really mailed to 
someone with whom the writer has a personal relation of some 
kind, not merely an artificial, literary relation. 

Individuality develops rapidly during the grammar-grade 
period. New interests are springing up continually. The sub- 
ject assigned to an entire class appeals less and less, which adds 
to the problem of selecting subject-matter that shall meet with a 
genuine response. This suggests in i>art the solution of the diffi- 
culty; namely, that we reduce the amount of written work. In 
support of this is the fact that pupils at this age are naturally con- 
servative. Free, easy expression is no longer characteristic. And 
while the self-consciousness and the shyness and awkwardness of 
expression are quite apparent, the increase of mental activity and 
of assimilation are not always so clearly recognized. It is a time 
of absorption and storing up, and all that is assimilated will 
appear sooner or later in increase of individual strength. 

Summing this up, the communication of the native interests, 
worked out through all the activities of the elementary school, is 
the natural basis of the language, and the educative value of 
language-training rests on a recognition of the fact that the 
thought-content and the interest in communicating or receiving 
that content alone give meaning to language. The primary aim 
in the language of the elementary school is the development of 
power to say freely what is pressing forward for expression in 
the child's mind. The aim in the study of structure is that lan- 
guage may become a more efficient means for this expression. 
And the basis of all language-growth is oral expression. 

This is but saying that language is not merely a system of 
symbols which the child is to regard as already organized outside 
of his own life, but that it is a part of his own mind and heart 
which is to grow as he grows. 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN^ 



MRS. PORTER LANDER MacCLINTOCK 

Chicago 



Nothing more beneficent has come into modem education 
than the tendency to obliterate the distinctions between a child's 
school life and the other aspects of his life. Our debt is incalcul- 
able to those great teachers who have seen, and have taught us to 
see, that the whole life of the child is social, that the whole life of 
the child is educational — that it should be one harmcmious piece 
of experience, flowing naturally on from home to school, from 
family to friends and teachers, with no jars and no segmentation. 
We cannot fail to see that in the large sense of " social," all life 
is social where peo|rfe — even two people — are adjusting them- 
selves to one another and co-operating in living. We have all 
learned to see too that ideally, social pleasure, like every other 
pleasure, should arise out of normal and natural activities — 
should come as a by-product, an efflorescence, of our association 
with our fellows in some interest or activity. This is why we find 
thct best society in Chicago at Hull House, in the studios, in the 
morning conferences at the club, rather than at the aftemocm tea, 
or the formal reception, where we go seddng pleasure. 

It would, then, be quite ideal if it were possible to associate 
the child's social experience inseparably and joyously with his 

^ The substance of this paper was given as an informal talk before the Ednca- 
tional Department of the Chicago Woman's Qub. Mored bj pressure, a p pa r e ntl y 
sincere, from many friends, and by the kind urgency of the editor of Tk€ Elemen- 
tary School Teacher, I have written it out from my notes, well knowing that it has 
not by that process been transformed into a magazine article, but remains by nature 
an informal talk. I claim for it no originality. It is merely a practical presentatioo 
of ideas and hopes gathered from many sources — ideas and hopes that have been 
discussed so many times with friends, especially Dr. and Mrs. Dewey, Mr. 
MacQintock, and Mrs. Harding, that I cannot by any means tell what is mine 
among them and what is theirs. If any of them, or of the many others to whom 
I am indebted, chance to see this paper, let them claim their own property, if they 
can recognize it. 

> 

232 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN 233 

school experience and his family life. The family and the school, 
well and liberally organized, wisely and generously conducted, 
should, ideally, so fill the child's life that there would not be 
vacancies left to fill with society as society. But the home and the 
school are not well and liberally organized, nor wisely and gener- 
ously conducted. Many homes are barren, either poverty-stricken 
or slipshod, and are therefore unsocial ; many homes are luxuri- 
ous, elaborate, filled with an atnjosphere of servants and function- 
aries, and are therefore antisocial. The school life of the children, 
especially of the older children, but running back far into the 
elementary school too, is professionalized and technicalized, 
made into mere learning and not living, built arotmd an elaborate 
and unsparing system of competition, until it is not only both 
tmsocial and antisocial, but scarcely human. 

So, however imwilling we are that it should be so, we must 
acknowledge that the recreative out-of-school life of our children 
has been erected into a sort of institution, modeled upop adult 
" society," having its own machinery, its ceremonies and events. 
It is this specialized recreation, as distinguished from home life 
and from school life, that we must handle, gently and gradually 
transforming it, if possible, into the thing we should like it to be. 

Each school and each home has its own problems to deal with 
in this as in other matters. It is in these matters of specific detail 
that the problems become acute and vexatious. When we talk in 
general about the social life of children, we are obliged to handle 
it in so large a way as to seem well-nigh unaware of the specific 
individual problems. But there are a few fundamental principles 
everywhere applicable, in the light of which the difficulties that 
inhere in special situations and minor details grow smaller or 
disappear. It is comforting and reassuring to talk together over 
these principles and their application. 

The first principle of the social life of our children is that it 
should be democratic. There are reasons of several different 
kinds for this. In our day everybody that is not a democrat pre- 
tends to be. It is a pose, where it is not a sincere attitude. 
Bernard Shaw says being a revolutionist saves a man from being 
bored; so posing as a social democrat saves many a modem 



234 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

man and woman from ennui. It gets one the pleasantest possible 
introductions to the most distinguished people. It forms a base 
from which one may launch the newest and most knowing irony 
and satire at the established order of things. We have quite 
reversed the witticism of the man who said he preferred to vote 
with the Whigs and live with the Tories, so that, however piously 
we may vote with the conservatives, we like to live or to be 
known to live, with the social democrats. So many of us are 
obliged merely to pose as democrats for the reason that the last 
few generations of Americans have been so strenuously trying 
to forget that as Americans we are democratic, and have been so 
laboriously taking on the airs and customs of the aristocracy that 
we find ourselves, now that democracy is in fashion, actually 
embarrassed with those notions of exclusiveness that we and our 
fathers, and in some cases our grandfathers, assiduously cul- 
tivated. But the society of the future — that future for which 
we are .rearing our children and our children's children — will, 
if we are wise and honest now, be really democratic It will not 
be necessary for them to pose. Of course, we can never have 
again the old democracy of ignorance and inexperience ; but our 
children's children will see a better thing — a reasoned, conscious^ 
artistic, religious democracy, far on the road toward the brother- 
hood of man. 

The best of it is that children are natural democrats. Until 
it is pointed out to them by their elders, they make no discrimina- 
tions on the ground of extraneous characteristics against other 
children who happen to be interesting to them. Now, the basis of 
this society for our children is providentially and most naturally 
provided in the school. It is here and only here that many sorts of 
children from many kinds of homes come together freely and 
naturally, as mates and equals. Here they meet upon an impartial 
footing. Here, quite as it should be in an ideal democracy, they 
must learn to know and respect one another's qualities, regardless 
of the accidents of manners and appointments. 

But before we can do much to foster and extend this charming 
social condition we must free ourselves from certain ideals that 
have long loomed large within our own social and domestic hori- 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN 235 

zons, which have, indeed, seemed to many people — sentiment- 
intoxicated men and timorous women — the very beacon lights of 
human society. It would require a very Ibsen to reveal to us all the 
harm these high-sounding, enthusiastically supported ideals are 
capable of doing. The first of them is expressed in the phrase " the 
sanctity of home," or some such. When this means, as it may so 
easily do, the selfish exclusiveness that leads us to shut up our- 
selves and our children with a very few chosen friends within a 
refined and closed circle, and to shut out all others not refined and 
selected, then it means that the home is not co-operating with the 
other institutions for the bringing in of the divine brotherhood ; 
that it stands as a bar, a block in the road of advance. Now, I 
will not be misunderstood as an iconoclast who would crassly 
tear down the true sanctities and privacies of home. Neither will 
I lie for a moment under the more galling imputation of promul- 
gating that bit of evangelical sentimentalism that would advise 
us to invite into our homes " the poor " or " the uncultivated," 
that we may comfort and enlighten them with glimpses of refine- 
ment. Nor would I tolerate for a moment the idea that we should 
train our children to extend charity or social favors to those 
" beneath " them. Nay ! ideally we are training our children for 
the social day when snobs and philanthropists will be equally 
superfluous and equally unacceptable, because equality and justice 
(plain as they sound) will have rendered them both impossible. 

This charitable and philanthropic prepossession will be the 
very hardest to shake off. But we must do it, and invite into our 
homes these friends our children make in the school or in the 
settlement, as friends and equals. And they always give more 
than they get. Though, of course, the courteous and generous 
home is a vital glowing center whose sanctities are not hidden, 
but active, fearing no violation or contamination; and it does 
dignify and cultivate its guests. 

Another ideal which we must modify or let slip is that of the 
sacredness of our children's manners and morals. Many a mother 
builds up for herself a delusion on these points — an image based 
upon cant phrases and mere sentiment, of the little paragon she 
desires her child to be; and, with a cruelty and narrowness of 



236 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

which only the idealistic mother is capable, she labors for years to 
produce him. She forgets that mamiers superimposed are hypoc- 
risy, that morals unchosen and untempted are also unsafe. Now, 
again, I refuse to be understood as approving or applauding a rude 
or vicious child, or as advising people to let their children grow 
up savages. Only a newspaper reporter could so misinterpret my 
statements. But I do insist that the child should have a right to 
make some of his manners to suit his own occasions, and a right 
to choose sometimes in the matter of his morals. Further, as in 
the case of the home, if we are bringing up our children aright, 
we shall have fortified them against much contamination before 
they are exposed to it. We shall have made of them dynamic 
forces for good, not left them helpless victims of evil influences. 
We must teach them to look below the mere surface rude- 
nesses and coarsenesses of children they are obliged to know, as 
we must do in our own world, to the real person beneath. Children 
are, as a rule, much keener sighted in this than we are. If ever 
you sympathetically investigated some " undesirable " friend your 
child had picked up, to whom his soul seemed to cleave, you 
have pretty certainly found that behind the disreputable sweater 
was a big human heart; that the grimy little paws knew how 
to do interesting things; that there was a reality, a pungency, a 
"ginger" in this small democrat that you, and certainly your 
child, never found in the patent-leather-shod friends he met at 
the dancing-school. It is a criminal thing to blind and defeat this 
power of insight in a child, and lead him to choose his friends by 
their appointments and their mamma's street numbers. And we 
must ourselves learn to look more lightly at the more superficial 
manifestations of manners, morals, and speech, and not to fall 
into a flutter at the appearance of undesirable symptoms in our 
own children, as if they argued incurable contamination. Speech 
too good, manners too perfect, make a pariah of a child in the 
playing-field. He knows this, and it is a sad day when he con- 
sciously adopts one code for "the kids" and another for his 
mamma's four-o'-clock tea. I have heard an epigram, which like 
all epigrams, is not more than nine-tenths extravagance or flip- 
pancy : " Every boy from seven to twelve is either a pig or a 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN 237 

prig, with this difference — the pig is curable." To be a true 
social democrat, and to bring up our children as such, we must 
lay by some of our fears for the frailty of their manners and 
morals, and must cultivate a simpler, heartier ideal, so that we can 
tolerate in our homes and as playfellows with our children many 
other people's children whose speech and manners we ourselves 
have not formed. 

We should welcome heartily the tendency everywhere visible 
to make more of the schoolhouse and the interests of school as a 
social center. It would be quite ideal if the school were a sort of 
children's club, or if attached to every school, or within every 
school district, there were a children's club-house and playing- 
fields where the children came together in some interest not 
strictly disciplinary — dramatic work, music, physical culture, 
exhibits of their collections. All such interests afford sane and 
wholesome reasons for social communion. Behind every school 
there should be an association of parents and friends of children, 
unobtnisively active, making practical and safe such social possi- 
bilities, and at the same time immeasurably enriching their own 
social experience. 

Of course, every child is entitled to his own inner circle of 
friends — those congenial spirits whom he asks to family festivals, 
with whom he spends long afternoons in the solitude of two 
or three or four. But he could easily and profitably have this 
larger contact with many kinds of children, if we only had the 
facilities for utilizing the opportunities of school. 

Our children's social life, however it may express itself, should 
be organized and conducted with simplicity. By this we mean, 
first, simplicity as opposed to complexity. The business of the 
child up to his second year in high school, and perhaps beyond, is 
that of acquiring in a single-minded, leisurely way the broad, 
fundamental things of knowledge and character. But just as 
this fact is ignored in most schools, and the children are found 
"fussed" and distracted with minor matters of subject and 
technique, so it is ignored in the home, and the children, like the 
parents, are loaded with engagements and social duties. We 
owe it to our children to secure to them their long childhood. We 



238 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

should passionately keep for them their leisure, their long hours 
of time. We cannot too much deplore the restlessness some people 
feel to have their children experience all there is of life. It is 
deplorable to thrust a child untimely into a mature experience, 
and forestall or force the beautiful ripeness of each stage of his 
life. To take the child to the theater — the theater "as is" — to 
grand opera, to concerts where he hears difficult music psycho- 
logically twenty years beyond him, to evening parties, is to wrong 
him mentally, morally, physically, socially. There should be 
drama for children ; there should be many more of the concerts 
for young people, which Mr. Thomas knows so well how to 
arrange; but the children should not be thrust into artistic and 
social experiences suitable only for their elders. Above all, they 
should be spared as long as possible the appalling complexity, the 
depressing too-much, which makes the lives of their elders one 
ignoble scramble, or a constant series of volitional upheavals of 
choice-making. 

We mean, in the second place, simplicity as opposed to costli- 
ness. Well-to-do and experienced people know that there can 
never be any true democracy among the children or elsewhere, so 
long as they flaunt the signs of their difference — fine clothes, 
much spending-money, luxurious appointments. Everybody 
knows, however, that this is a delicate and difficult question. 
Clothes should be good and serviceable and tasteful. Unfortu- 
nately, the matter of their tastefulness is partly a matter of fabrics 
and materials, in which we are in the hands of the manufacturers, 
who seem to have agreed to do their worst for us in making cheap 
materials as undesirable as possible in color and design. Here, 
indeed, is a legitimate crusade demanding the eloquence and 
enthusiasm of some eloquent and enthusiastic woman's club. 

But it is not so difficult to know where " finery " and indulg- 
ence begin, and it is the artistic ugliness and the immorality of 
finery and indulgence that balk education and estop democracy. 
It is indulgence and luxury, the offensive too-much, that set a 
man or a child apart spiritually from his fellows, and make him 
a social leper, shunned and infectious. Any woman with even a 
little wisdom can, if she will, arrive at a standard of relative — 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF CHILDREN 239 

yes, of absolute — uncostliness, and apply it. She can at least 
refuse to subject her boys and girls to the frivolous, the criminal, 
observances of the changing fashions. Many an unfortunate 
child, in her dress, her parties, her very toys, is merely a " con- 
spicuous consumer " for her mother ; she demonstrates that her 
mamma "knows how." To this cheap triumph, this selfish and 
trivial pleasure, many a woman sacrifices her child's peace and 
harmonious g^rowth, and places a barrier to a true social life. We 
have all seen children returning from what ought to have been a 
simple, naive child's festival — a birthday party, perhaps — loaded 
with dollars' worth of favors and prizes and place-cards, but, 
worse still, loaded with the bitterest burden one has to bear, that 
of a social duty, a competitive hospitality. Such things as this 
all parents can examine with a fresh access of consciousness and 
of conscience, and arrive for themselves at a standard of true 
simplicity. 

We mean, in the third place, simplicity as opposed to arti- 
ficiality. For us grown-up people ceremonies and social techni- 
calities have a certain place. With the world clamoring at the 
telephone and the door-bell and the letter-box, we are forced to 
hedge about our leisure and our privacy with sundry difficulties 
of access. With so many people to meet and meetings to attend, 
we are obliged to establish a certain technique for the mere ease 
of doing it. Of course, we know, too, that we can never have 
again the unconscious and unsuspecting simplicity of a primitive 
society. Whatever simplicity we win for ourselves must be, like 
our democracy itself, the result of conscious, reasoned conclusion, 
the fruit of experienced taste. Can we not spare our children as 
much as possible of the technicalities of social commimion, permit 
them to enjoy, as one of the privileges of the American, the very 
minimum of professional etiquette ? As much as fine clothes, the 
manners and customs of a conventional society shut in the adepts 
and shut out the uninitiated. If we are sincere in our desire to 
help our children to the advantages and privileges of a new social 
democracy, we must see that these barriers are not erected. The 
very stronghold and college of conventional and artificial man- 
ners and practices is the dancing-school. Therefore we find all 



24© THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

serious mothers reacting against the r^^ation dandng-schoc^ 
Dancing the children should have. But it should be taught in the 
school as physical culture, or in little friendly classes in the home 
— always under natural, simple, untechnical circumstances, in the 
care, or under the eye of some one who knows psychology enough 
to choose real children's dances, and sociology enough to prevent 
the undemocratic degradation of the girls and the antisocial 
exaltation of the boys. No proficiency or expertness in manners 
is worth making this sacrifice for. 

These principles — a true conscious democracy, simfdicity in 
all its aspects applied under the joyous and loving guidance of 
parents and teachers — will go far toward securing for our 
children a sound and promising social life. 



PARENTS' AND TEACHERS' ORGANIZATIONS 



HELEN M. HEFFERAN 
Chicago 



The home is the mother of the school which has practically 
disowned it. They are often rivals and frequently antagonists, 
when their relations should be friendly and harmonious, the one 
supplementing the work of the other. When the teachers are 
thrown into personal contact with the parents, a human interest 
is developed and we have a true school. 

A great educator states that the new movement — child-study 
— so largely American in its origin, was the chief movement, 
both in psychology and education, of the century just closed* 
Tabulated reports of widespread investigation drew the parents' 
attention to the fact that a scientific study of the child was being 
made. 

The Illinois Society for Child Study was an outgrowth of the 
movement, many round tables for child-study having been organ- 
ized in this state imder its auspices. The National Congress of 
Mothers, formed in 1896, was another organization built upon 
this movement for child-study. From the National Congress of 
Mothers were organized the state cong^resses, the supreme object 
of these being to establish parents' clubs in connection with the 
schools. 

Usually the organization at first was a mothers' club, but the 
need of a broader scope soon led to the wiser plan of parents' 
clubs. These brought the parent and teacher together to confer 
on subjects vital to the best interests of the child. There are 
about twenty-five of these parents' clubs now in Chicago in con- 
nection with the different schools, there being fifteen on the 
South Side alone. 

These clubs are officered by the patrons, work under simple 
by-laws, and have nominal dues to defray the expenses incurred 
during the year. The teachers assist in planning the programs, 

241 



242 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and are always present at the meetings (both afternoon and 
evening) to participate in the discussions and meet the parents 
socially. The programs include such subjects as "The School 
Curriculum," " Home Study," " Training in Civics," etc., but the 
supreme motive of all the work is to bring the home and the 
school into closer and more harmonious relations for the benefit 
of the children. 

Each club does practical work for its school through com- 
mittees such as "Buildings and Grounds," "Kindergarten," 
" Manual Training," " Domestic Science," " School Decoration," 
etc., and in this way schools have been equipped with manual- 
training and domestic-science plants, pictures, flower-gardens, 
stereopticons, lunchrooms, and fire escapes. 

One club has a membership of over three hundred, embracing 
sixteen nationalities. In the schoolhouse (the most democratic 
of all institutions) these people meet on common g^round, where 
all differences of religion, nationality, and social position are 
obliterated and the teachers discuss with the patrons of the school 
questions of vital interest concerning the welfare of the children. 
At a recent evening meeting of this club some four hundred and 
fifty parents were present. The program included brief talks on 
elementary methods in reading, number, and nature-study by two 
of the teachers, brief talks by two lay-women on some essentials 
in child-training, and talks by two physicians on food and sleep. 
Refreshments were served at the close. 

The movement is not confined to the grades, as some very 
successful organizations are to be found in connection with the 
high schools. It is difficult to say which will be helped more by 
this co-operation — the teacher or the parent; but this we feel 
sure of — the benefit to the child. 

There are many instances where the conditions are right for 
the development of an educational spirit in the community, but 
those in charge make no effort to bring about this most-desired 
end. Especially is this true of our high schools, where a complete 
isolation exists, and where our boys and girls are today, as in 
years past, in the g^rip of the textbooks, recitation, examination, 
and credits. 



PARENTS' AND TEACHERS' ORGANIZATIONS 243 

We want scMnething more than a passive interest on the part 
of the parents. The social and educational forces of the com- 
munity should be brought together to work out a better curricu- 
lum for our youth. 

Many organizations of lay people are eager to bring this 
about, and are in correspondence with educators throughout the 
country, asking for suggestions and advice as to how to further 
the work. Dr. G. Stanley Hall contributed to the Education 
Committee of the National Congress of Mothers the following 
suggestive topics for discussion by co-operative associations of 
mothers and teachers of high-school boys and girls: 

I. Occupations and amusements outside of school: 

1. Time devoted to housework, sewing, music, fancy-work, chores. 

2. Time devoted to social life, theater and concerts, outdoor occupations 
and athletics. 

II. How much home study should be required of high-school pupils? 

1. From parent's point of view. 

2. From teacher's point of view. 

III. Food : school lunches ; tea and coffee ; candy and soda habit. 

IV. Sleep : average number of hours ; time of going to bed and rising. 

V. Health: general conditions and special cases. (Teachers are rarely 
given information on such points by parents.) School headaches — are 
they due to conditions in or out of school? 
VI. The boy-and-girl question: How can the most normal healthful con- 
ditions be secured? 

I believe the time has come when more attention may wisely 
be given to the utilization of forces outside the school, to the end 
that community life may be richer and better directed, and that 
the schools may gain the commanding position that rightfully 
belongs to them. 



THE MEETING OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 



MRS. FRANK HUGH MONTGOMERY 

Secretary 



The November meeting of the Parents' Association was held 
on Thursday evening, November 17, in the Manual Training 
Building. From 7 : 30 to 8 : 30 o'clock the shops were open for 
inspection, and students were at work. The large number of 
parents present showed their interest in the opportimity to see the 
unsurpassed equipment of the manual-training part of the school. 

At 8 : 30 the parents gathered, nearly three hundred strong, in 
the assembly room. The president, Mr. Heath, in opening the 
meeting, emphasized the purpose of the association as in harmony 
with the teachers in co-operating in the education of the children. 
He believed that it would becwne a permanent and powerful 
organization, that it had now great harmony, and that the desire 
of all was to make it even more harmonious. He said that its 
motto should be " faith, hope, and charity " — faith of the parents 
in their children because of their parentage, hope in their work, 
and charity of the teachers because of the children's parentage. 

Mr. Heath then introduced the first speaker, Mrs. William 
Kent, who spoke on " Social Life in the Home." Mrs. Kent said 
that there was on the part of many a feeling of reaction against 
problems so often brought forward that she wished to refrain 
from using the expression " needs of the child," but that it was 
possible to take sweet counsel together in a simple and elementary 
fashion, and with the desire to be less self-conscious. She 
thought the secret of social life in the home was in doing things 
together. Children did not have enough of the society of their 
parents and brothers and teachers. Parents did not have time to 
enjoy their children. Children came to think of their mothers as 
people who insisted upon looking after hands, nails, teeth, and 
hair in a very tiresome fashion, and with their fathers they did 
not have even that acquaintance. Parents often tried to have their 

244 



MEETING OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 245 

children surgically clean, when all that was necessary was to have 
them hygienically clean. She advocated reading aloud and doing 
things together in a saner, wiser way. But children needed the 
society of their equals. The parties should be simple, and there 
was no need of dressing up ; but it was wise to plan some enter- 
tainment, or it would deteriorate into a rough house. She closed 
with this quotation from Emerson : " It is easy in the world to 
live after the world's opinion ; it is easy in solitude to live after 
our own ; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd 
keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude." 

Miss Katharine M. Stilwell then spoke on ** Social Life in the 
School." She named the group as the factor in organized plays 
and games, with physical training, both indoors and out, to unify 
the work. The games offered skill, endurance, dexterity, and 
alertness. They tended to break down class distinctions, had 
advantages for all, both girls and boys, and general good conduct 
was a result In the more formal social life, as parties and recep- 
tions, the pupil looked for pleasure and the teachers for education. 
The instructors found it a means for training in simplicity and 
good taste. For the entertainers there was development of initia- 
tive. Work was planned for all. Unsuspected talents were often 
discovered. The suppression of one's individual interests in the 
good of the whole was a natural result. The working together of 
teacher and pupil engendered harmony. The rudeness of the 
adolescent boy was often only self-consciousness, and the remedy 
was obvious. The form of entertainment should vary with the 
guests, and there should be great variety so that all might find 
interest. The luncheon had been found to be a good form of 
entertainment. It might be given by one group to another, or by 
pupils to teachers and parents. The social party in the school had 
a distinctive role, for all were invited and the home party was 
more or less a class affair. In the school it was democratic In 
the elementary school the room organization was sufficient. In 
the high school literary or dramatic interests in addition were 
necessary. At present there was an isolation between elementary, 
high, and university pupils. There should be a common meeting- 
place. The presence of the younger children was a benefit to the 



246 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

older. Such a meeting-place was the morning exercises which 
g^ew out of the work and were in charge of the different classes in 
turn. The emotional and dramatic found expression there. It 
was no place for the bright child to show off. He was only part 
of the whole which must act in unison to have happy results. She 
ended with a recapitulation of the points she had made and with 
a plea for recreation as an ethical force. 

The third speaker was Mrs. Porter Lander MacClintock, 
whose subject was " Substitutes for Fraternities." She said that 
a problem in the social life of the child arose only when the school 
and the home did not meet the need. She was not aware that the 
Parents' Association had ever appointed a committee to consult 
with representatives from the fraternities whereby they could 
learn why the young people cared for these associations. In reply 
to her own inquiries, she had found that perhaps what they did 
care for in fraternity life was the smallness of the company, for 
they liked to choose their own friends, and the spirit of loyalty, 
which raised the question: Could there not be other things to 
which this loyalty could attach itself? She thought that in the 
high school the social life should arise out of something to do, 
as music, dramatics, or the various collections which young 
people always like to make. The university requirements were 
always staring the pupils in the face and giving them scant leisure 
for other things. Might it not be l^itimate to ask for some 
lightening of the burden and for more of the sodal occupations ? 
The high-school pupils had by no means outgrown the love for 
them which they brought with them from the elementary school. 
The whole question was hampered by no room which the puiMls 
could use for their social life. They had a natural feeling for 
privacy and seclusion. They might have an adviser from the 
faculty of their own choice, which would tend to promote har- 
mony. Why would it not be possible to make use of some of 
the schoolrooms in the evening, and could there not be co-opera- 
tion between parents and teachers so that all the time of the pupils 
would not be taken up with studies ? She thought that the School 
of Education had approached the matter of fraternities in a wiser 
way than some. It was a subject for the most delicate and sym- 



MEETING OF THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 247 

pathetic handling, so that the breach which so often existed 
between parents or teachers and children of the high-school age 
should not be widened. The young people did love those organi- 
zations which they had themselves got up or copied from their 
elders, and the matter ought to be handled most delicately. These 
organizations have been taken away from the yotmg people. It 
was necessary to go about providing occasions and interests upon 
which and around which they might come together. It should be 
seen to that the suspicion of parents in general on the part of the 
high-school pupils be lessened, and the practical means for the 
social life of the children should be supplied. Parents should 
encourage social life in their own homes and try to make the home 
gatherings more democratic without cultivating snobbishness or 
self-consciousness. The parents should certainly arouse them- 
selves to do something. 

Mr. Heath called upon Dr. E. Fletcher Ingals to take part in 
the discussion. Dr. Ingals urged games at home and all the social 
life possible with the children out of doors. The gfreat thing was 
to make a companion of one's child, to consider his rights, and 
never to discipline him by an untruth. As substitutes for fra- 
ternities he suggested the various athletic dubs, the clubs in con- 
nection with the school, and the family social clubs to which the 
parents belonged and where children were welcome. 

At the request of Mr. Heath, Mrs. Sproeule spoke of the social 
life of the child up to the age of ten. She thought that it should 
consist of play, free and undirected, in the home. All children 
knew when they were playing to order and were hampered by it. 
They should be free in their play at home. There was great joy 
in the birthday party and in an exchange of visits with meals. 
Her aim would be to encoufage free play and self-direction. 

At the request of Mr. Errant, Dean Owen was called upon to 
speak. He said that in promoting the social life of the parents' 
meetings the social life of the school was promoted; that in 
regard to the fraternities last year there was no ill-feeling, because 
the change had been brought about through discussion with the 
parents, and it did not have to be gone about by a method of 
indirection. At a recent conference of the principals of all the 



248 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

high schools in the Middle West all were in favor of abolishing 
the fraternities, not because they were necessarily bad, but because 
they stood in the way of something better. He said that a com- 
mittee had been working for two years on the subject, and that 
he was sure that a way would be found of promoting the social 
life. He advocated the various clubs already existing, and which 
could be streng^ened and broadened, as a means of bringing the 
best results to the individual in an institution where six hundred 
young people spent three quarters of their time in school. At 
present the organized clubs were not inclusive enough. He men- 
tioned the very successful Hallowe'en party which the school had 
recently had. He wished that there was money enough to orga- 
nize all the dancing lessons which anyone would need or ought to 
have — an arrangement which he thought would tend toward 
simplicity. 

Dean Wilbur S. Jackman announced the concert to be given 
at Mandel Hall for the Elementary School children, their parents, 
and their friends the following afternoon. 

Mr. Heath announced the topic for the next meeting as 
"Methods of Work," and said that the notices would be sent 
home by the children instead of being forwarded by mail. 



WORK OF THE HOME COMMITTEE OF THE 

PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 



MRS. WILBUR S. JACKMAN 
Chairman 



An attempt is being made by the Home and Education Com- 
mittees of the Parents' Association of the School of Education to 
organize the work with the parents and teachers in such a manner 
as to place each in touch with what the other is trying to accom- 
plish, to the end that the home and school may in truth supplement 
each other. The following plan of organization has been effected, 
and in accord with it the work of the year has begun. The 
chairman of each committee, appointed by the g^eral organiza- 
tion, selects from the patrons of each grade a chairman, who in 
turn invites someone to act as secretary. A meeting of each such 
group of parents is arranged for at the School or at one of the 
homes, at which the program consists, in the Home Committee, 
of a half-hour's informal talk by the teacher on the work she is 
planning to carry out for the ensuing month. Outlines may be 
presented, suggestions made for supplemental reading or excur- 
sions, and advice given as to assistance where the children may 
most need it. Opportunity is offered for questions by the parents. 
This is followed by a more formal presentation by someone, 
invited for the occasion, of a subject bearing directly upon the 
problems of the home or the relation of home and school. A 
discussion then follows in which those present freely participate. 
Tea is served and the meeting resolves itself into a simple neigh- 
borly chat, the one topic of common interest still being the 
child. The secretary makes a careful report of each meeting; 
these reports will be framed into a general report at the end of the 
year with a view to making definite suggestions bearing upon the 
curriculum. 

The following is a program of the Home Committee arranged 
for a meeting of the parents whose children are in the second year 

of the high school : 

249 



25© THE ELEMENT ARy ow.._ 

GENERAL SUBJECT: SESPONSIBIUTY 

1. The work of the second year. How much home study is necessary? 

2. What are the demands of the home on the child? 

3. How does the school equip the child to meet these requirements? 

The Home and Education Committees are composed of the 
same membership, with different chairmen and secretaries. These 
two committees will meet under their respective chairmen alter- 
nately to consider the ^)ecial problems which lie in their related 
fields. 

A general evening meeting of the entire association is held 
the third Thiu"sday of each month, thus giving better oppor- 
tunity for the men to be present. A report of the November 
meeting will be found in the current .issue of this journal. 



ANNOUNCEMENT FOR JANUARY 

The Editors take pleasure in calling the attention of the readers of the 
Elementary School Teacher to an article which will appear in the January 
number from the pen of Dr. J. H. Badley, headmaster of Bedales School, 
Petersfield, Hampshire, England. This institution is one of a small but most 
interesting group of pioneer schools which has representattves in England, 
France, and Germany. Bedales ranks with the great English public schoc^ 
but it has broken away from many of their traditions, and it deserves a place 
in the front rank with the most modem schools in our own country. This 
particular school is unique in its class, as it is coeducational. The article will 
be well illustrated from photographs which show much of the beautiful 
environment as well as the work of the school. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



The eighteenth educational conference of academies and high 
schools in relations with the University of Chicago was held at 

the university on November ii and 12. Two years 

Conference ^S^ ^^*^ conference took up the question of the 

curriculum of the elementary and secondary schools, 
and appointed a commission to consider the feasibility of modify- 
ing the course of study in some way which would enable the pupils 
to complete their college work at an earlier age than they do at 
present. The commission, consisting of twenty-one members, 
was divided into three committees of seven each, which reported 
last year upon the elementary, secondary, and collie interests 
respectively. In the main, the reports agreed that there can be, 
and that there should be, an economizing of time for the pupil; 
but no recommendations were definitely adopted by the commis^ 
sion as a whole, and the organization was continued another year 
that further study might be nnade of the questions involved. 

The conference this year listened to some papers which were 
devoted mainly to reports of what is being done in different places 

with the six-year high-school course. The tone of 
Year *^^ papers was distinctly in favor of extending the 

secondary course so as' to make it cover two years 
of college work. 

The commission made practically no advance upon the work 
of last year, except to recommend that a commission of fifteen be 
appointed to continue the investigation, and to propose lines of 
study indicated by the following questions : 

1. Is the present policy of differentiation between the elementary and 
secondary schools desirable; or should an effort be made toward greater 
-unification in method and organization? 

2. Should the elementary school correspond to the period of childhood, 

251 



252 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and therefore should it provide for six years of school work from the ages of 
six to twelve years, instead of eight years as at present? 

3. Should the secondary school correspond to the period of youth, and 
should it therefore provide for six years of school work from the ages of 
thirteen to eighteen, mstead of four years as at present? 

4. What revision of the curricula of the elementary and secondary schools, 
and what changes in methods of teaching, can be made that will contribute to 
economy of time and efficiency of work? 

5. In order to secure a Well-balanced development, and at the same time 
to contribute to the economy of time, can the school year be lengthened 
advantageously and minor vacations be more equally distributed? 

6. Under what limitations should high schools undertake to do the woiic 
of the first two college years? 

A seventh question was added from the floor in the conference, 
to the effect that an effort be made to state the periods of growth 
or development of the pupil in some other terms than years. 

In r^^ard to the distribution of the pupils' time in school and 
college, the high-schocJ teachers are distinctly generous. They 

are generally willing to asstmie responsibility for 
^jj^^jlg^jj^ either one or two years of the elementary course, 

or one or two — preferably two — years of col- 
lege work, or possibly both. With most high-school teadiers^ 
too, it is perfectly clear as to how this change should be made. 
It is only a nuitter of scissors and paste: ^xaplj attach to the 
lower end of their [H'esent curriculum what is cut from the ele- 
mentary schools, and paste to the tipper end what is taken from 
the colleges, and it is done ! Does this shortening really shorten ? 

From the time when the pupil enters school at six years of age 
until he takes his doctor's degree, it is, at present, normally 
eighteen years — eight in elementary, four in high-school, and six 
in college woric Last year the commission reported favorably 
upon reducing the elementary period to seven years; they then 
proposed so to readjust the high-sdiool and college curricula as 
to save another year, and thus land the youth at twenty-two years 
of age where he now a{q)ears at twenty-four. This year, one of 
the questions of the commission indicates a tendency to make the 
reduction wholly in the elementary period. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 253 

While everyone feels that there is considerable waste for the 
pupil as the whole curriculum is now organized, it is clear that the 

commission has done little of real value in the way 
Not a Question ^f suggesting a practical reform. The chief source 
and Paste ^^ waste is found in the fact that we now have three 

distinctly organized curricula. These at present are 
not related to each other in a natural sequence either in matter or 
method, and it is inevitable that the pupil should lose — that his 
development should be stayed — when he passes from one to the 
other. The net result of the commission's work has been to 
accentuate these divisions and to make them more formal. The 
suggestions made that any one be either shortened or lengthened 
are not aimed at the real trouble at all. If carried out, they could 
result only in an organization as artificial and fortuitous as that 
which now exists. 

It is to be hoped that the new Commission of Fifteen will 
transfer the question from the field of mechanics to that of psy- 
Mechanics chology and pedagogy. A few things in this matter 
Tersns Psy- are fixed. In the first place, nobody can shorten a 
chology and "nature-made" period of human development by 

^^^ applying to it a man-made course of study which has 

been prepared on the principle of calling three quarts a gallon. 
In the next place, it should be remembered that when development 
is urged beyond a certain rate it ceases to be development at all. 
The only possible way to reach the minimum of waste in the edu- 
cational process is to secure the continued maximum efficiency 
of the pupil in his work. This is not attained now in either the 
elementary school, the high school, or the college. It never will 
be attained by simply sliding, mechanically, up and down the scale, 
the artificial divisions which exist at this time in the curriculum. 

In reorganizing the curriculum, there are two ideas that must 

be reconciled : one of these relates to the " all-arotmd " teaching 

The "AU- which has been supposed to be peculiarly appropriate 

Around" Teach- in the elementary school, and the other to the 

er Tersns the " special teaching " which is thought to be particu- 
Special Teacher j^^j^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ j^j^j^ ^^^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

facts: Special teaching has penetrated the elementary school 



254 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

everywhere, and it is bound to permeate as thoroughly this part 
of the system as it does the high school. Conditions have greatly 
changed from what they were when the "all-around" teacher 
flourished. There was but little to be taught then but the " three 
R's." Nowadays it is a physical, as well as a scholastic, impossi- 
bility for any one teacher to meet all of the recognized demands 
of the pupils in any grade. Manual training from its introduction 
has demanded the special teacher. The same is generally true of 
music. It is beyond question that special teachers are needed for 
domestic science, textiles, clay-modeling, drawing, painting, 
nature-study, geography, and other subjects in the schools when 
such studies are placed upon a satisfactory basis. It is not neces- 
sary to argue here for the benefits of expert special knowledge on 
the part of the teacher. 

Under existing conditions, then, the question is: How can 
the idea of the " all-around " teacher be combined with that of the 
How to Pre- special teacher to secure the benefits of both ? In 
aenrc the "AU- the University Elementary School the plan pursued 
Aronnd " Idea ^^ present is as follows : Each group or grade has a 
head teacher (in this school called "critic teacher") who is 
solely responsible, under the principal, for all the work of the 
children under his or her charge. The special teachers of manual 
training, the arts, domestic science, and physical culture, regard- 
less of their official position, stand related to the critic teacher, 
functionally, as his assistants, and each critic teacher organizes 
his teaching staff according to this idea. In special conferences 
the work of the grade is discussed and planned with sole regard 
to what seems to be best for the "all-around" welfare of the 
pupils. Each special teacher is expected to set forth the particular 
claims of his subject and to teach his subject ; but he is expected 
to do so with a definite recognition of what the pupil needs in 
other directions. It is part of his business, therefore, so to woric 
out the relations of his subject as to be of assistance in meeting 
those needs. Thus the special teacher in manual training, for 
example, is called upon to show how much demand the proper 
presentation of his subject makes for nimiber, reading, drawing, 
writing, and so forth, and he is expected to meet the demand. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 255 

This does not mean, in the end, that he teaches his subject less, 
but that he teaches the children more. Each teacher of a particu- 
lar subject, therefore, becomes a special teacher possessed with the 
"all-around" idea, and the effect upon the children is that of 
having not one, but many " all-around " teachers. 

Of course, the plan succeeds only upon two conditions : first, 
that the special teacher has the motive to subserve the best inter- 
Upon What ^^^ ^^ ^^ whole child, and that he has pedagogic 
the Soccess of insight enough to work out the relations of his sut>- 
thePian ject; second, that the special teachers be made 

Depends finally responsible to the head or critic teacher of the 

group or grade. Nothing could be more fatal to the plan than to 
have the special teachers working after their own sweet will with- 
out a compact organization under a recognized head that is 
responsible for the whole. In practice, this plan does not lead to 
contention, as might be supposed. Each teacher who follows out 
the relations of his subject, as they approach and merge into 
something else, is only too glad to avail himself of the experiences 
of others who approach the pupil from different points of view. 
The varied knowledge concerning the pupils which is thus brought 
into a common fund, and the necessarily perpetual readjustment 
of subject-matter, combine to make harmony and to give an actual 
strength to the instruction that can never be realized by a single 
teacher of the old " all-around " type. The " all-around " teacher 
always has been something of a myth. In the ungraded country 
schools even, where he is the roundest of the " all-arotmd " kind, 
he is usually a specialist in something — arithmetic generally, in 
earlier days — and does all of his teaching from that point of 
view. 

As the elementary school is now beginning to avail itself of 
the advantages of the special-teacher idea, it is none the less 
Application important for the high school to begin to act upon 
of the Plan to the principle of the " all-around " idea. The chief 
the High weakness in high-school work is that each instructor 

^ teaches as though his pupils were all to become 

specialists in his particular branch of knowledge; and, further- 



256 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

more, as though the proper way to specialize is to buy, b^, or 
steal all possible in one subject and to exclude and ignore as much 
as possible everything else. This results in unholy rivalries 
among the teachers and in disconnected thinking on the part of 
the pupils. Here is one place where there is real waste in sdiool 
life, because the laws of symmetrical groA^'th are trampled under 
foot and the pupil is allowed to drift. If the plan of organization 
proposed for the elementary school works well through the first 
eight years, there is no reason why it should not work equally well 
through the next four, and on through the college. 

The principle of organization here maintained will apply to 
any stage of g^rowth. The strong personal interest of the teadier 

that is jnatemal in its character in the early years 
edagogy an ^jjj develop into a personal sympathy no less intense, 

though resting upon different grounds, in the period 
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scheme can be true in pedagogy which is false in biology. Peda- 
gogy is but the organization of the developmental influences 
around a child, as horticulture is the organization of similar influ- 
ences around a plant. The varying attitudes of mind of infancy, 
childhood, and youth only reveal from different points of view 
the same growing organism, which, while nourishing itself upon a 
gfreat variety of things, always feeds in the same way. 

The only way, therefore, actually to economize in the educa- 
tional process is to forsake those methods of reform which tend to 
emphasize the breaks between elementary and secondary, and 
between secondary and college, education that already exist. The 
attention must be turned toward plans for unifying the curriculum 
from first to last, and to the development of methods that flexiUy 
conform themselves at every stage to the sensitive, yielding, grow- 
ing child and youth. This will finally remove the breaks that 
now exist even between any two conseaitive years of school life. 

W. S. J. 



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The 

Elementary School 
Teacher 



January, 1905 

Vol. V, No. 5 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

Stturi^itu: t/.JOffr rear; Saigle Ngmitn 30 cnlt 



m 




l/tyt/^ cfyar/c^i in Ci/i loouCd be imi^jnuc/! 

■itturait' ajaiicl ccnipCcxion. <£iAe oa many oti' 
I i/oufw UK)men,i/ou ftave mined yt>ui Cfppciiunili 

"Pears' Otto or Rosa Tablat is the parfectjon of Toilet Soap." 




'^mentari? Scbool ICeacber 



- *5 Tackman 



'^^^ 



The Faci'lty of the University i>k Cihx,.. 



CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, J905 

BEDALES SCHCK)L, PKTERSFIELO, KNCLAND J. H. Badley 257 

A MORNING EXERCISE Pfarl I. Backus 267 

AN IDEAL COURSE OF STIDV William M. Giffin 271 

BEVERLY HILLS Ei.sabeth Port 275 

THE LIBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL FACTOR .... M. E. Ahers 278 

THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

Lor LEY A. Ashleman 285 

WHAT IS ACCURACY IN ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC? - - -G.W.Myers 292 

THE EXTENSION OF THE VACATION-SCHOOL IDEA Mrs. Caroline M. Hill 298 

IS THE ELEMENTARY-SCHOOL CURRICULUM ADJUSTED? 

Arthur Henry Chamberlain 302 

THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION ... - Mrs. Frank Hugh Montgomery 311 

EDITORIAL NOTES • . - - Wilbur S. Jackman and Miss Bertha Payne 313 

The Distractions of Technique; The Chief Offenders; Technique the Outcome of Thought; 
Why Failures in Technique; How Train for Technique; Discouragement of the Pupils; 
PupiFs Right to His Own Technique; What's the Remedy? Educational Experiments; The 
Function of the Private School; The Outcome for the Community; The Fixity of a System, 
or the Parable of the Baker; The Application ; Possibilities or Impossibilities. 

BOOK REVIEWS: 320 

IVarner: The Culture Readers, Elsie A. Wy(;ant; Nichols: Larra's Partir & Tiempo. 



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Stmday-SchoolTeachers! 



tStudies 

in tlie Gospel 

Accordin^^ 

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The value of the book is greatly increased by questions which make it possible 
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The book has already been tested by two years' experience, and the results have 
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We are perfecting a plan wherelyy a Sunday school ouy place oor bocdca in 
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** (Adolescence* * and The 



T^HE University of Chicago Press has perfected arrangements whereby 
^ subscribers— new or old — to The Elementary School Teacher may obtaip 
the magazine and a recent standard book at a very material reduction in price, 
as described in this advertisement. All teachers should own the two volumes 
of G. Stanley Hall's "Adolescence;" a set should also be found in every school 
and public library. We purpose to send out prepaid a set of "Adolescence" 
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This saving should especially interest city and county superintendentM^ 
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ADOLESCENCE 



DR. 6. STANLEY HALL 



This work is the result of many years of study and teaching. It is tne first attempt in any 
language to bring together all the best that has been ascertained about the critical period of 
life which begins with puberty in the early teens and ends with maturity in the middle twenties, 
and it is made by the one man whose experience and ability pre-eminently qualify him for 
such a task. 

The nature of the adolescent period is the best guide to education from the upper grades 
of the grammar school through the high school and college. Throughout the book the state- 
ment of scientific facts is followed systematically by a consideration of their application to 
education, penology, and other phases of life. 

Juvenile diseases and crime have each special chapters. The study of normal psychic life 
is introduced by a chapter describing both typical and exceptional adolescents. 

Chapters follow characterizing the changes that take place during these years in the feel- 
ings, the will, and the intellect, so far as these have been ascertained by experiment, question- 
naire, and other methods. Several chapters on the development of the sentiment of love and 
on the insanities peculiar to youthful years follow. 

The practical application of some of the conclusions of the scientific part are found in sepa- 
rate chapters on the education of girls, coeducation and its relations to marriage, fecundity, and 
family life, as seen by statistics of American colleges, with a sketch of an ideal education for girls. 

There are also brief chapters on the initiation rites of savages, descriptions and critical dis* 
cussions of the forms of confirmation in the great churches of the world, the psychology of 
conversion and the relations of this to the introduction of collegiate youth to philosophical topics. 



Elementary School Teacher 



The problem of the public school, its chief topics and methods, is considered from the 
itandpoint of adolescence, and some very important modifications are urged. 

This is a very wide range of topics, all focusing upon a single stage of life and one which 
is now exciting the most eager interest among teachers, clergymen, and parents. It is believed 
that this book will meet a strong and growing need among all these classes. 



The Elementaxy School Teacher 

is devoted to theory and practice in elementary education ; it is edited especially with a view to 
assisting: (i) Those who are engaged in teaching in the primary and grammar grades. 
(2) High-school teachers who are interested in questions pertaining to the proper organization 
and unification of the elementary and secondary curricula. (3) Principals and superintendents who 
are studying the problems of elementary education. (4) Those who, as students, are preparing 
themselves for entering the profession of teaching. (5) Parents who desire to keep in touch 
with the advance of modern elementary work. 

It is the aim, also, to make the journal worthy the attention of educators generally, and of 
all people who are interested in a rational application of sound principles of pedagogy to the 
art of teaching. 

The Elementary School Teacher, Wilbur S. Jackman, Editor, is published on or 
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An Introduction to the Bible 
for Teachers of Children 

By GEORGIA LOUISE CHAMBERLIN 



. 



Aim of the Lessons 

The Lessons aim to introduce the 
Bible to the child in such a way 

1. That he will be intercstecL in its contents. 

2. That he will acquire some familiarity with 
the location of the various books of the Bible, of 
the several kinds of books, and of the specific 
character of the contents of each book or group 
of books. 

3. That, having this knowledge, he will acquire 
a facility in handling the Bible which will be of 
the greatest service to him as he advances. 

4. That he will, at leasCto some extent, come 
to regard the contents of the several books from 
the point of view of the writers of these books, 
and will therefore be better able to appreciate the 
teaching which they contain. 

5. That by constant story-telling, and informal 
conversation in class, he will gain the power of 
unembarrassed self-expression. 

Contents of the Lessons 

The book presents forty lessons, each 
lesson containing : 

1. Indication of the Scripture material to be 
presented, and carefully selected chtfpt^r and 
page references to outside material which may 
be used in the teacher's preparation of the lesson. 

2. Detailed suggestions as to the method to 
be pursued in the preparation of the lesson. 

3. A specific program for the presentation of 
the lesson in class. 

4. A system of preserving the results of the 
work of the pupils through written class 
exercises. 

5. An assignment of home reading and mem- 
orizing which continues the work through the 
week in an interesting way, and by bridging the 
chasm between Sundays, insures steady progress. 



This is made definite and precise by the use of 
the " Reminder" cards, on one side )of which the 
reading is assigned, the other being for the 
pupil's report on this specific work. 

6. Suggestions to parents for supplementary 
work with the children at home. 

Distmctive Feattsfes 

The distinctive features of the book 
may be classified as follows : 

1. It requires the children to use the Bible at 
home and in class. 

2. It introduces written work in class through 
an attractive little book which the teacher can 
put into the hands of each pupil and in which 
the pupil regularly records the results of hia 
work. This booklet, entitled The Books of tkt 
Bible, is handsomely illustrated. There is a 
pencil attached and space on the cover for the 
child's name. His interest in it will increase 
with its use. 

3. The work demanded from the children both 
at home and in class commands their respect 
and interest at an age when such interest and 
respect are difficult to hold, and compares 
favorably with work which they are required to 
do in the day-school. . 

4. The distinctive religious teaching is not 
forced upon the child, but is so embodied in the 
material presented that it cannot escape his 
notice. 

5. By making suggestions to the parents in 
connection with each lesson it brings the reli 
gious training of the home and the Sunday school 
into harmony, and makes the work continuous, 
at the same time enlisting the interest of the 
parent in the school. 

. 6. It introduces through the child the study of 
the Bible in homes where it might otherwise be 
neglected. 



244 pp., i2mo, cloth; postpaid, $1.00. The Notebooks, 40 pp., are 10 cents 
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VOLUME y - NUMBER 5 



The Elementary School Teacher 



JANUARY, 1905 



BEDALES SCHOOL, PETERSFIELD, ENGLAND 



J. H. BADLEY 
Head Master, Bedales School 



I am asked to contribute to the pages of the Elementary 
School Teacher a short description of my school as now working 
at the close of the twelfth year of its existence and the fourth 
since we moved into our new quarters — planned and built for 
the purpose — at Petersfield. It is a pleasure to accept this 
opportunity of speaking to teachers among whom I have found 
many friends, in a country where education is studied and prac- 
ticed with such enthusiasm and such readiness to follow out 
principles to their logical conclusion in practice; and I cannot 
begin without saying how much I feel we owe to American 
inspiration and example, even though our problems here are so 
different that in some respects we may seem to be following 
different lines. For example, it must not be forgotten that in 
England class distinctions are so deeply ingrained that, however 
much we may wish to break down these barriers in education, 
it is at present practically impossible to do so; and that, just as 
the so-called public schools represent the educational ideal of 
one social class, so there are various other grades of schools 
representing different grades of middle-class education, varying 
according to the scale of fees and the age at which the majority 
of the pupils leave the school. In order, therefore, to gain any 
clear idea of an English school, it is necessary first to know to 
which of these grades it belongs. And this is not in any way a 
question of its size or age, but of the class from which it draws 

257 



2$$ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

its pupils, and the length and purpose of its educational coarse: 
From this point of view Bedales may be redconed along- with 
the English public schools, with this proviso that, in respect 
both of purpose and of cost, it s^peals rather to the professional 
and business man and manufacturer than to the moneyed, landed, 
and aristocratic classes that support the greater pubUc sdKxrfs; 
and the course of training here given is intended for those who 
will earn their own living in similar professions — in most cases 
after a further course at the university or technical coll^^e. The 
school is, therefore, intended for those who will later on be 
leaders, either in their own private concerns or in a more public 
capacity, and for those only who will be able to remain at school 
until seventeen or eighteen, or even longer, before they actually 
begin the special training of their profession. 

In the second place, it must be remembered that such schools in 
England are usually boarding schools, drawing their pupils, not 
from the locality in which they are, but from all parts of the 
country. This fact has set its stamp, whether for good or ill, on 
English education. There is, no doubt, much to be said against 
it; but, on the other hand, it need hardly be pointed out that it 
adds immensely to the opportunities of the educator who realizes 
that school is a place for the training of habit and of character no 
less than of mind ; and, further, that it is at the present time, in 
most cases, a necessity, if children are to be brought up in the 
country rather than the town — a point, the importance of which 
it seems to me hardly possible to overrate. 

We start, then, from these conditions. Bedales is a boarding 
school, in the open country, numbering some one hundred and 
fifty boys and girls, most of whom will remain at school till the 
age of seventeen, eighteen, or even nineteen, and then receive 
some further course of professional training, and most of whom 
will in the end have some share in the direction of the lives of 
others. Of other conditions and vexed questions in English edu- 
cation at the present time I say nothing, because we are here 
happily free from them, being unhampered by any external 
authority. The school is free to follow its own aims in its own 
way. As long as parents continue to send their children here, we 



BED ALES SCHOOL, PETERSFIELD, ENGLAND 259 

have nothing else to consider than the good of the children* and 
the needs of the time. And though we ask for inspection by other 
educational bodies and by the government, we are in no way 
under any external or government control. In fact, one may 
regard Bedales as an educational laboratory for testing principles 
and their applications in various methods. But this must not be 
taken to mean that the school has no definite principles and no 
fixed aim. It represents the attempt to work out in practice a 
complete and all-sided educational course, subject to the condi- 
tions already laid down, of which I need say no more. 

But we have stood long enough on the doorstep explaining 
what the school is. Let us go inside and see what is doing. We 
enter a quadrangle, partly roofed to serve as a play-ground and 
drill-ground for bad weather, partly open to the sky so as to 
admit the outer air freely to classrooms and living-rooms, all of 
which open on to the cloisters that surround it. If it is an 
interval between classes, this quadrangle will be alive with noise 
and movement, and you may have to dodge the flying balls ; but 
now the players are streaming off to the various classrooms, and 
we will follow them. Some classrooms, you see, have numbers 
on the doors; these are the " form-rooms" of the junior classes, 
not onlv for work, but in free-time as well. Others have names 
on them ; these belong to the teachers of special subjects, to whom 
the senior classes come at their allotted hours. We will look into 
one and another as they chance to come. Here are some juniors 
discovering the center of gravity of cards of various shapes by 
hanging them up. Here again are some plotting the curve repre- 
sented by an algebraic equation. Here they are learning how to 
set to work to translate a Latin book ; the master is " preparing " 
it with them, getting from them their suggestions and discoveries, 
and keeping them on the track. And is this a game going on in 
the next room we enter ? Yes, a game of " Tell me what I have 
thought of," but all in French. They have just guessed the object, 
and now comes a French song before they go. This is the library, 
and here, when we lode in, are several of the older boys and girls 
at the various tables, preparing work by themselves. And this is 
the physical laboratory, in which a senior class is at work dis- 



26o THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

covering for themsdves the principles of mechanics^ widi die h^ 
of 2ppai2Ltas mostly made in the sdiool workshop. Two things 
will probabty have struck you in all these classes : first, dot die 
rooms are small — for classes number only twelve to fifteen m 
eadi — and that all are bright and dean, with pkasant-colored 
walls and plenty of pictures — for they are not used for dass 
work only — and with beautiful views of the Downs from all die 
windowsw We believe, as you see, in the unconscious iiiflinirr 
of the child's s ur r oun dings, buildings and worics of art, and die 
beauties of nature; and, secondly, that in all the woric diere is 
very little teaching in the old sense of ''telling,'' but a great deal 
of discovering for themselves. Initiative, the power of tadding 
problems as they arise, we regard as of more value dian book- 
knowledge. Our part, therefore, is not to lecture or to demon:- 
strate at the MaddxDard, but to start proUems and let die chiTdren 
demonstrate to eadi other and to us. 

But you have probably seen enough of sodi work by now. 
Let us go bade to the quadrangle — noticing on the way die 
board on whidi the weather records for the month are entered 
graphically by certain juniors eadi morning in rotation — and 
see the clothes in^)ection going on; for bqjrs as wdl as gtrb have 
to learn to look after thdr dothes to some extent, and at least to 
keep them dean and tidy. Then we wiD go over to the gymna- 
sium to see the dass there at their Swedish drill ; and look in at 
the girls' house on the way at the juniors' sewing dass, in which 
you will not be surprised, I hope, to find bqjrs sewing widi die 
girls; for in the earlier stages at least we want to make no need- 
less distinction, but let the boys ^lare the sewing and ocxddng, 
and the girls the wood-work, though later on diey will take 
different linesw 

And now the morning dasses are over, and when we get back 
we shall find boys and girls lined up for dinner in^)ection, while 
die prefects see that hands are clean and hair brushed. The goi^ 
rings, and all file into the halL where we will follow. They ^t, 
you see, by age, at the different tables^ boys and giris together, 
with a mendDer of the staff at eadi table in turn for a week. No 
rule of aSence here ; and by the time the meal is over you will be 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate III 





Taking a Weather Rkadl: 



BED ALES SCHOOL, PETERSFIELD, ENGLAND 261 

able to judge how far the healthy freedom we aim at is attained. 
Now they go off to change into their outdoor dress, as they must 
every afternoon, whether for games or manual work. Today is 
a " whole-school " day, so presently we shall find them scattered 
over the whole estate, at different kinds of work. Some are in 
the studio doing free-arm work on the blackboard, or making 
brush-work studies of plants to be used afterward for design, or 
drawing from the cast. Others are in the workshop, making a 
scale drawing of the joint or object they are then to make in 
wood. Others again are in the forge, for some new fencing, 
perhaps, has to be made for the poultry run. Some are at work 
in the school garden or orchard ; others over at the farm doing 
the dairy work in their turn. Some are down shooting on the 
rifle range ; some are surveying a part of the playing-fields where 
leveling is needed. The games captain you may find driving the 
horse roller to get the ground ready for the match tomorrow, 
while others are busy putting up a new wire fence to keep the 
cattle off it. Some are building a store-shed, or finishing off the 
roof of the dressing-shed around the new open-air swimming- 
bath. And this is the afternoon when the older girls are having 
their cooking lesson, preparing the evening meal for the staff.* 
And now it is tea time, and all are changed bade into their 
house clothes. The hall looks emptier, for the staff is away 
enjoying, let us hope, the meal you saw being cooked, and the 
prefects sit around at the tables in their place. After tea there is 
an hour's class — this is the time given each day throughout the 
school to history and literature ; then singing, in which all take 
part together in the hall — just now they are taking Stanford's 
" Revenge " — followed by half an hour's quiet reading; and then 
they separate for various occupations. Scxne of the older will 
put in another hour's work ; but most will be doing bookbinding 
or carving, or some other chosen handicraft; or it may be the 
evening when the various school societies meet, and you can 
listen to their papers or debates, or look on at the fencing, or find 

^ It must not, of course, be supposed that everything here mentioned can be 
seen going on at the same time on any one day. I have brought together, to form 
a *' specimen day," various things that I happen to have seen at one time or 
another during the past week. 



262 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

the hall cleared for dancing; or, if it chances to be one of the 
monthly " merry evenings," we shall all meet there for recitations^ 
songs, readings, or perhaps a home-made [day. But by half-past 
eight the boys in charge have arranged the hall for prayers; we all 
join in a brief service, there is a handshaking all around, and the 
day is over. The girls go back to their own house, the boys go up 
to their dormitories ; and you may like to come into my study for 
a little and question me as to the meaning of all 3rou have seen. 

It means, as I said just now, an attempt to give a complete 
and all-sided education, in which equal importance shall be gfiven 
to the training of body, mind, and character. A few words, then, 
as to the plan on which we work with regard to each of these. 

The training of the body is not only a matter of ph3rsical drill, 
nor even of those outdoor games and sports that play so large a 
part — too large a part, perhaps — in our modeiin schemes of 
education. These have their place, especially if they are not con- 
fined to two or three games like cricket and football, hodcey and 
tennis, however good; but include also swimming, and sudi 
sports as boxing, fencing, etc., which furnish so admirable a 
training for other qualities besides the skill of hand and eye they 
require. But all these things may be overdone, until play becomes 
enthroned in the mind as a more desirable object in life than 
work, and even leads to contempt for other forms of manual 
skill. For this reason, no less than for the healthy training both 
of body and mind, there must be a large amount of time that 
would otherwise be spent in games given to various forms of 
manual training, whether in wood or metal workshop, in garden 
or on farm. To such work we assign at least two afternoons 
each wedc, and do not let games monopolize all the time set apart 
for outdoor exercise. But apart from such definite physical train- 
ing, even more importance we believe attaches to all the every- 
day matters of hygiene, such as food, clothing, short and varied 
hours of work, and work in the open air, fresh air indoors no less 
than out, the freedom of life in the country — in a word, the 
practical teaching of hygiene in the habits of life no less than in 
the classroom. With this object the buildings are planned and 
the time-table arranged — with considerable difference, I need 



The Elementary School Tkacheb, V Plate IV 




BEDALES SCHOOL, PETERSFIELD, ENGLAND 263 

hardly say, between the length of working hours for younger and 
older, as well as between the kind of work done at different stages 
of development. 

To this we may now turn. The fact that we are not bound by 
any external scheme leaves us free not only to employ in the class- 
room whatever methods we may think best, and to carry on 
experiments in teaching, but also to make the attenq>t to plan a 
complete course unaffected — at least until the final stage — by 
external requirements of public examinations. In this way we 
can refuse to allow what seems to us premature specialization in 
any direction; and though for most the external examination 
must come in the end, we do not allow it to affect our work until 
all have been through the general course that we think necessary 
for the training of the various activities of a human being, as dis- 
tinct from the special requirements of the later career. Up to the 
age of sixteen, therefore, or fifteen at the earliest — for develop- 
ment is not always directly according to age — all follow the same 
general course, from the kindergarten on ; but after this point is 
reached, we leave it to personal bent, which by then should have 
discovered itself, and the choice of the career, to decide the special 
lines of work to be followed in preparation for the coming special 
training, technical or professional, whatever it may be. It will not 
be possible to do more than give an outline of the work done 
during these two stages. The earlier or general course, in which 
there is little or no option, comprises the following subjects : 

1. Language: the mother-tongue, one modem language, and 
— from the age of twelve — a four-year course of Latin. 

2. What may be called the humanities par excellence: history, 
first of our own country, then of classical times ; literature linked 
with and, as far as possible, corresponding to the history; and 
geography. 

3. Science, beginning with nature-study in the garden and 
fields, and the science of every-day life, connected again with the 
classes in cooking and hygiene, and so leading to the more sys- 
tematic study of physics and chemistry. 

4. Mathematics, taught not merely for commercial utility, but 
rather as a training subject, and based largely on practical 
measurement. 



264 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

5. Manual work, including, for all, various branches of art 
woric, a course of wood-work and of gardening, and, at one stage 
or another, such things as cooking, sewing, dairy work, the care 
of poultry and bees, etc 

6. And, lastly, music, in the form of classes in sight-reading, 
etc., and daily singing for all. 

I am tempted to stop here and fill in this outline, for there is 
much that might be said, both as to the reasons for including so 
wide a range of subjects, and the proportional time given to each, 
in order to escape the many-headed Scylla of unwise dissipation 
of energy in obtaining a smattering of many things, without 
falling into the Charybdis of over-pressure and an overcrowded 
time-table. But to do this would require a treatise, and I must 
pass on. 

So much, then, for the general course. After the age of 
fifteen or sixteen, as said above, the special lines of work aiie 
largely optional and examination requirements are considered. 
Thus, for instance, the main course followed may be classical, with 
Greek in place of science; or modem, with Latin giving place to 
German; or special lines in science may be followed — metal- 
work, for example — and mechanical drawing being taken as 
preparatory for the technical training of the engineer; or more 
time may be given to practical work in workshop or on farm, or 
in domestic economy or art; and due preparation made in eadi 
case for matriculation and other examinations necessary for enter- 
ing on the further stage when school is left. But whatever the 
special lines followed, in all cases some common work is still done, 
especially in modem history and literature — the necessary de- 
ments, as we think, to broaden and harmonize all branches of 
training. 

Before leaving the subject of mental training, a few words 
must be added on two points. It has just been said that we take 
no kind of external examinations tuitil the final stage is reached. 
But examinations have their use for the pupil, and, still more, for 
the teacher, if they are tme tests, well applied. Each year, there- 
fore, we ask some university or some educationalist of note to 
inspect the work of the school and to conduct an examination in 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate V 




Tn me Dairv 




Taking Q>htouh Level 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate VI 




y 




^ 


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Ih 






5^- ■'■ 1 



Laying oi;t a New Garden 



BEDALES SCHOOL, PETERSFIELD, ENGLAND 265 

concert with ourselves. By this means we insure that the children 
are tested in work they have actually done; and, while we do not 
have to conform our course to any other standard, at the same 
time we get an impartial judgment upon the work done and its 
results. The other point is one that specially concerns the board- 
ing school — the provision of occupation for leisure time and the 
encouragement of hobbies that may become the pursuits of a 
lifetime. With us, times are set apart, especially in the evening, 
for reading and music, for handicrafts of various kinds, for 
dancing and lectures and debates, and for the meeting of societies 
classical, scientific, etc. ; and the summer half-holidays in particu- 
lar for expeditions in pursuit of interests in natural history, 
archaeology, and so forth, for which we are here particularly wdl 
placed, in a country studded with relics of the Roman occupation, 
and within easy reach on one side of Saxon Alfred's capital, and 
on another of the home of Gilbert White, But however much I 
should like to emphasize the value of such interests, the by- 
products of a real education, here again I must not linger, for I 
have yet to say something about the means of character-training. 
All educators are agreed that this is not so much a matter of 
precept as of habit ; it depends on the child's environment, on the 
daily routine of his life, the rules that he has to obey — let me say 
in passing that they must be as simple as possible, and the main 
reasons for the keeping of them made plain to all — and still more, 
I think, on the opportunities given for self-government, and the 
constant claim that he shall not only obey rules, but act upon his 
own responsibility. Of one part of this environment, as I have 
called it, of the daily life sit Bedales I need say little to American 
teachers, to whom coeducation is a familiar fact. Here we are 
only carrying it a step farther in making it one of the factors in 
the life of a boarding school — where, as I venture to think, the 
good results are even more certain, owing to the still closer 
and more constant intercourse, and the difficulties much less than 
is commonly supposed. Not that there are none. But, if, as we 
believe in this cotmtry, the life of the boarding school, with its 
freedom of self-government on the one side, and on the other its 
cotmtless opporttmities for bringing influence to bear on the indi- 



266 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

vidual, affords a fine training-ground for character, it is all the 
more so when boy and girl have to work out their problems 
together, and when among the influences at woiic are ideals and 
traditions that broaden the outlook and touch the conduct of 
cither sex. 

A word too about religion, as taught at Bedales. Of the 
teaching of forms and creeds there is nothing, nor is any comer 
rejected on religious grounds. In questions of private belief and 
forms of worship each is free to do as he has been taught at home; 
only he must learn the practical lesson of toleration of those who 
think and worship differently. In our own religious gatherings 
we neither wish to teach one creed nor to undermine belief in 
another; but to show that, whatever the outward differences, 
there is something beneath each that is common to all, and that 
this, as shown in the daily life, is the main thing that concerns us 
all alike. And especially we try to bring all to see and grasp, 
according to their ability, the opportunities of social service of 
which school life is so full, and which, to my thinking, are the best 
of all that a school has to offer. But this side of our work it is not 
easy — least of all for one engaged in it — to describe; any more 
than it is easy to gauge its results, for the greater part lie beyond 
the school. Our hope is that the life lived here will not end when 
the school days end; and that foremost among the lessons here 
learned and carried away will be that summed up in our school 
motto : " Work of each for weal of all." 

I feel that the above brief outline can give but a confused 
impression of what we are trjdng to do at Bedales. Let me, how- 
ever, add that if any into whose hands this may fall wish to make 
closer acquaintance with the school, I hope that if ever they are in 
this country, they will find their way to Petersfield. They may be 
sure they will be welcome. Few things have given us more 
pleasure in our work here than the interest taken in it by others, 
and the links it has established for us with fellow-workers in other 
lands, and especially in the one where education is most believed 
in, and therefore is most living. 



A MORNING EXERCISE 



THIRD GRADE FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 



PEARL I. BACKUS 
Third-Grade Teacher 



The following reports were given by the children of the third 
g^ade at morning exercises. They are the outgrowth of a year's 
work in the study of the history of Chicago, and illustrate one 
phase of the development of transportation. 

Last year the third grade studied about early Chicago, and the different 
ways of traveling in the early days. We decided to make a train of cars in 
the sloyd shop. We chose the cars because they are made just outside of the 
city, and because Chicago is such a very large railroad center, and because 
going by train is the most rapid way of traveling. 

The reason we did not make a passenger train, is because there is so much 
shipping and commerce going on in the city, and the passenger cars are too 
hard to make. 

We also made plans for the truck, the wheels, and the track. We thought 
it would be nice to give the cars to the kindergarten children. 

Josephine Palmer. 

We did not go to the carshops to measure the cars, as we had all seen 
freight cars, and we had a good book ^ with pictures and measurements given. 

Each child used the book and selected the car he liked the best. I chose 
the coal car. It was 34 feet long. We decided upon the scale to use in making 
the cars. We first thought we would make them i inch to i foot, but 34 inches 
would make them too long. Then we thought that Yz inch to i foot would be 
better. 

This is the plan of my car. Helen Staxhter. 



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^American Car and Foundry C6.'8 publication. 

267 







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26S 



THE BLEMBNTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 



Two people worked on a car. tf each child made one car, there would be 
too many cars, and we would not get them finished. One worked at the sides 
and floor ; the other one made the ends, the top, and the running-board. We 
put two coats of paint on them. One child put on one coat of paint, and the 
other put on the last coat. We grooved the sides and ends with a carving 
tool to make it look like boards running up and down. We used large staple 
tacks for the steps. We named each car and planned the lettering. We called 
the cars the " F.W.P. Fast Freight." 

MiLDBED ZbNOS. 



We wanted to know the capacity of our cars. We used inside n 
ments. The box car is i8J^ inches long. 4 inches wide, and 3 inches high. I 
made a drawing of the floor of the car. We used i-inch cubes to see how many 
cubic inches there were in one layer. We found 74 cubic inches. In three 
layers there were 233 cubic inches. 





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1 made a drawing of the floor of the coal car too. In the first layer there 
were 58^ ctibic inches. In two layers there were ti6^ cubic inches. 

Fbicda Maynah). 

When we made the wheels we used the same scale that we did in making 
the cars, only we made the flange bigger. The reason we did this is because 
the little cars are not heavy enough to stay on the track. 




I made a model of the wheels on the lathe. Here is the plan of my wheels. 
Frank Packau. 



How we made our wheels: We wanted to have iron wheels for our cars, 
but we could not make them. We used Frank's wooden model for casting 
wheels in lead because we wanted to know bow they cast large wheels. We 



The Elementary Sciioor, Teacher, V 






A MORNING EXERCISE 



269 



took two flasks and pounded molder's sand into one of the flasks, and set the 
wooden wheels half way in. Then we sprinkled dry sand on so that the 
molder's sand in the other flask wouldn't stick. Then we put the other flask 
on it and the pegs held it in place. We then took the two flasks apart and 
took the wooden model out. We made air holes in the flask on top with a 
hatpin and a larger hole to pour the melted lead in. We put the flasks 
together again and poured the lead in the hole. When cool we took the flasks 
apart and this is the way the lead wheels looked. The reason there are these 
holes in them is because there were not enough air holes in the flasks and the 
melted lead couldn't push the air out 

Dorothy Wing. 



Everybody in the third grade last year made a drawing for the truck for 
our cars, and we at last decided upon this one. The truck is made of some 
metal. It fits on the bottom of the car and holds the wheels onto the car. We 
are going to screw our truck to the car so it can turn a little when going 
around curves. We did not plan to keep the side of the truck from hitting the 
wheels, and if it did the car could not move very easily, so we think we will 
put a washer between the truck and the wheels. The wheels are }i inch below 




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the bottom of the car. We made them that way so the wheels will not hit the 
bottom of the car. We shall make the hole that we shall put the axle in larger 
than the axle, so it will have plenty of room to turn around. 

Lucy Smith. 



If we were to use these cars we would send the stock car west to the 
cattle ranches to be filled with cattle and bring it back to the Stock Yards to 
unload. The refrigerator cars we would send to the Stock Yards, fill with 
fresh meat, and ship to the East where the people need it most. The coal car 
we could send right down in Illinois and fill with coal to help carry on the 
great manufacturing in the city. The furniture car we could fill with furniture 
made here and ship west where the people need it most. The box car we could 
take to Minnesota to fill with grain, or it might be used for any conunon 
freight. The caboose is used for the people who work on the train, and the 
men who look after the stock. 

Owen White. 



ayo THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

We went down to obcasure the kindergarten circle, and foond it was i6 
inches in diameter. We foond there was room jnst ootside of the circle for the 
track. It is to be made in sections so it can be stored away when not in ose. 

As we have done aD we can on the cars, we have asked the big boys to 
help finish them, so the kindergarten diildren can use them very soon. 



There were many proUems in arithmetic not suggested in the 
children's reports, such as finding the capacity of real cars, and 
finding the number of board feet and the cost of the lumber used 
in making the cars. 



AN IDEAL COURSE OF STUDY^ 



WILLIAM M. GIFFIN 
Principal of the Frances Willard School, Chicago 



An ideal course of study should be to the teacher what a 
menu card is to the hotel guest — that is, full of dainty and valu- 
able suggestions — the one for the inner man, tlie other for the 
child-mind. The course of study, like the menu, should be pre- 
pared by experts from each department of the teaching force, 
rather than by mind-stuff ers whose whole idea of education is to 
get over a certain amount of ground in a given time, con so many 
facts from a given page, and learn to read and spell so many 
words in a prescribed order. It should be prepared by those who 
can realize that one has hardly done his duty who has taught a 
child hozv to read, if at the same time he has not taught him what 
to read ; or who can realize that, while a tadpole may appeal to 
one child in a given grade, another child in the same grade with 
quite a different environment may have a greater interest in cobble 
stones, or that a child with a certain environment should have 
instilled in him a love for birds, while another, who seldom sees a 
bird, is in much more need of having created within him a love 
for fresh air or soap and water; that is, one requires training 
from the humane side, while the other requires training from the 
hygienic side. How absurd for the hotel guest to think that, 
because the card is given him, he must begin at the top and fill all 
its conditions to the end ! 

We once heard of an honest old farmer who so felt, and who, 
when he had reached the first third of the card, called the head 
waiter and said : " Say, waiter, if it ain't agin the rules, I should 
like to skip from tha' to tha'.'* No doubt many a teacher has 
felt ofttimes, when inflicted with a class of left-overs who had at 
last reached her grade, that she would " like to skip from tha' to 

^A pai>er read before the joint meeting of the Ella F. Young and George 
Rowland Qubs, October 14, 1904. 

271 



27« THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

tha'," and who would no doubt turn out much better citizens if 
she could but have the privilege of using her judgment in doing 
so. Nor can there be any doubt that there are many times when, 
if she did make a skip here and there, after due consultation with 
her principal, no one would receive any great injury either 
mentally or physically. 

I have not forgotten that we were making conditions for this 
great, big, overgrown village, with its smoke and soot, its dust 
and mud, its fine boulevards and parks, and, finally, its population 
made up of people from every country of the globe who, many of 
them, change their residence every six months. On the other 
hand, I have not forgotten that we, when writing this course of 
study, did what every progressive man or woman has done who 
has had success in life — namely, worked toward an ideal. How 
can we best do this? Is it not possible to have printed in our 
course of study parallel columns which may be known as " must " 
and "may," or "necessary ".and "optional," or, perhaps better 
yet, " minimum " and " maximiun " requirements. For example, 
a child has no right to be in the fourth-year grade and not know 
that 6 4's are 24. In other words, by the end of the four years in 
school a child should know, before being advanced to a higher 
grade, his tables of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, 
and partition ; and when he comes to us from any part of the city, 
that is one of the things we have a right to insist upon his know- 
ing before admitting him to the grade mentioned. On the other 
hand, he may never have seen anything in nature that has appealed 
to him, not even this gjand lake of which we are so justly proud ; 
while, should it be his good fortune to find himself in a school 
where he can see it each day, he will not be long in " catching on 
to " its beauties, and the lessons its waters and shores are teach- 
ing him. If he has come from some central building where they 
have not forgotten the importance of teaching him the hygienic 
side — that is, the use of soap and water — he will there have 
learned one valuable lesson, which will help him to meet his new 
environment; and that is one important point to keep in view in 
making a course of study for a city with such mixed conditions. 
But few, if any, of the children move from any such district as. 



AN IDEAL COURSE OF STUDY 273 

say, Hyde Park to a district near the center of the city, while there 
are many who from time to time move from the center to the 
suburbs. The work, then, of the central school should tend 
toward the possible change for better conditions which should or 
may meet these diildren. Teaching them the use of a fork and 
nai^in, and of the words " excuse " and " pardon " and " if you 
please," is of much greater importance than the spelling of 
rhinoceros, Hoangho, or Yanktsdciang. 

Again, there are sdiools where it is much more important for 
the pupils to gain the meaning of the Declaration of Independence 
than to learn the names of the battles of the Civil War or the 
divisions of the central European continent. A million dollars' 
worth of powder is burned up each year by people who do not 
know why they are burning it. I or my children did not have to 
be told why this powder is burned on the Fourth of July, nor did 
you in school. It is well, however, to give a few hints to the son 
of Salbanio, down in the river district, in order that he may have, 
not only more fun in biuning his powder, but a better appreciation 
of what freedom and independence mean. 

Here, then, is one of the many subjects that Miss A., in the 
central ward or district, should be glad to teach, while Miss B., in 
a suburban district, whose children have the proper home influ- 
ence, knows there is no more reason why she should teach it than 
she should teach her children the use of the napkin at the table; 
for, as Dod Weaver would say : " They always knowed it." Let 
us remember, with Parker, that 

Knowledge is boundless, and your pupils can get but a drop of the ocean. 
What knowledge shall you present them in the years you have them under 
your care and guidance? What knowledge shall govern you in the selection? 
The answers are not far to seek. Your selection can be entirely governed by 
what each individual pupil needs for his personal development. He needs that 
knowledge which will enable him best to serve the school and the world. 
The two answers are one ; the needs of the school and the needs of the world 
are the needs of the individual. A course of study is a means to an end. 
From this course of study the teacher selects the material immediately neces- 
sary for the advancement of personal, mental, and moral power. 

As said before, let this course of study, then, be a suggestive 
one, prepared by experts from all departments of the corps of 



2 74 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

instruction, so written as to enable the progressive teacher to 
choose that which ^all best suit the particular class of children 
with which the teacher is dealing, that she may feel an individual 
responsibility in the selection of at least part of the work which 
she is to give them. This, of course, will be chosen from what we 
have termed the maximum requirements. To let the teacher have 
this privil^e will best suit the children and the state, and will 
cause the teacher to feel that she is something more than an 
automaton, to be wound up and run down at the will of a com- 
mittee which has made, s^, and formed work for her to perform. 
As to the program, I say : Hands off ! In heaven's name, let 
me have a little individuality, and let me run my school as my 
conscience tells me I should I Then hold me responsible when I 
send you a child named for a certain g^de, if you find him not 
up to the ** must " or minimum standard, unless with his card I 
send you good reasons for his having been advanced to that grade, 
though not up to the minimum in all its requirements. I have 
heard of the schools of a certain city in France which were so 
well graded as to the course of study and arrangement of the 
program that the superintendent of schools could take out his 
watch, during any hour of the day, and tell just what page and 
what verse each child of the city at that moment was reading. 
Rather than to so much as lean in this direction, let us swing the 
pendulum to the other extreme, and have a go-as-you-please con- 
dition ; and I vouch for it that the children will be better prepared 
to enter upon the duties of citizenship, when tiiey have left the 
school to b^n life's responsibilities, than they possibly can if 
educated under the former conditions. 



BEVERLY HILLS 

READING LESSON DERIVED FROM AN EXCURSION BY THE SECOND 
GRADE OF THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



ELSABETH PORT 
Teacher 



On Thursday, November 3, we went to Beverly Hills. At ten minutes of 
9 we crossed the Midway and went on the street cars to Englewood. We had 
to wait until a quarter of 10 for the train. We were on the train about 15 
minutes. 

On the train Denison saw men making a new park. 

Geraldine saw seven cows. 

Elizabeth saw some pigeons walking around a pigeon-house. 

Dent saw a flock of birds flying south. 

Lanning saw a wagon of com. 

Denison saw some com that had not been cut down. 

Beatrice Lovett saw com fields where the com was stacked like tents. 

Meredith and Miss Port saw a field of cabbages. 

Lanning saw a man plowing. 

Paul saw many pumpkins in a store. 

Mary saw some ducks. 

When we got off the train the air was clear and fresh and breezy. It 
seemed like the country. We walked and ran and screamed. We saw a pond 
of water and a burro. We wanted to find snakes and frogs in the pond. But 
we had to go on. 

Miss Port said that it was too far to go to the farm. We were dis- 
appointed, but we had just as good a time in the woods. 

The woods were beautiful and quiet, and there was not a house near 1^. 
There were oak trees, and the leaves were brown and yellow. We found some 
red leaves. The oak leaves rustled in the trees. Many came floating and 
whirling down. Some fluttered down. The ground was covered with dry, 
fn-own leaves. 

We had a leaf iight. Then we covered Mrs. Thomsen with leaves. We 
said, " Where is Mrs. Thomsen? " and up she jumped. Then we covered Miss 
Port. Some children climbed trees and shook the leaves down. 

After a while we took a walk. We found another pond. We think it was 
an old mill dam. We ran down the old logs. We played a long time. Then 
we wanted a drink. Six of us went to a farm for water. Before we got any 

275 



276 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

water the woman told us to be careful in the pasture. We said, " Why? " She 
said that there was a wild bull in the pasture. We ran for the woods again. 

We ate our lunch in the woods. We wanted water all the time. Next 
time we are going to take bottles of water with us. While we were eating our 
lunch some bees came to see us. One bee stung Gordon on the finger. 

After lunch we played games and told stories. We saw a man with a 
gun. We told him about the wild bull, and he said he would have to shoot 
him. But we think he was just fooling. 

At 2 o'clock we started for home. We had a good time. 

SIGNS OF FALL 

October 11. The leaves are falling. 

October 12. The elms are nearly bare. 

October 13. The elm leaves are yellow. 

October 14. Burrs are turning brown. 

October 17. Willow leaves arc yellow. 

October 18. Some grass is brown. 

October 19. The poplar leaves are dry and brown. 

October 20. Oak leaves are turning red or brown. 

October 21. The weeds are all yellow or brown. 

October 24. Most of the birds have gone away. 

NOTES ON THE LESSON 

This reading lesson for the second grade was written after one 
of the children's excursions. They had had an almost perfect day 
and were more than glad to " make a story about it." They were 
told that the story was to be printed, and that they could learn to 
read it from the printed slips. They were full of plans for 
" surprising mother " or reading it in the morning exercise time. 

Each of the two groups made its own version. The sentences 
were dictated to the teacher and written on the board. Mudi 
discussion arose as to the best words to use. For instance, when, 
in describing the air, they decided on " fresh and clear," one little 
girl said : " And won't you please say * breezy,' because I just love 
the way that sounds — breezy! " They labored long over the way 
the leaves fell, some insisting that they fluttered, while others were 
as sure that they floated, down. We finally had to put in both 
ways to satisfy everyone. 

When the stories were finally all written on the board, they 
were copied and read next day to the two groups together. They 



BEVERLY HILLS 277 

then decided for themselves which parts of each to use and 
which were unnecessary. 

Since the children have had the printed slips, they have been 
trying to read them. It is rather hard work, as there is not a 
great deal of repetition, and some of the words are somewhat long 
to study phonetically. Many have to be told them repeatedly. 
However, they remember pretty well what thqr dictated, and their 
great interest in taking the slips home, when they can read them, 
holds them to the work. 

The verses were made for the Thanksgiving exercise. The 
second grade was to have auttmm pictures for their part of the 
program, and made these original ones to add to their others : 

Wc went to Beverly Hills 

And saw the red leaves fall; 
We covered each other with leaves, 

And climbed the trees so tall. 

The air was fresh and cool. 

There was no house near by. 
There were so many trees 

We scarcely saw the sky. 

The "Signs of Fall" are simply the printed form of the 
calendar kept by the children during October. Each day some 
child told us one thing that showed the time of year. At first 
they had difficulty in keeping to the things peculiar to autimin and 
wanted to write such sentences as, " It is a cool day," or " The 
sky is cloudy." In a short time, however, they were able to 
criticise each other's observations and choose the proper ones for 
their purpose. 



THE LIBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL FACTOR* 



M. E. AHERN 
Chicago 



I deem it a high honor, little deserved, to be given a {dace on 
this program. I say " little deserved " advisedly, for I am, I may 
confide to you, taking the place at the last moment of a more 
worthy representative ; and in addition I feel r^^et diat, thongh 
I was a teacher for many years and planned and attended many 
teachers' meetings, in all that time I never spoke, nor heard any 
other teacher speak, of the place of the library in the sdieme of 
education. In the files of my educational journals gathered in my 
teaching years I found no plan proposed, nor approval of any jrfan 
proposed, by another to bring to the help of the work in hand the 
mighty forces for aid that lie in every collection of good books. 
We did not know, and we did not know that we did not know, 
that libraries are potent factors in education. But today teadiers 
are awakening to that fact, and all around us we see evidences of 
a new effort and a realization of Dr. Thurber's words : 

It is now pedagogic high treason, indeed, to act as if textbooks contained 
the whole canon of knowledge, and for the teacher to explain ererything in 
advance, and then to expect of the class only to say bade what has just been 
said to them, is to reduce teaching to the lowest depths of imbecility. 

One of the chief watchwords today is correlation, which is 
generally tmderstood to mean the adjusting of studies in such a 
manner that one may help out the other. One of the prominent 
ideas in educational effort today also is that tiie responsibility for 
the training of the future citizen, man or woman, does not rest on 
the school alone. It is only one of a ntmiber that have to do with that 
problem. Among the influences which aid the development of the 
child's character are his associates, his home, the church, books, 
and the school. Is it not an important problem that each shall do 

* Paper read at the Departmental Conferences, Emmons Blaine Hall, School 
of Education, Saturday, May 14, 1904. 

278 



THE LIBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL FACTOR 279 

its own part and do it well ? To do this it is necessary to know 
the full scope of the responsibility — to understand the aids and 
hindrances, the aims and objects, of the individual influences. To 
correlate these influences, as far as possible, that one may help 
out the other in making the child's life a imit, is a considerably 
higher problem, to my mind, than to determine whether history 
should precede geography, or geography history, or whether they 
may not be taught better together than separately. It may seem 
that the problem is a hard one, but how or where better can it be 
approached than in a conference of any or all of those concerned 
in it, or in any part of it ? To aid the child in choosing his asso- 
ciates is largely, if not entirely, outside the power of the school ; 
the home and the church are jealous of their rights; but books 
and their choice belong to the child's mental life, and not only 
may, but of necessity must, be looked after intelligently by the 
power that has the general supervision of his mental growth; 
and this leads to the consideration of the library and its place in 
any scheme of education. 

In considering the library as a factor in education, we lo<Jc at 
it here in a threefold view : tte library in the school as a necessary 
piece of its equipment, its place in the normal school, and the 
public library for all, in school and out. 

I. First, as to the school library. This, in its make-up, ^ould 
be not alone a collection of books, but in every sense a selection of 
books. Every volume in it should be chosen with a distinct and 
definite purpose in view. Two classes of use will be provided for 
— collateral and supplementary teading.. The first may be used 
to further the acquisition of useful knowledge; the latter, to 
cultivate the habit of reading ; to cultivate a taste for that litera- 
ture which will enrich, refine, and beautify life. It will be made 
up of what may be called here books of knowledge and books of 
power. There shall be in this library textbo^Sj:::-the best of 
their kind, well written by those who are competent to speak, well 
illustrated by one or several hands whose artistic skill is undis- 
puted, continually revised, and kept abreast of the advance of 
knowledge. Further, there shall be r eference bocJcs , books of 
facts, handbooks, dictionaries, cyclopedias, and the like. The 



28o THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

school library will have place for pictures, for maps, for lantern 
slides, for various kinds of illustrative material, with well-directed 
references where in other libraries and museums these may be 
supplemented and followed up. This material, too, will need to 
be selected, not merely collected. As the various subjects are 
presented, there will be different versions of the same material, 
expanded, illuminated, related. The child will thus be taught to 
look into the various authorities at hand, and to know where or 
when to look further, to think and to weigh for himself ; he will 
be given an incentive to read seriously and with a purpose, and he 
will from the first learn to turn to txx^ as a delight, not as a 
task. All this for the collateral reading. 

In the supplementary reading will be books of travel, of 
biography, of discovery, of invention, of description of menjind 
places, of people and powers ; books of comparison and measure. 
When the child is familiar with all these, he will read between the 
lines of his textbook of a hundred interesting things of which the 
author has not written one word. The use of these bodes and 
material will enrich and enlarge the school course with the glow 
of romance and the warm touch of life. The choice and use of 
bodes by children up to fourteen years of age, when the faculties 
of reason and analysis are supposed to begin to assert themselves, 
should come under the province of the school, either directly or in 
co-operation with the special department for children in the public 
library. To it the pupil should be accoimtable for what he reads 
and how he reads it. From it he should get the advice, the 
inspiration, the foundation of taste, which will make him a wise 
and careful reader and prepare him for the freedom of the public 
library. Under right conditions, he will have developed a knowl- 
edge of the simpler tools — indexes, catalogues, etc. — and will 
have absorbed such a general knowledge of the use of books that 
the awakened powers of analysis will find ready a fund of book- 
knowledge that will feed them till they grow self-sustaining. He 

i will know where to find the books he needs for pleasure or 

I profit, and will have become acquainted with the sources of book- 

! distribution provided in the community. 

( Beyond and more important than the assistance which reading 



THE LIBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL FACTOR 281 

gives to the work of the school is the fonnatioQ_here^f_A(ei_rad^ 
ing habit. If the child leaves school acquainted with a niimber of 
good books and ai love for good books, he has a precious posses- 
sion worth more to him than any study in the curriculum ; some- 
thing that will not only help him in his daily work, but will throw 
a safeguard about his leisure. The province of the school is to 
teach a variety of definite things, but its aim, its end, is the 
development of character. It has been urged that the public 
school should fit its pupils to earn a living. This demand ignores 
real education. The aim should be character, not livelihood. It 
should fit its pupils to live a life, not merely earn a living. A well- 
lived life always earns a living. The school should teach handi- 
craft to develop the intelligent and moral use of the hand ; teach 
science to place the truth in its proper relation ; teach history and 
geography, not to make commercial travelers, but all these things 
to enable the pupil to look out over the whole world and see it 
crowned with life and beauty. 

2. And this brings us to the library in the normal school, 
which may almost be termed, in all truths the root of the whole 
matter. It will readily be seen that, to carry out the plans and 
purposes of the school library to which we have referred, the 
public-school teacher must understand its plan and appreciate its 
value. The normal-school library will contain all that the schopl 
library should contain, and more. It contains the books that have 
been written about education, the statistics necessary to compari- 
son, the bibliographies of a multitude of subjects, the reports of 
the government of the various educational organizations of the 
leading educational institutions, and all such material as is needed 
to illustrate the work of the various departments, much of which 
may seem at first thought to be outside of the scope of a library. 
In addition, it will have such close relation with museums, and 
other sources of like character, that it has easy access to what 
is not expedient to have at hand. No normal school is fully 
equipped that does not contain a model children's library, chosen 
and classified with the greatest thought and care, and with which 
the students must become intelligently familiar before ihey can in 
any true sense be authorized to teach. 



282 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

To normal schools more than to any other agency belongs the 
duty of teaching the power of the book to those who are going 
out to teach. The teacher is expected to know how to judge of 
textbooks, their value and the part they play at certain periods of 
progress, as well as their place in the study of the subjects they 
contain. Of equal importance, though unfortunately not so often 
emphasized, is the knowledge of certain books and their place in 
the development of character. Horace Mann said : " If a boy read 
of the friendship of Damon and Pythias, the integrity of Aris- 
tides, the perseverance of Franklin, the purity of Washington, he 
will think differently all the remaining days of his life." That he 
may be able to make good use of such books as these and others^ a 
teacher should have read and made a part of himself, have read 
and enjoyed before becoming a teacher, the best of the books that 
ar« pronounced children's classics. Only recently I was told of a 
senior student in a famous school for teachers who asked in the 
library for Grimm's tales. Is there not a deficiency there that will 
be a tremendous handicap in understanding the proper food for 
a child's imagination ? Is such a one ready to teach ? Then, the 
wonderfully good books about children, but for older people, from 
which, through the minds of men and women of genius, a better 
insight into childhood can be gained directly by an ordinary mind. 
What a tremendous insight one receives through the eyes and 
mind of Emmy Lou ! Those who are to become teachers should 
have instruction, definite and reliable, as to what books are in the 
world, how to use them, where they may be obtained, where they 
are collected, and how they are distributed. This is the informa- 
tion that will be invaluable to them as teachers, as citizens, and as 
intelligent beings. They should be able to dass books in their 
proper place, whether as tools or as friends. It is necessary to 
those who essay to use them to know the best tools among bodes, 
just as it is in any other calling, and no one will dispute the &ct 
that as intelligent care should be exercised in choosing friends 
among books as among people. 

The normal school^training the teacher to go out to teach is 
the most economical place to have this instruction given. Having 
the training schools in connection with them, the adaptation of 



THB UBRARY AS AN EDUCATIONAL FACTOR 283 

the books and work to the children can be tested and adjusted at 
the least cost in time and effort. 

3. To come to the third and last view, that of the public 
library, we may turn to all that is expected of the school library, 
and of the normal-school library and say: All this it is, and 
more; with a broader, deeper, and perhaps higher extension, 
bringing in all humanity, fonning indeed in its best examples 
what Carlyle calls the people's university. In its principle of 
collecting and distributing information it reaches out to every 
grade and class of society. It offers to every man, woman, and 
child in the community, without regard to age, sex, dass, religion, 
or politics, the means of universal self-culture. The voluntary 
side of the work of the public library gives the individual freedom 
of action in forming his ideas and standards, and thus does a 
larger work in a way than a school library. The well-equipped 
public library has its special librarians — well-educated, broad- 
minded, sympathetic men and women in touch with every vital 
force in the community, ready to guide, assist, and teach the 
children in their own specially equipped department, and to be of 
service to the student, the specialist, the learned and the untaught, 
the wise and the foolish, and who, actuated by that indefinable 
something called the library spirit, are indeed potent factors in the 
scheme of education. In many cities, if not indeed in most places, 
there is the closest sympathy between schools of all grades and 
classes, and every organized educational movement, and the 
public library. 

The school libraries are, in fact, branches of the public library 
in many places, and the plan is being still more widely adopted all 
the time. It is believed by many that this plan is a wise one, 
because, as is set out by Mr. Dana, of Newark, N. J. — an eminent 
authority on schools and libraries : 

With the changes which are occurring in teachers, in methods of teaching, 
in methods and subjects of study, it is often well to change frequently the 
books in each room, in part or in whole. This can be done by the public 
library, if it owns the books. The library also can better look after repairs, 
binding, selection, purchase, methods of lending, etc., than can any individual 
teacher, or can any portion of the school machinery. In fact, the ideal condi- 
tion seems to be that in which the public library, under the general sanction 



284 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and supervision of the superintendent, and with constant consultation with 
individual teachers, extends its system of lending to every schoolroom in the 
city, making that system as flexible as conditions demand. In sections of the 
city remote from the main library it includes suitable books for children to 
take home for their parents as well as for themselves. The public library is 
the extension of the school system, at public expense, to those who, by reason 
of age and poverty or stress of whatever kind, may not avail themselves of the 
school at an earlier period. 

Every student within the walls of the library being there 
voluntarily, no matter what the subject of his research, is adding 
to the intellectual wealth of the community. Even expensive 
works of reference consulted by only a few, but these in earnest, 
are justifiable, because the result of the study, when expressed in 
products, is the property of the community at large. Preachers, 
teachers, scientists, mechanics, sociologists, students, every inter- 
est of the community represented by a page of print, find a source 
of helpfulness in this extension and exponent of the school system. 

I cannot close this hasty plea for a plan for the library and a 
wider use of its material so well as by quoting from the eminent 
English writer, H. G. Wells, who in an article in the Fortnightly 
last year, on " Mankind in the Making," has this to say : 

The question of book distribution is as vitally important to the intellectual 
health of a modem people as are open windows. No nation can live under 
modem conditions unless its whole population is mentally aerated with books. 
.... There was a time when education was conceived of as a matter of 
learning. Our work now is to broaden both the conception of research and of 
teaching to recognize that whatever imports fresh and valid aspects, not simply 
of chemical and physical matters, but of aesthetic, social, and political matters, 
partakes of the honor and claims of research, and that whatever convQ^ 
ideas and aspects socially and clearly and invigoratingly, not simply by words 
of mouth, but by book or picture or article, is teaching. The whole business 
of bringing the contemporary book most efficiently home to the g^eral 
reader, the business of contemporary criticism, the encouragement and support 
of contemporary writers, is just as vitally important in the modem state as the 
organization of colleges and schools, and just as little to be left to the 
enterprise of isolated individuals working primarily upon commercial lines 
of gain. 



THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE IN THE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



LORLEY A. ASHLfiMAN 
The University of Chicago School of Education 



Experience has shown that there is nothing which should be 
more carefully considered by the language-teacher than the child's 
great love for dramatic representation. His innate need to act, to 
move, if rightly met, is one of the beautiful provisions of nature 
always at the teacher's disposal, to be used as a means for the 
successful teaching of a language. "C'est la nature," says 
Pestalozzi, " qui nous donne notre premier langage. Ne pourrait- 
elle pas nous en donner dix autres de la meme maniere?" And 
we must bear in mind that action counteracts to a certain extent 
the feeling of constraint not wholly avoidable in the teaching of a 
language. In language work, especially, the child cannot learn by 
simply hearing and repeating. The ear alone cannot give him the 
" feel " of a word. He must comprehend the thought through as 
many natural channels as possible, and make it part of himself by 
actively expressing it in more ways than one. 

To put the breath of life into the dry bones of grammatical 
exercises, and into the construction and memorizing of sentences 
— for we assimilate a language sentence by sentence, not word by 
word — is the great problem confronting the language-teacher. 
Forms must be learned — there is no avoiding that; and the form 
cannot be learned without the learner's thinking in the language 
itself. Thinking is conditioned upon the representation of some- 
thing in the mind. In learning through games the child is dealing 
with real facts, for he is actually living them ; he is representing 
something, consequently thinking something, and the forms in 
which he thinks will remain his permanent possession. The 
teacher need never fear that she will not secure repetition enough 
of sentences to guarantee their accurate pronunciation. Children 
love to repeat a game or play over and over again. Indeed, the 

285 



284 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and supervision of the superintendent, and with constant consultation with 
individual teachers, extends its system of lending to every schoolroom in the 
city, making that system as flexible as conditions demand. In sections of the 
city remote from the main library it includes suitable books for children to 
take home for their parents as well as for themselves. The public library is 
the extension of the school system, at public expense, to those who, by reason 
of age and poverty or stress of whatever kind, may not avail themselves of the 
school at an earlier period. 

Every student within the walls of the library being there 
voluntarily, no matter what the subject of his research, is adding 
to the intellectual wealth of the community. Even expensive 
works of reference consulted by only a few, but these in earnest, 
are justifiable, because the result of the study, when expressed in 
products, is the property of the community at large. Preachers, 
teachers, scientists, mechanics, sociologists, students, every inter- 
est of the community represented by a page of print, find a source 
of helpfulness in this extension and exponent of the school system. 

I cannot close this hasty plea for a plan for the library and a 
wider use of its material so well as by quoting from the eminent 
English writer, H. G. Wells, who in an article in the Fortnightly 
last year, on " Mankind in the Making,*' has this to say : 

The question of book distribution is as vitally important to the intellectual 
health of a modem people as are open windows. No nation can live under 
modem conditions unless its whole population is mentally aerated with books. 
.... There was a time when education was conceived of as a matter of 
learning. Our work now is to broaden both the conception of research and of 
teaching to recognize that whatever imports fresh and valid aspects, not simply 
of chemical and physical matters, but of aesthetic, social, and political matters, 
partakes of the honor and claims of research, and that whatever conveys 
ideas and aspects socially and clearly and invigoratingly, not simply by words 
of mouth, but by book or picture or article, is teaching. The whole business 
of bringing the contemporary book most efficiently home to the g^eral 
reader, the business of contemporary criticism, the encouragement and support 
of contemporary writers, is just as vitally important in the modem state as the 
organization of colleges and schools, and just as little to be left to the 
enterprise of isolated individuals working primarily upon commercial lines 
of gain. 



THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE IN THE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



LORLEY A. ASHL£M AN 
The Umrenity of Qiicago School of Edacntion 



Experience has shown that there is nodiing whidi should be 
more carefully considered by the langnage-teadicr than the diild's 
great love for dramatic re}H^esentation. His innate need to act, to 
move, if rightly met, is one of the beantiful provisicHis of nature 
always at the teacher*s disposal, to be used as a means for the 
successful teaching of a language. "C'est la nature," says 
Pestalozzi, " qui nous donne notre premier langage. Ne pourrait- 
elle pas nous en donner dix autres de la mcme maniere? " And 
we must bear in mind that action counteracts to a certain extent 
the feeling of constraint not wholly avoidable in the teaching of a 
language. In language work, especially, the diild cannot learn by 
simply hearing and repeating. The ear alone cannot give him the 
" feel " of a word. He must comprehend the thought through as 
many natural channels as possible, and make it part of himself by 
actively expressing it in more ways than <xie. 

To put the breath of life into the dry bones of grammatical 
exercises, and into the construction and memorizing of sentences 
— for we assimilate a language sentence by sentence, not word by 
word — is the great problem confronting the language-teacher. 
Forms must be learned — there is no avoiding that ; and the form 
cannot be learned without the learner's thinking in the language 
itself. Thinking is conditioned upon the representation of scxne- 
thing in the mind. In learning through games the child is dealing 
with real facts, for he is actually living them ; he is r epr es enting 
something, consequently thinking something, and the forms in 
which he thinks will remain his permanent possession. The 
teacher need never fear that she wU not secure repetition enough 
of sentences to guarantee their accurate pronunciation. Children 
love to repeat a game or play over and over again. Indeed, the 

285 



286 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

teacher soon finds that she is not drilling, but being drilled, in 
forms, so tenacious is the memory of children, so universal their 
demand that a thing said in a certain way once be said in that way 
ever after. , 

A teacher recently was rather surprised, when playing with 
her children after the Christmas holidays, to have them correct 
her on a certain point. Having forgotten the exact words she had 
used, she had slightly changed them. She explained that in 
French there were two or three ways of expressing about the same 
meaning. The children seemed incredulous. " Well," she said, 
"do you always say, 'How do you do?' when you meet one of 
your mamma's friends?" B thought he did. D said: "I don't! 
I just say, *Good morning!'" C added: "My mother says, 
* How are you ? ' " The ball was rolling ; they were noting resem- 
blances and differences ; we were touching on the true value of 
words, and accurate and inaccurate usage. 

In the repeated g^ames the foreign language becomes a reality 
to the child ; a " language," not a slow translation ; for there is 
nothing in the nature of translation connected with the process. 
The association of the foreign phrase is not with an English form, 
but with the actual fact or mental conception. This is important, 
for as Gouin so clearly put it : 

In a language there is hardly a single word which has its exact equivalent 
in another language, any more than one blade of com has its exact counter- 
parts in all the corn-fields of the world Each tongue reckons more than 

a hundred thousand locutions absolutely untranslatable term for term in no 
matter what other tongue; these phrases, said or reputed to be translatable, 
are only so in approximation or by exception. 

But though these forms, this framework of the language, 
must be learned by all, and in the same way by all, there uni- 
formity ends. A child's success in a game depends upon his self- 
exertion ; his individuality has free play. The teacher finds that 
games and plays arranged to come out in a certain way develop 
quite otherwise when the children bring their own interpretations 
to bear. Again, the unconsciousness of the normal child is a 
factor of immense importance. So absorbed can a child become 
in a game that he is entirely imconscious of carrying it out in a 
language other than his own. 



THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE 287 

The pleasure that the child finds in vocal experimentation 
greatly facilitates the process of associating meaning with sounds. 
He imitates before he is aware that the sounds convey meanings. 
When, through facial expression, gesture, or action, he discovers 
the meaning, he is still more desirous to produce the sounds. The 
kindergarten children singing and playing " Sur le pont d' Avig- 
non " are attracted by the melody, the action, and the new sounds. 
The strange tones, with their fascinating newness, they unhesi- 
tatingly reproduce. 

The children of the first and second grades were much inter- 
ested in dramatically singing the round, " II etait une bergere." 
The words of the round are simple, and therefore especially 
adapted to children. The material and the action are so varied 
that they more or less directly affect the individual child. The 
game is played in this way : 

A large circle is formed. " Attention ! " says the leader. " Voyons, Marie, 
vous etes la bergere. Jean, cherchez un baton. Donnez-le i la berg^re." 

Jean: "Void, Marie." 

Marie : " Je vous remerde." 

Jean : " Du tout." 

The leader continues: "Harold, vous etes le papa mouton; Catherine, 
vous etes la maman mouton ; et Fr^eric, le bebe mouton." Only a complete 
family will satisfy children, and the baby is one of the important features. 
Part of the drcle is marked off as the hillside. 

Leader: "Donald, vous etes le chien de la bergerie, gardez bien les 
moutons." 

The sheep watched over by the shepherdess and her dog, begin to graze 
peacefully on the hillside. A gymnasium bench at the other end of the drcle 
represents the kitchen of the shepherdess, a large dtunb-bell her chum. 

Leader : " Margaret, vout etes le petit chat." 

The circle skips gaily and sings the little song with its refrain imitating 
the purring of a cat: 

" II ^tait une bergere, 
£t ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 
II etait une bergere. 
Qui gardait ses moutons, 
Ron, ron, 
Qui gardait ses moutons." 

The sheep, having now eaten enough, lie down and go to sleep, and the 
dog keeps watch. The herghe enters her kitchen and proceeds to make the 



288 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

cheese. The little chaton slyly slips up and tries to approach the churn. The 
circle skips the other way and sings : 

"'Elle fit un fromage, 
£t ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 
Elle fit un fromage 
Du lait de ses moutons, 
Ron, ron, 
Du lait de ses moutons. 

" Son chaton la regarde, 
£t ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 
Son chaton la regarde 
Avec un air glouton, 
Ron, ron, 
Avec un air glouton." 

The circle now stands still and sings with la bergire: 

** Si tu y mets la patte, 
£t ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 
Si tu y met la patte 
Tu auras du baton, 
Ron, ron, 
Tu auras du baton." 

The litle cat, very much frightened at the sight of the stick, quickly gets 
out of the way, to the great delight of the circle. 

The playing of the toy animal store was much enjoyed by the 
children of the first grade. The animals chosen for the store were 
remembered from the preceding games and rounds: le chat, le 
chien, la souris, and le mouton, Le cheval and le lapin were next 
chosen ; then came la vache, le lion, and Viliphaivt. One child was 
storekeeper. A large chair was his desk, a kindergarten chair his 
stool, a pencil the key with which he wound up his animals, and a 
drinking-cup the oil can. 

Le marchand : " A, vous etes le coq." 

A took a kindergarten chair, placed it against the wall, sat down, and 
became a toy animal. 

Le marchand : " B, vous etes le mouton," etc. 

As soon as there were animals enough in the shop, the marchand went to 
his desk and was busily making out his accounts, when a customer entered 
the store. (These little details mean a great deal to the children, as is made 
evident by the earnestness with which they act them out.) 

Le marchand : " Bon jour, Madame." 



THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE 289 

Lc client : " Bon jour, Monsieur." 

Le marchand: "Que desirez-vous, Madame?" 

Le client: "Avez-vous des animaux?" 

Le marchand : " Que, Madame, j'ai un chat, une souris," and he proceeds 
to show her his stock. 

Le client : " Montrez-moi le coq." 

Le marchand : '* Tres bien 1 " He takes down the coq, winds him up, 
pours a little oil in his joints, and off hops the toy rooster, crowing at the top 
of his voice. Suddenly he runs down. 

Le client : " Cest tres bien ! montrez-moi le lion." The lion is taken 
down, wound up, and off he goes with a terrible roar. 

Le client : " Cest bien. Voulez-vous me donner le coq ? " 

Le marchand: "Oui, Madame, si vous pouvez Tenlever pendant que je 
compte un, deux, trois." 

The marchand counts un, deux, trois; if, when he is through counting, 
the buyer has lifted the coq from the floor, it is his, and after saying, "Au 
revoir, monsieur," he takes his purchase home, and another customer comes in. 

In these little games the child assimilates the subjective as well 
as the objective language. The little words, bien, tris bien, which 
the teacher and the pupil interpose simply and naturally, belong to 
an important cat^ory of expressions which forms a language of 
itself. Guoin says that he has collected more than sixty thousand 
of these expressions. Besides, in the friendly greeting, "Bon 
jour, monsieur," "Je vous remercie," "II n'y a pas de quoi," he 
has developed the sentiment of politeness and consideration for 
others ; the intellect and the heart have gone hand in hand. 

Another animal game gave the children the greatest satis- 
faction. This was partly due to the fact that a number of the 
expressions had become almost instinctive to the children. 

MADAME LA POULE, MONSIEUR LE COQ ET MONSIEUR MINET 

The game called for a bam. The children, seated on kindergarten chairs, 
formed the four walls of the bam. The chairs were placed closely together, so 
that neither cold nor wind might harm the vache, the cheval, and, above all, 
madame la Poule, whose duty it was to keep the eggs warm. A large waste- 
paper basket made a nest, some white drinking-cups the eggs. 

Lc directeur du jeu : " A, vous etes madame la Poule." {Madame la Poule 
crouches down behind the large basket and covers the eggs with her hands.) 
" B, vous etes le coq." (The coq flies up on a beam of the bam [a chair], and 
appears much interested in madame la Poule* s nest.) " C, vous etes monsieur 
Minet." {Monsieur Minet goes into the garden and basks sleepily in the sun- 



29© THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

shine.) Madame la Poule cackles ; monsieur le Cog hops down from his post, 
struts into the garden, iiies up on the highest post of the fence (a chair), and 
joyously announces to the world : " La poule a un oeuf, cock-a-doodle-doo, la 
pbule a un oeuf." The announcement greatly interests monsieur Minet, who 
stretches himself with a " Meow," and then creeps into the bam, followed by 
monsieur le Coq, who does not intend that any harm shall befall madame la 
Poule, 

Monsieur Minet : " Bon jour, madame la Poule." 

Madame la Poule: "Bon jour, monsieur Minet" 

Monsieur Minet: "Avez-vous un oeuf?" 

Madame la Poule : " Oui, Monsieur, j'ai trois oeufs." 

Monsieur Minet: "J'ai faim, voulez-vous me donner un oeuf?" 

Madame la Poule : " Non, Monsieur." 

Monsieur Minet: " Eh bien, Madame, j'ai des griff es." And with that he 
tries to get into the nest; but madame la Poule is ready for him. 

Madame la Poule : " J'ai un bee." And she flies at him so quickly that 
monsieur Minet, in great fright, makes for the garden, to the great delight of 
monsieur le Coq, who greets him with a joyous " G>ck-a-doodle-doo ! " 

Some first-grade children had just finished playing the game 
one day, and, as the bell was expected to ring at any moment, the 
teacher thought it unwise to begin another game. So, sitting 
down in the barnyard, she turned to a boy and said : " Avez-vous 
un minet?" "Non, Madamoiselle," was the quick reply; then, 
holding up his two fingers: "J'ai deux chiens." The children 
were so interested telling about their different animals that they 
were disappointed when the gong sounded. 

The French sounds did not daze them; they were compre- 
hended. The answers proved that they were assimilated; they 
were naturally combining and recombining their impressions. 

It would seem that the dramatizing of such subjects of interest 
in the social life of the school as lend themselves to this form of 
expression was vmdoubtedly the truest and the broadest means 
of arousing the child's interest in another language. Moreover, 
it gives him the colloquial idiomatic French of which PrQfessor 
Cutting, of the University of Chicago, has so clearly shown the 
value. 

Not in the more dignified form of literature, but in the language of the 
fireside, of the market, and of the social gathering, is revealed the idiomatic 
twist of the national thought. Pervading but a small fraction of the whole 
vocabulary, this national bias is at once the most significant and the most 
difficult feature encountered by the language-learner. 



THE TEACHING OF A LANGUAGE 291 

Idioms are not a matter of reasoning ; they should be acquired 
at an age when things impress themselves naturally and deeply, 
when the mind accepts with but little questioning and pidcs up 
sentences as a whole. 

In thinking in French, the child naturally tends to think about 
the things that the French people themselves think and talk about. 
Interests tend to become identical. National prejudice melts 
away. Plays based upon French festivals, on events prominent 
in French history, or on things characteristic of the life and feel- 
ing of the people, ideas and events that make up the very spirit 
and mental background of a young Frenchman, the finer breath 
and poetry of his youth, will certainly appeal to the enthusiastic 
nature of a young American. Therefore history needs to be 
freely drawn upon — the rich, picturesque kind of history that 
involves the study of manners, costumes, appropriate settings, 
and national music. 

Thus the language that the child has unconsciously learned in 
his playtime he will possess and retain when a man as a priceless 
tool for his work. Moreover, he will always retain the historical 
impression, the manner, the setting, the spirit of the dramatic 
events in which for a time, with the single-mindedness of youth, 
he has felt himself really an actor. Best of all, having lived for a 
time in a community other than his own, he will have a sympa- 
thetic interest which makes the narrowness of provincialism 
impossible, and enables him to comprehend more truly his fellow- 
men. 



WHAT IS ACCURACY IN ELEMENTARY 

ARITHMETIC? 



G. W. MYERS 
The Uniyersity of Chicago School of Education 



In a recent, widely circulated article, under the title " Arith- 
metic for Children under Twelve," we were told the old, old story 
— so old, forsooth, as to appear new again to its writer — viz.: 
" The chief value of number work lies in its contribution to the 
habit of accuracy, and children are not and cannot be accurate in 
the earlier stages of their development, as test investigaticwis 
show." A little farther along in the same article we are informed : 
"Number work for this period should consist of . . . . (&) 
exercises in computation to form the habit of accuracy." 

A different writer in another journal gives us a glimpse of 
personal administrative practice. He writes : 

For some years I have been accustomed to insist that the arithmetic work 
which calls for children in the lower grades to pursue steps of reasoning was 

positively wrong. Very little of it is done in K schools. We use all 

diligence to make our children quick and accurate in fundamental conceptions 
as pure memory work. 

The writer obtained his elementary maltreatment in arithmetic 
from twenty-five to thirty-five years ago, in the schools of the 
same state in which the gentleman who penned the last quotation 
is administering his notions of elementary education in arithmetic, 
and under teachers who held this same conception of the educa- 
tional function of arithmetic. It is truly amazing how an error, 
that is easily grasped and administered, does persist in propagat- 
ing itself! Obviously, there are still pupils in this state who, like 
the writer, will have to tmlearn most of that on which they spent 
time in school, and slowly awaken to a consciousness, after they 
have left school, that, as regards the arithmetic, their time in 
school was worse than lost. But if teachers learn with difficulty 
their true functions and duties, administrative officers seem to 

292 



ACCURACY IN ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC 293 

learn with difficulties doubled and twisted, what is their duty 
touching the arithmetic. 

In a widely used arithmetic of recent date, whose chief dis- 
tinction lies in the twofold merit of exhibiting ( i ) how fully ele- 
mentary arithmetic may be formalized and mechanized, and (2) 
how necessary it is to prop up such a treatment with braces in the 
form of pedagogical notes to the teacher to excuse the author for 
much of his folly, we read the hysterical admonition : " A bank 
clerk who makes one error a day in carrying out his balances, 
which he does not himself discover and detect, would not retain 
his position." Again: "Remember that any inaccuracy in 
solving business problems makes the work valueless." Thus, 
after carefully and successfully blindfolding the pupil to the 
thought-value of arithmetic, the author takes off the blindfold at 
the foot of each page and flaunts the scarecrow of accuracy before 
the child. 

The tenor of these quotations is in one form or another, the 
dominant note nowadays of discussions on arithmetic in the 
schools. Administrative officers seem to have a peculiar fondness 
for this view. Ask the teacher of any non-mathematical subject 
what ought to be attempted in early arithmetic, and you are usu- 
ally met with the prompt reply that sgeed and accuracy are the 
things. Furthermore, many old-line teachers, most young and 
inexperienced teachers, and amateur students of elementary edu- 
cation generally, dismiss the arithmetic problem in the early 
grades with the same off-hand solution. Perhaps some attention 
to the matter will be pardoned here. 

It is well to note that general acceptance of a view is not 
infallible proof of its soundness. In many cases it indicates 
almost nothing at all. The school public inherits tendencies, dons 
prevailing fashions, and contracts contagions as certainly and as 
easily as do our physical organisms. Before acknowledging 
obeis^ce to a prevailing idea, it is the part of wisdom to examine 
it. We cannot with justice be confronted with that dreaded 
charge of disrespect for tradition until we refuse to accept a well- 
grounded one. Let us then inquire a little into the nature of this 
thing which we call " accuracy " in arithmetic work. 



294 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

First of all, accuracy in arithmetic is a mental, and neither a 
manual nor a mnemonic attribute. An element of thinking is a 
sine qua non of accuracy. Without thinking it is not only impos- 
sible " to contribute to the habit of accuracy," but it is impossible 
also even to generate the notion of accuracy. Pure memory work 
can no more beget even the idea — to say nothing of the habit — 
of accuracy than can health beget the conception of sidcness. 
" He remembers inaccurately " is a contradiction, and " he remem- 
bers accurately " is tautology. He either remembers or he does 
not. There are no gradations of remembering as there are of 
temperature. This is especially true of formal ntunber facts. 
Pure memory work does not touch accuracy at any point. It is 
absurd to talk of making '^ children accurate in fundamental 
operations as pure memory work." The sufficient reason that 
diligence spent in attempts to make children accurate in pure 
memory work is wasted is that the impossible is attempted. 

In the next place, accuracy involves an external as well as an 
internal element. There must be a comparing and a judging 
between two factors before we can assert accuracy of any sort of 
work. In short, accuracy is predicable only after a comparison, 
and is itself a judgment. In arithmetic the two explicit or 
implicit factors are an idea and an effort to express it. If either 
of the factors is lacking, the very notion of accuracy falls to the 
ground. 

Moreover, it is important to note that unless there be degrees 
of closeness, or adequacy, of expression of thought, accuracy has 
no meaning at all. Accuracy, in the only legitimate sense in 
arithmetic, means the d^ree of closeness of expression to idea — 
the adequacy of assertion to thought. Much of arithmetic is a 
language, an agency for expressing quantitative thought. The 
rest of it, and of course much the major part of it, is the thinking 
itself. If the pupil's expression is adequate to his number-concept 
in any given situation, the same mental satisfaction is felt by him 
in handling it as is felt by the most experienced adult who has 
struggled successfully to give adequate utterance to his more pre- 
cise notions. The same wholesome issue in character, the same 
educative effect, results in one case as in the other. The idea that 



ACCURACY IN ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC 295 

accuracy in number work means the d^ree of closeness of 
approach of expression to absolute correctness is useless^ unattain- 
able, and has not even the saving virtue of being correct. The 
most accurate users of language can do nothing more than express 
adequately their conception of the truth. When, therefore, we 
have to do with the formal aspects of arithmetic, the language side 
of it, we are attempting to draw aim on an invisible, and 
intangible, object if we insist that accuracy shall mean adequacy 
of expression to absolute truth. The constant effort to express 
one's ideas with precision, however, pushes the ideal continually 
nearer and nearer to the absolutely true. In other words, the use 
of precise language eventuates in the accurate thinker. The 
teacher can influence more accurate thinking only by seeing to it 
that the pupil " say just what he thinks." This attempt to express 
one's idea with perfect fulness is the paramount problem for the 
school. It is no more than the youngest pupil can do, and no less 
than he should be continually exercised in doing. The core- 
problem, be it remembered, is not a matter of symbols and tech- 
nique so much as it is a problem of the defining of ideas. 

The current conception that accuracy in number work is 
S)monymous with a sort of target-practice precision grows natur- 
ally out of the thought that school work in arithmetic consists in 
fixing in memory the facts of the tables* The sums and products 
are remembered, or forgotten, and the tendency has solidified into 
a custom of looking upon that student as accurate who has only a 
retentive verbal memory. Test studies show pretty conclusively 
that the verbal memory is capable of, perhaps, the least develop- 
ment of all of the mental faculties. As a matter of fact, in 
arithmetic, the only sort of memory that needs looking after at 
all — and it should be looked after most diligently — is the 
rational memory. The two kinds of memory are rarely strong in 
the same person. The rational memory )ias little difficulty in 
holding a fact after it has been brought into relation with kindred 
truth. The strong rational memory implies the possibility of 
setting up relationships at numerous points with ideas already in 
the mind. The fuller the mind, the greater is the task of organiz- 
ing the new element of knowledge into right relationships with 



296 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

what is already known. The thoughtful student is the slow stu- 
dent, because his task of assimilating the new idea is relatively 
great. It is this fact that puts truth into the admonition : " Pick 
your future student of mathematics from the slow arithmetic 
pupils." For from start to finish the would-be mathematician 
is he who has not only knowledge, but has " the knowledge that 
knows that it knows." 

The true conception of accuracy is secured by both teacher 
and pupil through measuring and the use of measurements in 
arithmetic work. The question naturally arises very soon : With 
what d^jee of accuracy should the measurements be made? This 
question must be answered by the teacher from two points of 
view, and by the pupil from only one. The teacher will ascertain, 
first, what is the smallest unit of which the pupil has, or can 
readily form, an adequate working conception. It is useless for 
the learner to attempt to work with a smaller unit than he can 
image. This sets the natural limit from the educational point of 
view. 

In the next place, both teacher and pupil must study the ques- 
tion of the limit of refinement to be sought, from the view-point 
of the nature of the problem. If the problem is to find the number 
of plants needed for his flower-bed, it would be senseless to carry 
results to fractions. If he wants to cut a member for the frame 
of his playhouse, an eighth or a sixteenth of an inch becomes 
a serious matter, and must be attended to. Just here, we are 
reminded by some timid teacher, consists the difficulty in such 
work. No hard and fast rules can be set, and those of us who 
have not yet risen above rule and rote work grow quixotic at the 
imagined difficulty. How our arithmetic would thrill with life, 
if we could but see that the fine quality of training in arithmetical 
judgment, under purpose, which such questions furnish the pupil 
contains the very essence of educational merit! In the con- 
sideration of just these questions consists the difference between 
thought-work and mere words and sjrmbols. Admitting such 
questions into the arithmetic class goes far toward generating, 
fostering, and strengthening the pupil's confidence in the truth 
that arithmetic is only organized common-sense. His number 
experiences thus become continuous with his life out of school. 



ACCURACY IN ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC 297 

We may now summarize the points of this paper as follows : 

Accuracy in school work in arithmetic should mean the degree 
of adequacy of expression to idea. 

The criterion for the measure of accuracy to be striven for is 
twofold : first, the ability of the pupil to form a working image of 
the smallest (or largest) unit employed in the problem; second, 
the nature of the problem itself. 

Finally, neither the conception, nor habit, of accuracy can be 
generated in the pupil by formal memory work alone; but with 
the correct conception of accuracy the young pupil of arithmetic 
can be just as accurate and just as truly accurate as the most 
experienced adult 



i THE EXTENSION OF THE VACATION SCHOOL IDEA 



MRS. CAROLINE M. HILL 
Chicago 



The idea of vacation schools for the children of the poor is 
now accepted by everyone, and the demand for them far exceeds 
the supply. Schoolhouses would be kept open for them all sum- 
mer if teachers, ftmds, and suitable places for excursions could be 
found. There are, moreover, many parents in moderate circum- 
stances who are unable to spend much time in the country, and 
who would be glad to send their children to vacation schools if 
there were enough to accommodate them. Few persons will 
deny that there should be some way of increasing the niunber of 
vacation schools in the city and of getting more of the country 
into them, but there are some who go so far as to say that they 
should be in the country, and that any vacation school in the city 
is at best a poor makeshift. 

There is almost as much need for vacation schools for the 
children of the well-to-do as for the poor, but the reasons for the 
need are somewhat different. Parents who can afford it are 
spending more and more time in the country, often taking their 
children out of school by the first of May, because the rest of the 
time can be more profitably spent in other ways. Exact informa- 
tion as to how these children spend their time cannot be obtained, 
but it is doubtful whether, on the whole, their energy is any 
better directed than that of the children of the poor during the 
vacation period. We consider " organized play " very important 
for the child who has only a school-yard or a small public play- 
ground to use, but it is just as important for the child who has 
all out of doors. The incongruity of a crowded day for nine 
months of the year and purposeless activity for the other three is 
beginning to be generally felt. Many parents make great efforts 
and spend large sums of money to place their boys in vacation 
camps under the care of responsible tutors. Some try to find 

298 



THE VACATION SCHOOL IDEA 299 

places on farms where they may co-operate to some extent in the 
industries of rural life. The feeling that the latter is a very 
desirable occupation for both boys and girls in the summer time 
is so general that it is scarcely necessary to explain or defend it 
It would be the most simple solution of the problem to place city 
children in country families to whom they are related or with 
whom they are connected in some natural way, if farm homes 
could be found that were of equal cultivation and intelligence with 
their own, and if the farming operations were carried on in such 
a manner as to be on a par with the industries which they observe 
in the city. This, however, is almost never the case. At least 95 
per cent, of the farming of the country is carried on in a hap^ 
hazard manner that would be tolerated in no other industry. The 
hard physical labor and mental stagnation of most farm life can 
only be demoralizing to boys and girls who have been trained to 
other standards. 

There should be some way for children who go to the country 
to make the most of the magnificent opportunities it oflFers in 
science, to come in contact with real things, and to co-operate in 
productive labor. Nature-study as introduced into the great 
majority of city schools is a dilettante affair. If pupils could do 
laboratory and museum work in the winter, and in the summer 
do field work in botany, biology, entomology, and geology in 
connection with some applied science, the results would be far 
more satisfactory. Farm architecture, field engineering and 
machinery, animal husbandry and horticulture, represent the 
applied side of much that pupils in the elementary and high 
schools study in the winter. A few hours per day spent in these 
occupations would furnish recreation and delight to almost all 
boys and girls. Modem educational theories recognize the value 
of a variety of handicrafts and try to reproduce in school the era 
of handicraft for its cultural value. If in addition to this, the 
pupils could spend their vacation time under the conditions fur- 
nished by the most modem mral life of today, they would get 
further culture out of the industries of the present and an effi- 
ciency in getting control of the processes of nature that they do 
not get in mere recapitulation of the past. In other words, if 



300 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

there were model farms to be found where children from the ele- 
mentary and high schools might live during the summer with 
teachers who knew the practical side of horticulture and animal 
husbandry as well as botany and biology, the interest of the 
pupils would be many times multiplied. The same may be said of 
domestic science, if the child could see the processes of growth 
and development of the food supply. 

A child's vacation should not, of course, be given to science 
alone, any more than it should be devoted to literature or athletics 
alone, but it should be spent according to a plan that would har- 
monize with the curriculum of the school year. 

The problem of democratic education is to provide a public- 
school training that will meet the needs of all classes, which will 
prepare, so far as it goes, equally well for any kind of life. The 
objections which might be urged agfainst vacation schools in any 
but the crowded districts of the city would doubtless be ( i ) that 
this would make child-life too strenuous; (2) that it would tend 
to make education utilitarian and not merely cultural. 

To the first objection it may be answered that the healthy 
child makes his own life more strenuous than anyone can make 
it for him. He is always active, is almost indefatigable, loves 
responsibility, and knows perfectly well whether he is accomplish- 
ing results or only killing time. He is never more offended than 
when told that his work is useless in itself, but then it has kept 
him busy and taught him methods. Up to,the beginning of the 
adolescent period the normal child is not a great reader, but he is 
incessantly busy and will do a good deal of work without know- 
ing it. Children love the country and its activities because they 
can comprehend them better than the more complex life of the 
city. 

To the second objection it may be answered that if the vaca- 
tion school in the country were made an all-the-year-round school 
and continued through the high-school and university periods, it 
might easily become a training for the profession of ag^culture, 
but during three or even six months of the year of the elementary 
and high school it would be a valuable preparation for any kind 
of life. The proper proportion of training in languages could be 



THE VACATION SCHOOL IDEA 301 

attained by association with French and German teachers; his- 
tory and literature might be read part of every day; athletics 
would take care of itself; and social life would be free and 
natural. Viewed as a general preparation for life, the value of 
childhood and youth spent in the country has long been known. 
If this period had been occupied with the best scientific training 
as well as the discipline of labor at a variety of occupations, the 
army of farmer boys who go to the city would have included a 
much greater ntunber of eminent men. 

A vacation school started on a model farm near Chicago 
would be an experiment worth trying. It would certainly be 
possible to plan a course of from three to six months, so correlated 
with the curriculum of the School of Education that it would be a 
most valuable supplement to the work of the winter. Such a 
school would not be a measure of temporary relief, but a con- 
structive step that would be attended with important consequences 
in many directions. Life in the country in the spring and sum- 
mer has no hardships for children, and few for grown people in 
these days of telephones, electric cars, and rural delivery. A 
colony of parents surrounding such a school might be a possi- 
bility. Certainly it would not be so difficult to get teachers as for 
the vacation schools in the seventeenth and nineteenth wards of 
the city. The ever-present need of funds for experiments in edu- 
cation might be partially met by making the school as nearly self- 
supporting as possible. Practical difficulties in the way of such 
an experiment would not be found insuperable, if a sufficient num- 
ber of persons were convinced that it would be a logical step in 
educational progress. 



IS THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM 

ADJUSTED? 



ARTHUR HENRY CHAMBERLAIN 
Dean of Throop Polytedinic Institute, Pasadena, Cal. 



The thoughts laid down in the following pages are centered 
around certain ideas which, less than a half-decade ago, began to 
take definite shape in many minds. These ideas, while as yet 
somewhat vague, were in the earlier days chaotic indeed Ban- 
ning about the time I have indicated, the student of education 
could not have failed to notice a certain tmrest in matters educa- 
tional—an unrest voicing and manifesting itself in somewhat 
different manner and with more positive expression than formerly. 

I am likely to be reminded that this tmrest took shape fully 
three decades past, and that a constant change and a steady 
advancement have been noticeable ever since. Some are perhaps 
willing to go farther and say that since the times of John Locke 
and Comenius, of Rousseau and Herbart, of Froebel and 
Pestalozzi, educational thought and practice have been ever mov- 
ing toward a higher level. More than this, we should probably 
all agree that the fundamental principles laid down in Aristotle's 
Ethics, or in Plato's Republic, are not transcended at the present 
day. Granting this> however, we must admit that the past few 
years have wrought an additional change on the face of educa- 
tional affairs. True, many will not see this, or, seeing, will not 
admit. These, however, must eventually do so. 

For a long time past it has been the secondary school that has 
first received the attention of educators, when a new order of 
things seemed imminent or desirable in the public school. So in 
England, in Germany, and in America has the secondary condi- 
tion been discussed. The full force and significance of these dis- 
cussions are now being felt by what is by far the most important 
and vital part of the whole educational organization of the 
present — the elementary public school of America. 

302 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM 303 

Mr. Michael E. Sadler, a thorough English educationalist, 
has thrown much light upon the problem in his report on " The 
Unrest in Secondary Education in Germany, and Elsewhere." 
Other prominent German, English, and French schoolmen have 
agitated the problem, while with us as exponents of a broader 
elementary-school curriculum may be mentioned Dr. William T. 
Harris, Mr. John Fiske, Colonel Francis W. Parker, President 
Nicholas Murray Butler, President Charles W. Eliot, Dr. G. 
Stanley Hall, Professor William James, Dr. Frank McMurry, 
and Professor John Dewey, not to speak of a host of others. 
These men have, each in his own way, been insistent in demanding 
in our school work something that shall be real rather than arti- 
ficial, vital rather than indifferent. They have pleaded for an 
education such as has been aimed at, but is as yet far short of 
realization. 

Upon certain of the most important and fundamental prin- 
ciples underlying our educational fabric there is and has been an 
almost unanimous agreement It is only when we as individuals 
come to the practice of these principles — only when an application 
is made — that a serious disagreement is noticeable. Indeed, it is 
only too frequently the case that no application is attempted. 
How clearly in the past has the purpose of the school been stated, 
and how almost universal has been the acceptance of the defini- 
tion ! In actual practice, however, the work has not been in har- 
mony with the stated purpose of the school. There has been little 
contention as to the fimction which the child is to serve when he 
becomes part of the world in which he shall eventually find him- 
self. Our methods as practiced, however, would hardly be recog- 
nizable as having any foundation in the thought of future 
citizenship. Theory and practice are at variance, and as a result 
violence has been done the child ; the past has laid its hand upon 
the school, and we have held to old courses of study, dusty with 
layers of tradition or mildewed by decades of bigotry. 

In some instances, to be sure, the better in the old education 
has been displaced by the less valuable in the so-called new. Sub- 
ject has been added to subject, scheme to scheme, creed to creed, 
until pupils and teachers alike find themselves in an educational 



304 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

maze from which only the freedom of the outside world can 
extricate them. 

This unrest, then, of which I have been speaking, is felt from 
the kindergarten through the university. From what at first was 
a feeling there has developed a conviction that our schools have 
too long existed for the benefit of the few. The upper grades are 
administered in the interest of the 6 per cent, who pass from the 
primary years ; high-school courses of study are carried on with 
'the view of meeting the requirements of a fortunate i per cent, 
who come to them, while college and university curricula take into 
account only a meager number, who, through circumstances or by 
birth, are enabled to avail themselves of the advantages of a 
higher education. What our elementary schools should furnish 
above all else is the elements of such culture- and thought-bearing 
subjects as shall the better introduce the pupil into the social, the 
industrial, and the moral life of the day, and of which each is a 
part. The school of elementary grade today is a long call from 
squaring with its avowed mission in this regard. 

The great mass of boys and girls who early are compelled to 
take up the problems of actual life should find in the school that 
which has been prepared expressly for them and which best meets 
their needs. They find, instead, work better suited to those who, 
whether they will or not, enter and take advantage of upper- 
school work. With a proper adjustment of elementary-school 
courses, all that great mass of pupils who leave below high-school 
age would go out better prepared to take port in the life before 
them, and many who now leave school at an early age would 
continue their work into and beyond the high school. 

To reach the great mass of boys and girls, and not only to 
reach them, but to keep them in school for a somewhat longer 
period, is then our problem. The tendency of educational thought 
is toward this end. His tuition in school is much too short for the 
boy to acquire those elements which make for moral uplift, 
industrial knowledge, social ideals, and ability of leadership. You 
appreciate, I am sure, that I have in mind the unnumbered many 
who progress no farther than the elementary school. 

Various are the causes of non-continuance in school. Poverty, 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM 305 

sickness, overcrowding, poor enforcement of attendance laws, 
inabili^ to keep pace with a given class, indifference, all con^ire 
to lessen the tuition in school. More than all else, however, and 
deeper and more fundamental than these, is the fact that the 
school does not furnish that which is demanded in actual life, 
after the pupil enters the latter. The supposition has been that 
the school is the medium through which the pupil is enabled to 
determine the line of woiic, occupation, or profession he is best 
fitted to enter, after first bestowing upon him a general culture 
universally essential. Should this be the correct view, which it 
probably is in part only, the present courses of study would not 
work to the desired end. 

How, then, shall the proper adjustment of the elementary- 
school curriculum be brought about ? The answer, it seems to me, 
is Writ so large that " he who runs may read," although the actual 
work of adjustment is far from accomplished. It is indeed but 
begun. The standard of the school has sprung from the belief 
that knowledge is power; that facts educate; that mental gym- 
nastics produces the man. The standard of the real school must be 
found in actual life. It must be based upon the nattu'al tendencies 
of the child; it must grow out of a knowledge of the boy as a 
social being; it must recognize the home, the community, the 
factory, the shop, the farm; civil, industrial, social, and moral 
institutions. Any curriculum worthy a place in our elementary 
school must be built upon a clear conception that reason stands 
superior to fact; that expression is of more value than technique; 
that human sympathy transcends in value the printed pages of a 
book. 

'" The works of God are all for naught, 
Unless our eyes in seeing 
See, underneath the thing, the thought 
That animates its being." 

To say where the adjustment should begin would be an almost 
hopeless task. In arithmetic and language, in history, in geog- 
raphy, in reading, and in the more fortunate schools even in 
nature-study, manual training, and art subjects, the husk is too 
often mistaken for the kernel. The form rather than the content 



3o6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

is made the chief issue ; the symbol is made to stand for the thing. 
The spirit is lost, the letter is the goal. 

In mathematics and language, object-teaching furnished an 
advanced step over the older methods. But what do we find ? In 
arithmetic, for example, to use a crude illustration, the 2 + 2=4 
problem, typical of the abstract, lifeless form of work so long 
adhered to, was changed to the so-called concrete form, and read, 
two apples and two apples are four apples. A moment's thought, 
however, will convince us that the latter form of the problem lies 
nearly or quite as far from the concrete as did the former. Here, 
too, it grows out of a mere statement of fact and not of the 
life-interests of the pupil. It should find its application in an 
immediate need. " A thing is concrete when it is in the midst 
of its meanings; a word to be concrete must not be disassociated, 
but in the context, in the midst of its settings." * 

Look at it from whatever side you will, the idea is forced 
upon you that the curriculum of the elementary school is not 
calculated to meet the demands of the boy and girl. The child 
may be able to tell you the least common multiple of 4, 8, and 
16, or the greatest common divisor of 3, 6, and 9, but can he 
tell why in New York city the market price per dozen of 
oranges is greater than that of apples, or the height of a pile of 
wood containing two cords if the pile is eight feet long and eight 
feet wide? And the saddest part of the whole matter is that, 
after he doses his arithmetic, the boy will probably never have 
need for the facts he has learned regarding the least ccmimon 
multiple or greatest common divisor. 

In language work the child may be able to supply the missing 
words in the text, but does he contribute a readable paper in the 
history class, or speak intelligently when making an explanation? 
In reading, the words may be spoken, but is the selection one 
liaving any connection with the child's needs; will it broaden 
and deepen his sympathies, extend his knowledge of things worth 
while, and force him to feel, and be, and live his better self? 
In history, in geography, how often do we find the time put 
upon vague, indefinite things, or those of little value; facts and 

' Borrowed from Professor Frank M. McMurry. 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM 307 

figures, dates and places, locations, boundaries, and battles! 
Each of these has a place, but to the grade pupil so much can be 
given which is rich and vitalizing, that great care must be exer- 
cised in the choosing. It is no longer a question of what is 
good in education ; it is a question rather of what is best. 

In his recent article " Experiments upon Children," * Dr. G. 
Stanley Hall speaks of the present as a "metamorphic period" 
in education, and then goes on to say : 

A mere list of the fads now in practice in various places would make a 
long article. Idiotic busy work in the lower grades ; learning to read without 
knowing the alphabet, so that occasionally children old enough to use a dic- 
tionary have to make up their arrears of knowledge to do so ; blob drawing ; 
typewriting and shorthand in the high school; four foreign languages for 
girls and boys in the early teens who have almost nothing in their minds to 
express in the vernacular ; Latin and algebra in the grammar school ; wood- 
and iron-work in manual-training courses that are wooden in their intelligence 
and iron in their inflexibility; sharply demarkated schools and theories of 
physical training which will not harmonize and give the children the benefit 
of the best in all ; metaphysics of the effete German school for kindergartners, 
who ought to know something of nursing as now taught to high-school 
graduates, and to know the child's body which at that age most needs care; 
interest in the finished product, which is used for show, rather than in educa- 
tional values; everywhere, and perhaps especially in English, content and 
substance subordinated to form; method whipped up to a syllabub that sug- 
gests some analogy between the graduates of certain normal schools and the 
mediaeval barber's apprentice, who could set up for himself only when he 
could whip two ounces of soap into barrels of lather ; the mechanism of marks 
and hearing lessons instead of teaching; the college dominating the high 
school, which is really the people's college, with its excessive entrance examina- 
tions ; distraction among the multiplicity of different topics — these are some 
of the dangers, of which some are universal and others dominant in certain 
places. 

While we may not subscribe to all that Dr. Hall says, we 
should at least be in accord with the spirit of his message. 
The curriculum has indeed been broadened, while at the same 
time it has not been made sufficiently deep. In just the degree 
school work does not furnish the power, does not put the boy in 
possession of himself, just so far is it failing in its function. 

Perhaps no better conception of an elementary curricultun 

* In Good Housekeeping for October, 1903, p. 338. 



3o8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

can be had than to grasp the idea of a socialized course of 
study. This means at once a change from present methods. 
The so-called traditional subjects are thought-subjects mainly. 
We have said, and truly, that the book lessons did not meet the 
demands of the developing child, as little expression accompanied 
the learning process. There was ample impression; there was 
no expression. In order to get the most from our history, or 
arithmetic, or science, the motor element must come in. While 
the introduction of hand-work in school has done much good, 
we have here swung as far to tlie opposite side; and while expres- 
sion is not lacking, the thought-element plays all too small a 
part in our manual-training courses. Whether with work at 
the bench, in sewing, in the cooking-room, in the various hand- 
work processes and in the art subjects, the power to make or 
construct is not supplemented by the power to think. This last 
is due in large measure to the fact that for the most part the 
child is not allowed to put himself into the work. He follows 
arbitrarily some set of exercises or a fixed curriculum, and 
performs in a more or less mechanical manner a prescribed course 
of work; and this without particular reference to its fitness for 
the individual boy or girl. 

It is John Ruskin who says : 

You can teach a man to draw a straight line and to cut one, to strike a 
curved line and to carve it, and to copy and carve any number of given lines 
with admirable speed and perfect precision, and you find his work perfect of 
its kind ; but if you ask him to think about any of these forms, to consider if 
he cannot find any better in his own head, he stops; his execution becomes 
hesitating ; he thinks, and, ten to one, he thinks wrong ; ten to one, he makes 
a mistake in the first touch he gives his work as a thinking being. But you 
have made a man of him for all that. He was only a machine before — an 
animated tool. 

If it is true that a lesson in history is really valuable only 
when out of the data and lists of facts the pupils draw conclu- 
sions and reason from cause to effect or from effect to cause, 
seeking an explanation of laws and principles in the life of the 
day, so may we believe that in the manual processes the thought- 
side must be emphasized by reasoning out the why, and by 
seeking to develop new or independent methods of procedure. 



THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM 309 

As Professor Jackman puts it : " The first demand of the mind 
is for motive." ' 

May not work of a constructive nature, the industrial pro- 
cesses, properly carried on, furnish one of the foundation-stones 
for the future primary-school curriculum? Dr. Dewey says 
that the curriculum should be "so selected and organized as 
to provide the material for affording the child a consciousness 
of the world in which he has to play a part, and the relations 
he has to meet." Accepting this, are not the media of the shc^, 
the laboratory, the studio, the garden, best suited to bring about 
the desired results ? 

Dr. Dewey does not stand alcme in his criticism of the present- 
day practices in the elementary school nor in his suggestions as 
to the remedy. In an address before the Department of Super- 
intendence of the National Educational Association at Cincinnati 
in February, 1903, President Eliot said: "I believe there is as 
much mental training in manual woiic as in any book whatso- 
ever;" and again: "I believe there is more value in manual 
work than in nine-tenths of the arithmetic in the schools." 

Dr. Frank McMurry places thoughtful hand-work at the very 
base of elementary-school education, and in his book, A Broader 
Elementary Education, Dr. Gordy points out the function of 
manual training in the elementary curriculum. Industrial-Social 
Education, by William Baldwin, shows how the school work 
may be made to group around the industrial processes. Teachers 
generally seem to be recognizing the fact that in no way can 
we so well form a school that shall be parallel with, rather than 
angular to, the actual, every-day life of the child and the adult, 
as to adjust our prc^irams to the industrial and social forms that 
go to make up our every-day existence. 

Is it not easy to see, then, that we have been making, through 
our primary-school curricula, a sort of life in the schoolro<Mn 
different from that actually existing outside of it; a life not at 
all real and certainly not ideal? The lack of interest has been 
mainly on account of this. With a program that shall fit the 
child's needs will come an increased desire to continue in school, 

* Elementary School Teacher, Vol. V, p. 60. 



3IO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

a live interest in its many problems, an increased student attitude. 
Then, too, will the child see more dearly his rdations to his 
fellows, his individual duties and responsibilities, and, while 
recognizing his own worth, will at the same time appreciate the 
meaning and significance of the commimity, the sodety, and 
the sodal whole of which he is only one of the units in the 
composition. 

In summing up, I would not be understood as saying that 
every element in the present-day curriculum of the elementary 
school should be stricken out. Indeed, I have tried to show that 
many times the older, more conservative thought stands superior 
to a modem whim or tendency. But in the main the content 
of our school courses are not such as best meet the demands laid 
upon them by the mass of school children. So far different is 
the atmosphere of the sdiool from that of real life that the 
pupil does not recognize the school dements as having vital bear- 
ing or application outside the school. In the school he works 
for show, for standing, and, while ready with the facts, loses or 
never finds their true meaning or application. 



THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION 



MRS. FRANK HUGH MONTGOMERY 

Secretary 



iExtract from Report of the December Meeting,"} 

The subject for discussion, " The Methods and Principles of 
Teaching- in the University Elementary and High Schools," was 
introduced by the Chairman of the Education Committee, Mrs. 
John O'Connor. She explained why the subject had been chosen 
and how it was in the line of the work of the Education 
Committee. 

Mrs. O'Connor was followed by Mr. Wilbur S. Jackman, 
who traced briefly the development of the principles and methods 
of teaching, and showed that the methods must vary with every 
individual and locality ; that the motive became of extreme impor- 
tance and its consideration was ever coming up anew. The chief 
thing was the development of responsibility. Mr. Jadonan spoke 
of the excursion. This gave the child an admirable opportunity 
to learn how to handle himself. The excursion presented the 
material, and his life in the schoolroom gave expression to his 
ideas. 

As Mrs. Henry Kuh was unable to be present, Mrs. O'Connor 
read the paper which she had prepared. Mrs. Kuh said that she 
came to ask for information rather than because she had any to 
impart. She raised interesting questions in regard to the value of 
excursions, dramatics, and the amount of time to be devoted to 
them. 

Mr. Owen was the next speaker. He said that the high school 
was between the upper and nether millstones. The college or uni- 
versity was the upper, with certain requirements which the high 
school had to meet. The nether was the elementary school. The 
most remarkable change in education in America had come in 
elementary schools. For many reasons, it had had a chance to 

311 



$12 THE ELEMEKTABY SCHOOL TEACHER 

devdop. The high school must beoofne a good c jip er iui ent sta- 
tion under reasociaUe oootroL It must have (i) wdl-tranied 
teachers; (2) a flexible organization; (3) parents who would 
permit a certain amount of esqierimentation and would have con- 
fidence. Let the parents investigate and contribute. 

Mn MacQintock^ the next ^Kakcr, expressed his smypathy 
with Mn Owen that the high schocd was not yet a place for free 
experimentation. He raised various questions in r^[ard to 
practice-teaching, the existing grouping of the children, the auton- 
omy of the grade teacher and the spcdal teacher, corrdation, 
and the place of the arts. 

Mr. Belfield affirmed that the method of the high school in 
manual training was not to make things. It was not a trade 
sdiool. The name, which indicated the training of the hand 
alone, was a misnomer; the object was mental training. It was 
true that the pupil often learned a great deal that was useful and 
could earn his livelihood, perhaps, as a result, llie school stood 
for accuracy of thought, honesty of work, clean thinking, devdop- 
ment of judgment and will-power. The great trouble with the 
American boy was a weak will. 

Mr. Errant thought that everyone realized that there was 
something to be woriced out. The high school nmst solve its own 
problem. He considered that in the manual training there 
might be a closer connection between things learned and the 
application. He wished that some of the funds which had 
recently been given to the University might be had for the woric- 
ing out of these problems. 

The meeting adjourned. 



EDITORIAL NOTES 



Teachers are too much concerned with tmessential details. 
They asphyxiate themselves and the pupils with the minutiae 
TheDis- of technique and with the infinitesimal divisions 

tnu:tioii8 of of subject-matter. Expression through language 
Techniqne barely b^ns, when the thought that inspired it is 
drowned by a multiplicity of irrelevant facts relating to form; 
forthwith the emphasis goes to " language as such " ! 

With the first note of song b^n the hammer and bang of drill 
upon meaningless symbols, standing for musicless sounds that 
give no voice to the melody in the soul. 

Pictures of light, of color, and of form are imprisoned within 
by 'the barriers of technique; and while life is harrassed and 
wasted upon the barren mechanics of brush and pencil and paper, 
the pictures shrivel and dry, and forever fade from the face of the 
artistic imagination. This, all that there may be "art for art's 
sake." 

The slow germination of thinking about the proportions 
and the relations of things is scarcely started, when technical pro- 
cesses, with shadowless symbols divert the mind from its natural 
channels, and endless drill finally results in permanent impairment 
of original mathematical power. That vision through the evolu- 
tion of which the mind might have the means to clarify the world 
around about it, through the chatter of formulae, becomes con- 
fused and uncertain, and the primeval chaos of the world remains 
with us as with the savage. 

There is hardly a subject in the curriculum where thought is 

not hampered, stultified, and often obliterated through the efforts 

to enforce technique. And the greatest sinners are 

^^ ^ the technicians themselves. They thrust their own 

Offenders 

refined method upon their pupils, whether they be 
in the imiversity, the secondary or the elementary school, appar- 

313 



$%4 THE ELEMESTAR7 SCHOOL TEACHER 

entiy forgetfvi of tlie cot^di6oos under wiiidi di^ tliniisriw c s 
ac(|ttire4 it — if, indeed, they have ever done 2ms^A hat oopy from 
another. 

The tedmsque of a subject is the easiest part about it The 
tvUntzX relations of process and method to tboogfat are such, that 
T^ctalfM tte it is doubtful if any normal individual actually pos- 
OstmM H §eu€d of a dear idea ever failed because he could 
'^^^^Hf^ no^ giy^ it appropriate fonn through expre ssi on. 

The reason why we cannot draw is that we do not get the 
image which it is the province of a drawing to represent. Our 

pendl stops predsdy where our seeii^ foils. Any- 

imTMihmin ^ ^^"^ ^" trace with a pendl or brush the outlines of a 

figure already drawn; there is no reason why he 
should not trace the same lines without the presence of the picture 
except in the fact that the mental image is missing. 

It is not more difficult from the motor side to modd a vase or 
even a human figure than it is to spread a slice of bread with 
butter and then eat it. By some mistake, certainly, the latter pro- 
cess, to date, has escaped the keen vision of the technidan and we 
have learned how to cat in peace. When the drill-master discovers 
the oversight, folks who eat will probably become as rare as 
sculptors. 

Not that people become tedmically correct all at once, nor can 
it be denied that there is necessity for the education of the nerves 

and muscles; but "the soul is the thing" which 

w rt n or ^i^^j^j^^ ^^^ correctness and the ease with which 
Ttoliniqilt 

the training may be acquired. Teachers who would 

train pupils in writing start at the wrong place when they b^n 
with the arm movement, and, to train in speech, they have some- 
thing to do besides watching the glottis. 

In spite of the struggle for form, it is seldom that the results 
arc satisfactory, and pupils give up the striving with feelings of 
Diioottragt- relief from the intolerable grind. Language, art, 
mtnt of tht music, dramatics, writing, spelling, and mathematics 
^P*** all appear to stand as obstacles in the way of what 

the pupils would be rather than as the direct means thereto. It is 



EDITORIAL NOTES 3^5 

only when one becomes inspired with his own message that, freed 
from the drudgery of drill, he turns to these forms of expression 
and, selecting the one most natural and effective, delivers himself 
through a technique of his own. One utterance giving voice or 
form to something that must be said — something that must take 
shape lest the world suffer — will do more for technique than all 
the " formal grammar," " formal arithmetic," " formal art," and 
" formal everything else " that can be cranMiied into the years of 
school life 

We are just finding out that a child should " be himself " when 
he talks, but the discovery has gone little farther. It is, however, 
Pupil's Sight ^90 true that he should give himself forth in song 
to His Own as in speech; in art forms as well as in writing; in 
Techniqiie poetry, too, when his inspired thought strikes the 
octave. The results attained justify no further waste of years in 
trying to make the pupil absorb a literary style from someone who 
wrote a "masterpiece" — a style for which the pupil has no 
thoughts to fit. When the notation of their own melodies that 
naturally grow just because children find things beautiful, good, 
and harmonious, take the place of the note-chasing that is now 
down on the program as "music" — save the mark — we shall 
find that our soil, too, will produce musicians. 

What is the trouble f Too much of littleness, of narrowness 
— too many minutiae! Breadth, breadth, breadth, is needed! 

More superficiality; less thoroughness! Greater 
fiAiBAd 7 appreciation of huge crudities; less complacency 

with finicky niceties! More S)mipathy with move- 
ment; less emphasis upon sand-papered results! More attention 
to the pupil's power of original thinking; less stress upon his 
ability to copy! (The only original researcher is the child under 
school age; then he selects his subject and treats it at will. As a 
postgraduate, his topic is usually assigned, and he generally copies 
his method.) Less worry about what the pupil can say; more 
interest in what he can do! Smaller regard for what he knows; 
increased esteem for his influence ! Less exacting as to obedience ; 
a more careful nurture of personal responsibility! Not such 



3l6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

assiduous industry with the "muckrake; " some contemplation of 
the " crown " overhead ! 

W. S. J. 



Two articles appear in the pages of this number of the Ele- 
mentary School Teacher descriptive of experiments in education : 

one a prospect merely, and the other a review of an 
"^ institution which is long past the experimental stage, 

and yet is still spoken of by many in tones which 
prophesy a defeat of which the school has never yet given the 
slightest signs of verification. Both the farm school sketched by 
Mrs. Hill and the unique English school, Bedales, will probably 
fall under the stricture laid upon another attempt to make a school 
conform to an ideal in education, by a public-school man who said 
of the school in question : " Frankly, I do not like your school. 
It is doing what we never can do under our public-school con- 
ditions. Such a school can never be thrown open to any but the 
favored few. Ideal, I confess it to be, but an ideal that never can 
be realized for the masses. Your equipment, space, and small 
classes furnish conditions that the public can never afford." 
Similar objections are likely to arise in the minds of the readers 
as they peruse the articles referred to. 

It is a serious objection. The very depth of bitterness with 
which we hear it uttered indicates a corresponding keenness of 
The Fnnction of sympathy for the needs and problems of the public 
the PriYAte schools which are first and last the chief concern of 
School all Qf U3^ If jt ^ere not foi* that concern, some of 

these experimental stations would not exist. They should bear 
the same relation to the pressing needs of the big public-school 
system that the agricultural experiment stations do to the farming 
communities. The experimenter has a fund wherewith to work 
out his hypothesis. He has apparatus and time to devote to these 
objects alone. He finds, we will say, that by the cultivation of 
certain colonies of bacteria as nodules on leguminous plants his 
bacteria greatly increase the nitrogen-appropriating power of the 
plants. Success assured, the information and the materials are at 



EDITORIAL NOTES 3 ^ 7 

the disposal of the farmers, the latter delivered ready for use like 
so many precious yeast-cakes. 

The farmers working under pressure which precludes the full 
experimental use of their powers still are the gainers by the 
The Ontcome experiment of the specialist. The skilful and pro- 
for the Com- gressive farmer returns his report and practical sug- 
rnnnity gestions from the field to the station. Just so the 

teacher whose hands are tied, comparatively, by her scanty appro- 
priation for materials, and her large classes of children, cannot 
rush into work demanding apparatus and freedom until she sees 
clearly where the work will lead; what it means in power, in 
enrichment of the lives of her children. But these points proved 
and her own soul convinced, there is always a way of convincing 
those who can aid in changing the conditions under which she 
works. 

There was once a young man who was taken in by the 
manager of a large factory to be trained up in the business. He 

was the son of one of the officers of the company. 
The Fixity of 'pj^^ young man went rapidly from one division to 
* ^ *"bi^ *^^ next. At last, after working successively as an 
of the Baker ordinary workman in the sifting, weighing, mixing, 

molding, and baking rooms, he was given charge of 
a room. He soon saw a chance to improve methods and lessen 
labor, having been himself brought up in those schools (beginning 
with the kindergarten) that develop initiative. He reported his 
plan to the manager, and was permitted to make the necessary 
changes, which, of course, involved the learning of new ways by 
the workmen. Soon another discovery was made, all in the line 
of progress, and another permission and another reconstruction 
followed in due order. A third proposition came up to the 
manager involving extensive changes in machinery and operation. 
This the manager vetoed, arguing that the loss of time, expense 
of changes, and friction in getting the workmen adjusted to new 
habits would overbalance the economic advantage of the proposed 
improvement. 



31 S THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Just as in the madiine known as manu&ctoiy, so in die social 
machine of public school, there is sudi interlacing and inter- 

ThAAmiiefttkm '^^^"ST ^^ paits and functions that each diange 

conies hard, and the managers fear the overthrow 
while really indorsing the idea involved. Changes involving the 
reduction of numbers, ^)ecial training of teachers, and installation 
of tools have to come when the utility and eventual econcwny of 
these things have been established in a ^nailer and freer institu- 
tion. So, while wdcoming criticism and modification, let us not 
declare at the outset that these experimental schools and schemes 
are useless or worse than useless because we cannot at once see the 
possibility of making them contribute to the education of every 
child in the public schools. There never was an ideal realized 
that was not at one stage of the game stamped " Utopian." The 
whole mighty advance from passive to active education has been 
in the face of obstacles generally pronounced " Utopian," fifteen 
years ago. 

In this very idea carried out in one way at Bedales, to be 
carried out in another at Wheeling, in another at the George 
Poitibllitiei Junior Republic, and in other ways in half a dozen 
not Im- schools we might mention, there are a few funda- 

potiibilitiei mental propositions : that- real work may be made 
a stimulus to scientific study; that the community of work- 
ing, playing, and learning individuals, both children and adults 
is the most normal school, ethically and intellectually, and cer- 
tainly physically; that such a school will not only conduce 
to mental and physical health, but will in a very practical way 
offer a new force to stem the tide of concentration in cities by 
offering interests and control in country pursuits; to refute the 
doctrine that these ideals are impossible of realization, save under 
certain specified conditions to be had only in private enterprises 
with private funds, we quote a few instances : the gardening at 
homes and schools, of Dayton, Ohio; the garden of the Drum- 
mond Vacation School, of Chicago; the gardens of the Chicago 
Bureau of Charities on outlying vacant tracts ; the gardens in that 
most crowded modem city of Berlin, lying in a new part of the 



EDITORIAL NOTES 3^9 

city where the paterfamilias takes his family of a Sunday after- 
noon, to work, and to eat under their own vine and fig tree ; the 
many, many school gardens that are being conducted with intel- 
lecttial profit, and some remuneration, in towns and cities and in 
country districts. All go to show that, given the great apprecia- 
tion of a demonstrated good, there is more than one mode of 
realization. 

B. P. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Culture Readers. No. II. By Ellen E. K- Wainir. Chinco: D. 

Appleton & Co. 

Tbia book has the merit of maldng the Gnt page of reading retlljr ■mvttk whiles 
Throogliout the book other pagea are worth reading. The pity i» that all aie not. 
To tell ■ commonplace thing in a commonplace way ia not literature. To read 
*ach ia Dot education. For initance, the following, quoted in part, occupIcB the 
Ereater part of two pagea : 

1. " Well, my dear, what are yon doing? " 

2. " I am sewing a mitten." 

3. " Oh no, that ia not aewing. That ia knitting. Who began h for you ? "■ 
4- "My mamma began it. She ia maldng a pair of mittena for me," etc; 

To expend the time and effort which a little child exerta to read a page of 
printed matter deaervea results which should be to him in proportion to that elTort- 
Eveiy Buch eRort should leave the impreasion that it ia pleasant to know how to 
read. The foregoing quotation ia not stimulating to further effort. The child has 
got no thought which ia worth getting. What is the purpose of reading, if not to 
gain thought valuable in its picture, information, or fun? 

Some teacbera use phonics as a conscious help to reading. Others use {Aoiucs 
with quite another purpose. Many teachers desire to keep out of the children's 
minds the processes of learning so far as possible. For this reason the list* of 
phonetic worda should not be placed in the text which the children read, jntt in ft 
separate place, that the teacher may use her discretion in her use of it. 

The publishers are to be congratulated on the attractive print, paper, and 
pictures which make up the book. 

ELSIB a XT WrOAITT. 
UNIVXaSITV OF CHtCAGO 

School of Education 

Larka's Pariir i Tifmpo. Edited by Edwin B. Nichols. New York: 

American Book Co. Pp. 66. $040. 

One of the most popular comedies of this leading Spanish write and the 
only edition of the play published in America. It tella the atory of a jtoung nan 
who, discovering his growing attachment for the wife of his benefactor, depart* in 
time to retain his loyalty to both. It ia characterized by graceful humor, keen 
observation, and rare qualities of style. It affords ample of^kortunity for the study 
of colloquial Spanish, and for the acquisition of a wide vocabulary, and though 
slight in itself, it is especially suited for class reading. It is the most recent 
addition to the constantly growing series of " Modem Spanish Readings " now 
being published by the American Book Co. 

330 



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The 

fementary Schoi^ 
Teacher 



February, 1905 

Vol. V, No. 6 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

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I 



Editor . . Wilbur S. Jackman 
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CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, J905 



.1 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME, CONDUCTED BY DR. CECIL REDDIE 

Patrick Geddes 321 
CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

Mrs. Frank Hugh Montgomery 334 

GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 

Mrs. Carrie R. Squire 349 

TEXTILE WORK IN LINEN Edward F. Worst 360 

THE MAKING OF BEET SUGAR— A MORNING EXERCISE - Henry T. Mortensen 364 

IfOTES FROM PARENTS* ASSOCIATIONS - - Mrs. Helen Maley Hefferan 372 

BDITORIAL NOTES Wilbur S. Jackman 376 

Home Work for Children ; Home Work in the Past*, Less, Not More, Home Work ; Homes 
Not Prepared ; Home Preparation Needed ; What the Home Can Do ; Cultivation of Spirit ; 
Cultivation of Responsibility; Home Duties of Children; Bad Habits in the Home; Fra- 
ternities and Sororities ; Where Is the Father ? The Mother ; Lack of Co-ordinating Influ- 
ences ; Type of Home Work Needed ; In a Nutshell. 

BOOK REVIEWS 382 

Aidricht Tucker, Mabie, Van Dyke, Dole: Young Folks' Library, W. S. Jackman; Fair- 
banks: The Western United States; Horton: The Frozen North; Parker and Helm: A 
River Journey, W. W. Atwood. 



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Entered October la, 1903, at the Post-Office at Chiogo, m., as second-cliss matter, under Act of Congress March 3, 1879. 

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Headmaster New School at AblMilsholmc, Dertiyshire, England. 



VOLUME V NUMBER 6 



The Elementary School Teacher 

FEBRUARY, I905 

THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME, CONDUCTED BY 

DR. CECIL REDDIE» 



PATRICK GEDDES 
Edinburgh 



I 
INTRODUCTION 

While personally of Scottish, London, and foreign education, 
I may claim to be in some respects all the more alive to the quali- 
ties of the English public-school and university systems, although, 
as is inevitable tmder such circumstances, also awake to their 
defects. 

I have hence long been interested in Dr. Reddie's labors to 
create a school which, while retaining the admitted virtues of 
English education, should yet meet the requirements of the mod- 
em world in a more adequate way. I have felt substantial agree- 
ment with his vigorous criticisms of the educational world, and 
admiration for his no less fearless initiative; and I have often 
regretted that, here as so often, the prophet should still have too 
little honor in his own country. For many years I have directed 
foreign educationalists to Abbotsholme as the most active and 
progressive of English schools. One especially, M. Demolins, 
has made it the text of a well-known volume.* 

^ This article is an extract from a report on the school prepared by Professor 
Geddes. It is based upon a personal inspection of the school made July 11-18, 
1904. — Editors. 

'M. Demolins, Anglo-Saxon Superiority (from the French eighth edition), 
London, 1901. 

321 



322 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Many indq)endent visitors— French, German, American, etc — 
have also from time to time communicated their impressions to 
the larger world, with comparisons strongly in favor of Abbots- 
holme, and these on many grotmds. Better than criticism, how- 
ever, the school has afforded an educational type, upon which, 
whether with generous acknowledgement or with insufficient 
recognition, new schools have been founded, alike on the conti- 
nent and at home. Even in the present month I find in an impor- 
tant French review* an article by the director of the school of 
Liancourt, himself an English public-school boy and teacher of 
varied experience ; and he, while an active rival and critic of M. 
Demolins, goes almost farther in his eulogy of Abbotsholme, and 
in the severity of his criticisms of the older type of school,* to 
which it is the arduous honor of Abbotsholme to furnish an 
example and lead. 

Though thus interested in Abbotsholme since its foundation, 
indeed its very inception, I had imfortunately never found time 
to visit it; it was therefore with much interest that I accepted 
the invitation of the headmaster and trustees to undertake an 
inspection and report last July. To this inspection I devoted the 
whole of one week's residence, with some preparation beforehand, 
and considerable reflection since my visit 

Even if space permitted, I need not here enter into any detailed 
account of the organization of the school, especially as this is 
already clearly stated in its foimder's writings and in the descrip- 
tions of previous visitors. While thus visiting the school with an 
open mind, sympathetic indeed to all its main aspects, I have 
been more especially prepared by my own work and studies to 
inquire into two matters in particular: (i) the Abbotsholme 
endeavors toward that better-organized associated life which 
is too much neglected in our Scottish education; and (2) the 
experimental working-out of a modernized curriculum, with ade- 
quate correlation and succession of studies — geographic and 
historic; scientific, linguistic, and literary; practical and artistic; 

' Scott, " L'6ducation nouvelle," Revue politique et parlementaire, August, Z904« 

*R. F. Cholmeley, "A Complaint of Public Schools/' Independent Rexnew, 
September, 1904, will also be found worth consulting. 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME 323 

in brief, naturalistic and humanistic. Both of these endeavors 
have, of course, to be judged, not merely by the traditional stand- 
ards of the universities, but by their adaptation to practical life 
and social usefulness. 

Thus, while I have visited the school prepared by an under- 
standing of its general aims, it has also been in acceptance of a 
frankly expressed invitation to search out and unsparingly to 
criticise any weak spots in the ambitious program of the school 
or in the execution of it, and with the understanding that the 
more definite my criticisms and suggestions, the better for all 
concerned. 

The following report, then, while warmly appreciative of 
many elements in the school, though with sharp criticisms of 
others, may risk conveying misimderstanding to some, especially 
strangers to it, since in analyzing the character of a school, as of 
a person, points of blame may to many seem to outweigh larger 
elements of praise. It is, however, I am convinced, the wish of 
the headmaster and the council, of the parents, the old boys, and 
other friends of the school, that every possible improvement 
should be made ; and my desire is to be of service toward this. 

I can most easily give my impressions of Abbotsholme by 
writing, in direct narrative form, a summary of my diary during 
my week's stay. Before my arrival a week had been devoted 
mainly to written examinations, and this had prepared stacks of 
papers for my perusal. Then haymaking had come, a welcome 
change of occupation for the boys, and giving also the masters 
time to look over the examination work. * 

I arrived on a Monday evening. Field work was in full activ- 
ity. Never before had I seen a hay-field cleared with such order 
and rapid progress, yet all without the supervision of masters or 
the help of a farm laborer, the only exception being that the farm 
baliff himself was working with one of the boys upon the rick - — 
the spot where the elder's skill was still needed to guard against 
the risks arising from inexperience. 

The whole field was under the command of the "captain of 
haymaking," a senior boy, who had six squads, each under a 
corporal, one managing the cart, the rest loading or raking. The 



3*4 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

swiftness and order, the economy of labor, the cleanness of 
the field, all showed not only good organization, but thorough 
good-will. 

After a couple of hours of this came the call to bathing, and in 
a twinkling the glowing workers were in the river. Here a fresh 
bit of organization appeared. Another boy-officer was on the 
bridge above the bathing-place conducting the " swimming tests." 
Every boy not disqualified by health is expected to go through a 
r^fular course, graduated from the simplest swimming, within 
depth and for short distances, to the difficult task of rescue work. 
That particular evening the diving tests were being passed, and, 
as an old examiner, I could not but admire the boy examiner 
at his work, passing or rejecting, usually with instant decision, 
yet wherever doubt arose giving a second, and in one case a third, 
chance. 

A hearty and wholesome supper, well served in a spacious and 
dignified refectory hall, followed, and then a brief choral service, 
with well-chosen reading, in the stately though simple school 
chapel. From such an evening one could not but gather a favor- 
able impression of this little community, vigorous in work and 
play, with its atmosphere at once of discipline and of culture. 

Next morning, after chapel and breakfast, I was conducted by 
one of the senior bojrs over the school buildings old and new. We 
hegsn with the magnificent ** new block,'' of which the chapel and 
dining-hall furnish the main architectural features, but including 
also extensive kitdien and domestic acxommodation in the two 
lower floors, with well-arranged dormitories, guest-chambers and 
sickrooms above, and at the top a skilfully isolated floor for infec- 
tious cases. Thence we passed to the old building^, in whidi the 
larger rooms are used as classrooms and dormitories. The exten- 
sive outbuildings are utilized as workshops and laboratories, etc 
As it was the annual haymaking time, the classrooms were empty, 
and field work was in full progress till bathing and dinner time. 
So unconventional a departure from ordinary school traditions as 
this of holidays for work instead of for merely play, no doubt 
helped to explain the vigor and steadiness of work which strudc 
me during my visit It showed that the school is guarding against 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate VIII 




THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME 325 

the too common mistake of expecting simultaneous efforts of 
mental and bodily exertion from growing boys, and is doing this 
by the sensible method of giving each of these culminating fimc- 
tions of the school year, examinations and haymaking, their 
proper turn. This raises the whole question of the school time- 
tables, both for day, week, term, and even year; but to these I 
shall return. 

After dinner came another characteristic and admirable fea- 
ture of the school life ; the boys trooped up to the chapel for ten 
or twenty minutes' quiet, while someone, master or boy, gave a 
musical recital, which happened today to be one of the master- 
pieces of Wagner. In this way evidently two good habits — one 
bodily, the other mental — were being formed at one and the 
same time : ( i ) the simple physiological habit of quietly begin- 
ning digestion before resimiing activity; and (2) on the side of 
culture was being acquired a wide acquaintance with classical 
music. The perfect quietness of the boys at this time, as also at 
other similar times, as, e. g., just before and during chapel — 
and this as much before any master came in as after — struck me 
as a strong bit of fresh evidence that the too common noise in 
schools is largely the expression of imperfectly exercised activi- 
ties, and as a striking proof that the teacher who has found 
normal outlet for these activities will not fail to get all the silence 
and attention he may require. Quiet was further insured by 
allowing the few boys of little or no musical ability or interest 
to read quietly, either their " term-book " or some other, and by 
letting one or two who might have been only a disturbing element 
find some less uncongenial outlet elsewhere. 

In the afternoon the school split up into cricketers and hay- 
makers, the former to practice for a Saturday match ; the latter 
to pursue hard yet happy work of their own, which protected 
them from the worthless habit of mere looking on and loafing, 
which has latterly made our games, however excellent for the few 
who actually play, so doubtful a blessing to the many who merely 
look on. 

In the evening came one of the great functions of the Abbots- 
holme school year — the " Harvest Home Festival." This again 



3^6 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

was simply and excellently managed. The " last load " was taken 
up the hill to the hay bam on its summit, in full procession, led 
by all the available music of the school — drums and fifes, bugles 
and violins, a simple yet admirable picture, a true pendant to 
Mason's " Harvest Home " — that most perfect of all our idylls 
of rustic English life. Nor was a deeper note wanting. Just 
before the procession started a bonfire of weeds was kindled — 
symbolically recalling the lesson read that morning in chapel, the 
Parable of the Tares. 

After the load had been stacked, the boys gave a concert in 
the chapel, which, pending the erection of the future School Hall 
and Theater, has at present to be used as a big school for all such 
ftmctions. Here solo singer and instrumentalist, school choir 
and orchestra, all took their appropriate part, and appeared, as 
far as I could judge, to advantage. I regret that from deficiencies 
of my own early years I am not able to express any opinion upon 
the musical technique; but I could at any rate appreciate the 
spirit of the whole performance, and note with satisfaction that 
the non-musical boys were few, almost every one taking part in 
orchestra or in choir. 

Next came an ample and joyous harvest-home supper, fol- 
lowed by toasts, in which the haymakers and their captain, the 
head and his outside guests, were all included. After this came 
the harvest-home service in the chapel, with appropriately chosen 
psalms and hymns, prayers and lessons, all with brief personal 
application to work and life. Afterward, in a long and interest- 
ing talk, the headmaster set forth to me more fully his deeply 
meditated and constantly applied ideas of the moral and educa- 
tive uses of productive labor, and of the correlation of occupations 
and studies with art and literature, with music and morals — in 
short, of living out day by day the unification of religion and of 
life. 

The evening ended in storm, the wind and rain, lightning and 
thunder, emphasizing impressively, for boys and elders alike, the 
day's lesson and symbol : " Work while it is day." 

Next morning I divided between the reading of batches of 
examination papers and the study of the administrative details of 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME 327 

the school, which are being gradually worked out in a series 
of sheets, well, indeed artistically, printed at the school press. As 
personally disposed in my own work to reduce formal regulation 
to a minimum, I must confess to having approached these elabo- 
rate regulations in a critical, indeed a skeptical, spirit But I 
must also frankly admit that the more closely I studied these 
regulations, the more I saw in them. Beginning always with 
direct orders, simply expressed and easily obeyed, even by the 
yoimgest, they display the gradual development of a well- 
organized and well-administered scheme of action, so that the 
perfect order and discipline at haymaking or at swimming, which 
I had observed, was here set forth with corresponding clearness ; 
in fact, not only summed up as custom, but codified as law. Indeed, 
I came to recognize this to be one of the carefully considered ways 
in which this school is organized to prepare its bojrs for intelligent 
action and citizenship in the larger world without ; and my first 
dread of over-regulation was abated when I saw that the rules 
were, as far as possible, not an external code, devised in the 
abstract by the headmaster and imposed by his authority upon 
the boys, but a summary and codification of their own and their 
masters' practical experience ; a body of laws, which practice and 
reflection, through successive years, had actually modified, and 
were still modifying. The school code thus becomes an intro- 
duction to the best aspects of law and order in the larger world, 
as well as to the modes of altering laws constitutionally open to 
an intelligent and orderly democracy. Though approaching this, 
as I have confessed, at first rather reluctantly, I came increasingly 
to recognize its educative value. 

A very notable feature of these school regulations is that, as 
far as possible, each definite set of rules is prefaced by a well- 
summarized exposition of its higher aspects. Thus, in the case 
of ha3miaking, while two sheets were devoted to strictly agricul- 
tural matters, so as to satisfy the farmer, a third sheet was 
devoted to the larger educational aspect of the subject, showing 
the place of the hay harvest among the labors and festivals of the 
year. An outline was appended of ancient and modem views of 
the seasons, astronomic and historic, literary and poetic, thus 



3*8 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

transcending the practical outlook to take in a long perspective of 
liberal culture. On inquiry of the boys, as well as of the masters, 
I satisfied myself that these rules and explanations had been of 
real interest and service, and were regarded by them as having 
greatly aided in the admirable function of the previous day, and 
this in all its aspects, economic and artistic, literary and ethicaL 

In this way I reached my first appreciation of the school, as 
successfully progressing toward reuniting two sides of life at 
present too much divided, and too exclusively assigned to the 
so-called laboring class and the so-called cultured class respect- 
ively. It is from lack — say rather the loss — of this union 
in our present education that the rustic is left rude, and the scholar 
left bookish; here plainly was growing up a healthier type than 
either, because correcting the respective defects by the corre- 
sponding qualities of both. 

Similarly in other regulations, e. g., those for bathing, for 
"dormitory parade" (i. e., bed-making, teeth-cleaning, and so 
forth), for cabinets, etc. The simplest physical pleasure of bath 
or bathe, nay, even the humblest offices of the body, are thus not 
only made healthily habitual, but educative in the fullest sense, 
each being understood progressively from the standpoints of 
cleanliness and health, of intellectual clearness, of social and 
moral organization and responsibility. 

Those sets of rules which apply at all times are framed and 
fixed in their appropriate places. Others, such as the bathing 
rules, after the appropriate season is over, are wisely withdrawn 
from view to reappear afresh another year. Thus no one can 
plead ignorance of either the law or its associated doctrine ; and 
there is no doubt that in this way administration becomes not 
only more easy and effective, but obedience becomes willing and 
punishment rare. 

On the whole, then, despite some minor reserve as to details 
here and there, which it is quite possible fuller experience might 
remove, I must confess to having been converted, and this in some 
measure against my will, to an appreciative and even approving 
recognition of this highly developed plan of school organization. 

The same day I began visiting the lessons given by the differ- 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLME 329 

ent masters. Beginning with the head, I heard a lesson in chemi- 
cal theory vividly and clearly given. Thence I passed to a study 
of the outdoor occupations of afternoon school, to which much 
importance has always been attached at Abbotsholme from the 
first. Here the master in charge rapidly sent off various squads 
of boys to work. One large detachment, duly captained, went to 
clear a pasture of thistles. A small group was told off to attend 
to the bee-farm ; some, to separate honey from the comb ; others, 
to paint a wax-box ; and so on. One or two boys had to repair 
and paint the canoes, while a small batch of youngsters went to 
their own little gardens. A larger nimiber of juniors remained 
in the workshop, their work for that hour being to repair the hay- 
rakes, which, having naturally lost or broken teeth during the 
harvesting, had of course to be repaired before being laid aside 
for next season. 

I visited the workshop on other days also, and can speak of all 
I saw in it, of its management and teaching, with eulogium. The 
work was at once useful and practical, requiring a reasonable 
measure of skill in both the handiwork and the working drawings, 
with clearness of head in both. The personal teaching, Socratic 
and S3mipathetic, I could not but admire. 

At 4 o'clock, the two hours' afternoon school being over, the 
boys were free for games till 6. As I had examined the buildings 
the day before, I now went with a fresh boy guide over the whole 
school estate, when I was struck, on the one hand, by the very 
fortunate situation of the property, and, on the other hand, as 
befits such an excellent environment, by the healthy atmosphere 
and tone of the community itself. But, to assure myself that I 
had not got into the hands of exceptionally distinguished or spe- 
cially selected boys, I joined, so far as time allowed, in games and 
bathing, and so came to make a good many individual acquaint- 
ances, as well as to know most by name and sight. The same 
evening, at evening chapel, the rustic spirit of the preceding day's 
labor was not lost sight of, Gray's " Elegy " being chosen as the 
lesson, which was read with S3mipathy and heard with attention. 

After these two days of general inspection, I naturally devoted 
the rest of my week to a more detailed scrutiny of the teaching. 



330 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

For this purpose I not only read all the examination papers, but 
was present at lessons by each of the masters in all the various 
classes. I also looked through a very large number of boys' note- 
books, so as to form an idea of the work of the three terms of 
the current school year. 

Leaving, at present, matters of instruction to the more system- 
atic portion of my report, I may conclude this narrative by 
noting for special commendation in the afternoon school the open- 
air sketching classes and the drill. A small detail, but one char- 
acteristic of the practical resourcefulness which this school life 
appears to me peculiarly to develop, I may mention. I noticed 
that a yoimgster who had been marching badly was ordered to 
" fall out and join the small boys," who, some distance off, were 
being drilled by one of themselves. The youngster in disgrace 
fell out, looking crestfallen enough. But I was amused, on pass- 
ing that way a few minutes after, to see that, to hide his own 
discomfiture, he had taken over the command of the little squad 
and was drilling it himself ! 

During my visit I had opportunities for conversation with 
each of the masters, and especially with the head. With the latter 
I went over both old and recent buildings, and visited the gardens 
old and new. I also examined the proposed plans for further 
extensions, and discussed, as fully as time allowed, the various 
aspects and needs of the school and its curriculum. 

On the Sunday evening I was present in chapel at the head- 
master's weekly sermon to the boys, and was again very favor- 
ably impressed by the frankness, directness, and intellectual 
suggestiveness of his teaching, its moral and social value, and 
therefore strength of influence, and this especially for senior, or at 
any rate thoughtful, boys. At both week-ends I had been struck 
by the number of old boys who were revisiting the school, and by 
the warmth and loyalty of their feelings alike to the place and to 
its head. Not being unacquainted with the progress and with the 
difficulties of the school since its foundation, I was gratified to 
have these best of all assurances, not only of its enduring vitality, 
but of its acctunulating strength. The "Old Boys' Club" will 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLMB 331 

here doubtless serve as a valuable influence, and that increasingly. 

To the question of health I paid much attention. Especially 
notable is the medical organization, which accompanies that mi- 
nute and thorough organization of hygiene for which the daily 
school life and the new buildings are so carefully planned. 
Skilled medical aid is a mile or so away, but first aid of every 
kind is provided in a well-kept waiting-room and surgery, in 
which all accidents and ailments have to be regularly reported, 
and in which all the needful dressings and simple remedies can 
at once be found, slight cuts and bruises furnishing, of course, the 
staple cases. Under these circimistances the saying that *' nobody 
is ill at Abbotsholme " seems almost to have passed into a school 
proverb; and I learned that during fifteen years no serious epi- 
demics have occurred, excepting two outbreaks of measles, each 
at the beginning of term, and due to the sending of a boy already 
suffering from the disease. In the only case of dangerous illness 
(one of appendicitis) prompt treatment was successful. 

As an example of the readiness and self-reliance of the young 
" medical officers " (a prefect, with his understudy, who will be in 
charge next term), I noted during my stay with interest that a 
cut deeper than usual had been promptly sewn, with due antiseptic 
precautions, by the boy-surgeon on duty, without calling in the 
doctor at all, or even referring the matter, as the rule advises, to 
the headmaster. 

Looking into statistics, I noted that, while the medical diary 
for the school year now closing included nearly two hundred 
medical imits (that is, visits per boy per day), the slightness of 
the ailments (mostly cuts, chilblains, colds, etc.) was evidenced 
by the fact that the total bills from doctor and druggist put 
together amounted to only about 25^. ! Of the advantage of the 
" stitch in time " I can imagine no better evidence. 

Next, looking closely at the boys one by one in the classroom 
or field, I could distinguish only two who showed any physical 
defect. One boy was evidently suffering from eye-strain; but 
his spectacles, I found, had only just been broken. The other 
had overcrowded teeth. As the school rules require the boys to 



332 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

visit dentist and oculist during vacation, any neglect in these 
matters is due to the parents rather than to the schoolmaster. 

Searching more and more closely after the explanation of this 
notable health and vigor of the boys, I explored the kitchen 
department, and inquired into the dietary. The food was not 
only ample and well-cooked, carefully chosen and varied, but 
skilfully and gracefully served also. The wholesome porridge 
and milk of the North, the substantial joints of English tradition, 
and the fruits and salads of the German table were all amply 
represented; I noticed, in fact — what I should have thought 
well-nigh impossible to boy nature — that the supply of straw- 
berries at more than one table had been so generous as to outrun 
the demand. Rich and tasteful decoration gave the final touch 
of beauty to the spacious and well-lit dining-hall. The regroup- 
ing of the boys at the various tables for the three chief meals, so 
that the same do not sit together, but enjoy daily opporttmities of 
conversation with a succession of boys, as well as masters, ladies, 
and guests, is again one of those many details in which Abbots- 
holme improves upon the too fixed monastic or barrack-like 
tradition of older schools, both in this country and abroad. 

The school costume, too, shows the same attention to what is 
healthy and practical, convenient and becoming; again a notable 
escape from the archaic or conventional fashions so common in 
the school world. 

Comprehensive and minute attention to hygiene is expressed 
throughout the buildings, and especially, of course, in the " new 
wing." Having myself been largely occupied in the building, or 
transforming, of large houses to be residences for Edinburgh stu- 
dents — a responsibility closely analogous to that incurred in 
building a public school — I must not only express a general 
approval of the success of Abbotsholme in these matters, but the 
warmest particular appreciation of the skill and ingenuity of the 
plans, whereby attention has been given to every detail of health 
and sanitation, to every precaution against epidemics and against 
fire. I have before me two notable recent deliverances of the 
highest medical authority: (i) Dr. Hutchinson's recent appeal 



THE SCHOOL AT ABBOTSHOLMB 333 

for the teaching of Hygiene in schools, and (2) the important 
report of Dr. Leslie Mackenzie on the " Health of Schools/' pre- 
pared for the present Scottish Royal Commission on this subject, 
and I have pleasure in bearing witness that each writer may find 
his requirements more fully met at Abbotsholme than anywhere 
else I know of. 

[To be concluded] 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY 

SCHOOL 



MRS. FRANK HUGH MONTGOMERY 
Secretary of the Parents' Association of the School of Education 



For many weeks before December 22, when the Christmas 
festivities were held at the School of Education, the spirit of the 
day had been growing in the thought and work of the children. 
The presents for the fathers and mothers were treasured as 
delightful secrets, and were the objects of much careful, patient, 
loving work. The thought of giving and sharing did not stop 
with the home, but reached out in playing Santa Claus to tlie 
children at the Home of the Friendless through the bright scrap- 
books made by the kindergarten children, to individual families 
of the destitute, to children's clubs at two of the settlements, 
and in other ways. Thus the little people were all ready for 
Christmas Day at the school, and eager to have the parents ccrnie 
and join in the good time. 

A most fitting introduction was the morning exercises, to 
which guests could not be invited on account of lack of room. 
The earnestness and feeling which the children showed in the 
singing of the Christmas songs, the attention with which they 
listened to the reading by Miss Fleming of the first Christmas, 
and to Mr. Jackman's simple talk about the Christmas message 
of good-will, which belonged to each and which each could 
bestow, evinced that the preparation had been a real and a 
beautiful one. The program in detail was as follows : 

Song, " Ye Shepherds, Arise ! " Carl Reinecke 

Scripture Reading Miss Fleming 

I. Prophecies : 

"How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of Him that 
bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good 
tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, 
Thy God reigneth I " 

334 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 335 

" For unto us a child is bom, for unto us a son is given : and 
the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall 
be called Wonderful, G>unselor, The Mighty God, the Everlasting 
Father, the Prince of Peace," etc 
a. The Magnificat ) St Luke 



1 



The Nativity 

3. The Three Wise Men St Matthew 

Christmas sentence, " Glory to God in the Highest " Crosby-Adams 

"Why Do Bells for Christmas Ring?" F. IV. Root 

Address, " The Christmas Message " Mr, Jackman 

"Now He Who Knows Old Christmas" 

From these exercises the children went either to their respec- 
tive graderooms or to the German play, as the room was not 
large enough to accommodate all at the same time. Twice the 
room was thronged with children and guests to see the German 
play. One of the boys gave a little outline of the play as it had 
been arranged by the class, and when the screens were with- 
drawn, the audience murmured a hearty approval of the perfect 
little forest presented to their gaze. A little glade in the midst 
of the fir trees weighed down by the new-fallen snow gave space 
for the players, and the gnomes seemed to appear as if by magic 
It was a scene of great simplicity and effectiveness. 

DIE TANNENFEE 
(Ein IVeihnachtsspiel) 

PERSONEN 

LiESE, Gretel, Marie — drei Bauemkinder. 

Knasre, Kreisel, Waldtbufel — Kobolde. 

RupRECHT — ein Waldgeist. 

Die Tannenfee. 

Scene: Ein dunkler Tannenwald. Die Erde ist mit Schnee bedeckt. 

(Drei Mddchen kommen. Ein Mddchen tragi einen Korb 
mit Aepfeln. Sie suchen einen Weg.) 

LrcsE : Ich weiss nicht, wo wir sind, Marie. Da ist wieder 
der alte Tannenbaum. 

Marie: Ich glaube, da sitzt wieder der alte Kobold hinter 
dem Baum. Nein, er ist fort. 

Gretel: Nein, da ist der Kobold wieder; ich habe ihn 
gesehen 



33^ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Liese: Kommt, lasst uns fort gehen; mir ist bange. 

Marie : Ja, lasst uns eilen ; es ist so dunkel hier. 

Gretel: Lauft, lauft! Ich sehe wieder einen Kobold. 

(Die Madchen gehen schnell fort, Drei Kobolde springen auf 
die Biihne. Dann kommt Ruprecht.) 

Kreisel: Herum, herum, immer im Kreise henun! Wo 
sincf die Madchen ? 

Knarre : Knarr, knarr, wo sind die Kinder ? 

Waldteufel: Brumm, brumm, wo sind sie? 

Kreisel: Heisa, heisa, dideldumdei ! Ich suche die Mad- 
chen ; sie soUen das Weihnachts f est nicht f eiem. 

Knarre: Heute ist Weihnachten und das ist argerlich fur 
einen Kobold. Ich will die Kinder necken und erschrecken. 

Waldteufel : Ich will brummen, tief und laut, dass sie sich 
fiirchten. 

Alle drei : Heissa, holla, kommt, lasst uns gehen. 

(Ruprecht kommt mit einem Besen.) 

Ruprecht : Recht so, recht so, meine lieben kleinen Wald- 
gesellen ! Fiihrt die Kinder in die Irre. Kreisel, hupfe tmd tanze ! 
Knarre, schnurre und knarre! Teuflein, schnarre und brumme! 
Die Kinder sind dort auf dem Weg. Folgt mir, wir woUen sie 
erschrecken, damit sie den Weg nach Hause nicht finden. 

(Die Gnomen gehen ab. Man hort die Kobolde Idrmen und 
die Kinder schreien.) 

LiESE : Lauft, lauft ! Die Kobolde holen uns ein. 

Gretel : Hort, wie sie brummen und schrei'n. 

Marie : Und die Nacht ist so dunkel ; es ist kein Stem am 
Himmel. 

Ruprecht (zu Liese) : Halt, nicht weiter ! 

Kreisel (zu Gretel) : Steh still, du dummes Ding ! 

Knarre (zu Marie) : Du musst hier bleiben. 

(Die Kobolde und Ruprecht schliessen einen Kreis um die 
Kinder.) 

Kobolde : Kommt, lasst uns tanzen ! 

Liese : Fort mit euch, ihr Kobolde ! 

Ruprecht : Still ! Willst du meinen Besen fiihlen ? 

Marie : Was sollen wir tun ? 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 337 

LiESE : Wir woUen beten. (Die Kinder knien nieder.) Ach, 
lieber Gott im Himmel, hilf uns armen Kindem ! 

(Die Koholde verschwinden.) 

LiESE : O Gretel, die Kobolde sind weg. 

Marie : Wo, sind sie geblieben ? 

Gretel : Gott hat uns geholf en. Aber ich kann nicht mehr 
gehen, ich bin zu miide. 

Marie : Und der Kopf tut mir weh. Lasst uns hier bleiben 
bis morgen f riih. 

Liese: Aber Vater und Mutter wissen nicht, wo wir sind, 
und wir haben doch die Aepfel fiir das kranke Briiderchen. 

Gretel : Ach, Liese, die Aepfel duften so siiss. 
Marie ; Lass mich die Aepfel nur einmal sehen. 

(Liese dffnet den Korb.) 

Liese : Ja, schau nur, wie rosig sie sind. 

Marie : Sieh, was fiir schone rote Backen dieser Aepfel hat. 

Gretel : O, und dieser, wie gut er schmecken wiirde. 

Liese : Aber wir diirfen doch die Aepfel nicht essen. Ich will 
den Korb zumachen. 

Gretel : Aber einen Aepfel konnen wir doch essen, nur einen. 

Marie: Ach, ja, Liese, einen Aepfel nur. Reich mir den 
Korb, bitte ! 

Gretel : Beiss' einmal in diesen Aepfel, Liese ! 

Liese : Nein, Gretel, ich will mein Versprechen nicht brechen. 

Marie : Und ich auch nicht. Wirf den Aepfel in den Korb, 
Gretel ! 

Gretel : Aber mich hungert so. 

Liese: Kommt, lasst uns ein Wiehnachtslied singen; das 
wird den Hunger vertreiben. 

Die Kinder (singen) : " Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht." 

(Sie schlafen ein.) 

Tannenfee: Schlaft ohne Sorgen; die Tannenfee wird 
euch beschiitzen. 

Liese : Was sehe ich ? 

Gretel : Wovon traume ich ? 

Marie : Wer bist du ? 

Tannenfee: Ich bin die Tannenfee. Der immergrtine 



338 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Tannenwald ist meine Wohnting. Ich bin hier, wenn der 
Kuckuck ruft und die Sonne lacht, wenn der tiefe Scfanee auf 
den Baiimen liegt und im Mondenschein glitzert. 

(Sie verschwindet. Die Kobolde kommen.) 

Ruprecht: Schamt euch, ihr dummen Kobolde! Ein Kin- 
derwort hat euch fortgetrieben. 

Kreisel: Ha, ha, ha, du bist schnell genug mitgelaufen. 

Knarre : Heissa, da liegen die Kinder. 

Waldteufel : Kommt, wir woUen sie necken. 

Kreisel : Ich will sie am Armel zupf en. 

Knarre : Ich will sie an den Haaren ziehen. 

Waldteufel: Und ich will ihnen die Aepfel fortnehmen. 
Komm' Ruprecht, tu' auch mit. 

Ruprecht : Ich weiss nicht, wie mir zu Mute ist. Die Kin- 
der schlaf en so schon, ich kann sie nicht necken. 

(Die Tannenfee kommt.) 

Kobolde : O weh, o weh, die Tannenfee ! 

Kinder : Die Tannenfee ! 

Tannenfee: Ja, ich bin die Tannenfee, und ich will euch 
helfen, denn ihr seid brave Kinder. Aber euch Kobolde will ich 
bestrafen; ihr sollt jetzt alle stumm sein. 

Tannenfee: Du, Kreisel, sollst jetzt immer fiir Kinder 
springen. Du, Knarre, sollst jetzt immer fur Kinder knarren. 
Du, Waldteufel, sollst jetzt immer fiir Kinder brummen. Du 
aber, Ruprecht, du hast ein gutes Herz, du sollst Christkindleins 
Knecht werden. Du sollst den Kindem zu Weihnachten Spiel- 
zeug und Aepfel bringen, wenn sie brav sind, aber du bringst 
ihnen die Rute, wenn sie unartig sind. Jetzt geh' in den Wald 
und suche den schonsten Tannenbaum, welchen du finden kannst. 
Komm', Ruprecht, mach' schnell! Hoi* den Sack da, Ruprecht! 
Lass die Kinder hinein sehen. 

Liese : O, die wunderschone Puppe ! 

Gretel : O, der grosse Ball ! 

Marie : O die vielen, vielen Kuchen ! 

Tannenfee : Gieb' jedem Kind ein Spielzeug. 

Kinder : Danke, danke sehr, lieber Ruprecht ! 

Tannenfee: Nun, schmiicke den Baiun, Ruprecht, und 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 339 

dann bring' die Kinder nach Hause. Ihr aber, Kinder, singt mir 
ein Weihnachtslied. 

Kinder (singen) : " O Tannenbaum." (Die Tannenfee ver- 
schwindet.) 

RuPRECHT : Kommt, Kinder, wir gehen nach Hause. 

Kinder : Wir gehen nach Hause, nach Hause 1 

During the middle of the forenoon there were foiu* combina- 
tions of groups. The French carolers visited each in turn. The 
first and eighth grades met in the kindergarten room, the little 
tots having had their celebration the day before. Games were 
played in which the big children showed a nice spirit and a sym- 
pathetic feeling toward their young partners. The first grade 
gave a dramatized version of "The Night Before Qiristmas." 
There were the father, the mother, and three children, the rein- 
deer with fierce horns on their foreheads, and a fat little Santa 
Claus who could not reach the stockings, as they htmg in front 
of the high chimney. The eighth grade contributed these two 
original verses : 

CHRISTMAS 

Christmas time is coming, 

When all the world is gay ; 
Christmas bells are ringing. 

And Santa's on his way. 

Stockings full of presents, 

Hanging, bulging out. 
All the world is pleasant 

When Santa's round about. 

Lovely Christmas evergreens. 

Decked with sparkles bright; 
Little Christmas angels. 

And candles flickering light. 

Now the presents given ; 

Santa goes away. 
Wishing to the children 

A merry Christmas Day. 



340 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The air is clear, 

And Christmas is here, 

And the cold north wind is blowing. 
Holly wreaths green 
In the windows are seen ; 

In the house the Christmas tree's glowing. 

Church bells are ringing, 
And children are singing, 

Chanting their songs of praise. 
Hurrah for old Christmas 
And the good things it brings us ! 

Hurrah for the holidays ! 

Santa is here 

With his swift reindeer 

And a pack full of beautiful toys. 
Down the chimney he comes. 
With dolls and with drums 

For good little girls and boys. 

The second, fourth, and sixth grades had a happy time with 
games, songs, and a piano selection by one of the children. The 
story of St. Christopher was told, and refreshments were served, 
the cookies having been made from flour ground by the children 
themselves. 

The third grade and one division of the seventh began their 
festivities with a German song — "Kling, Glocklein, kling," by 
Reinecke. The older children recited Christmas poetry. The 
group was visited by the French carolers and English waites. 
They went to the German play together and returned. The third 
grade recited "The Night Before Christmas." One of the 
seventh-grade boys, in the guise of Father Christmas, distributed 
stockings filled with candy, salted peanuts, and popcorn. The 
younger children had made the stockings and prepared the pea- 
nuts and the popcorn, whereas the candy represented the work of 
the seventh-grade children. 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 341 

The meeting of the fifth and seventh grades was an exchange 
of gifts. The fifth had candy which they had made for their 
seventh-grade friends and the seventh had presents for the fifth. 
Songs were sung, but the chief entertainment was the reading by 
one of the college students of " The Ruggles' Christmas Dinner," 
from the Bird's Christmas Carol. 

To the eighth grade belonged the yule-log festivities, which 
will be described later. 

But the march of the French carolers must be followed as 
they passed from group to group. One of the children first gave 
the following account of noel in France : 

NOEL 

In France, especially on the south, Christmas is a more reli- 
gious festival than with us. It is the time of almsgiving, but the 
chief gift season with the French is New Year's Day. Many of 
the beautiful old-fashioned customs still existing in the south 
have died away in the north and in cities under the influence of 
commerce and foreign peoples. 

The ceremonies connected with Christmas have always been 
filled with joy, and this gaiety finds expression in ways more or 
less unique. The people have alwa3rs sung carols, songs in genuine 
patois, or even the older Low Latin, which possesses remarkable 
simplicity and naivete. The formal poetic value of these carols 
is almost nothing ; they are as rustic as the peasants who are sup- 
posed to sing them. 

In the south, particularly, the festival of Christmas is a time 
of some quite special manifestations which recall singularly cer- 
tain pagan customs. On Christmas eve the festival is opened by 
a great supper. The table is set before the fire, where bums, 
crowned with laurels, an old 3rule-log, dried and kept with affec- 
tionate care for this triple solemnity of the Christmas-tide. Just 
before seating themselves at the table, the family makes an offer- 
ing to the fire — a habit that savors of old-time idolatry. Only 
the sweet innocence of a very young child is considered worthy 
to utter the prayer and present the offering to the fire. The 
youngest child, therefore, kneels before the hearth, now for the 



342 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

time an altar, and prays, following the mother's words, that the 
fire will warm well during the long winter the tender feet of all 
young orphans and weak old people ; that it will send its light and 
heat into all poor garrets; that it will not devour the laborer's 
thatch nor the boat which rocks the sailor on distant seas. Then 
he pours upon the fire a libation of cooked wine as a symbol of life 
and health; and the old olive trunk answers with joyous crack- 
lings and hissings, and sends its fumes out into the eager air like 
messengers of the spirit of good-will to all men. 

At this moment a bell is heard outside, annotmcing our Lady 
of the Christmas. She enters, clad and veiled in white, and 
accompanied by carolers who sing a joyous canticle of the season. 
The guests are asked to share in the feast, especially in the 
Christmas cake, which has received the cook's very best care and 
which has the place of honor in the feast. The guests then pass 
on to other homes, and after the supper is over, the family gathers 
once more arotmd the fire. There they sing carols till midnight, 
when they all go to the church to hear early mass. 

During the whole of this night the poor are allowed to beg 
publicly, while chanting their carols. From the windows the 
children throw alms to them in little bags, which are set ablaze at 
one end, that they may be seen when they fall. They are like 
falling stars of heaven. 

As the pupil finished, a woman in a bright peasant costume 
was seen seated by the fireside. Her child knelt beside her and 
repeated the Christmas prayer for all the orphaned and fatherless, 
for the aged and infirm, for all in peril by land or sea, and begged 
for them the Christmas blessing. Music was heard without. 

The door was opened. First entered the Christmas spirit — 
a little child clad in white and veiled. Next marched, as in older 
times, three who represented Europe, Asia, and Africa, in cos- 
tumes which the children considered appropriate. In gorgeous 
yellow, with golden miters, came the high prelates of the church ; 
for the church must be first. These garments were the children's 
hand- work. Then followed the shepherds; and next came the 
peasants, bearing candles and joining in the procession. The 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 343 

A BETHL^EM 




k Beth - 16 - em, qnand en - fiuit Tint & na - itre, Qnoi-qn'il fit 




nnit. 



Le del 6 • Uit bril-lant Comme en 



plein 




jonr, Bt I'on vit 



ap -pa-rai-tre Un as-tre ^-blonis 




i i y ipij j'j j' l i ^ ff ^ i f If f\,i*\\ 



sant, Qni con - dni - aait 



lea ma-gead'o-ri -ent. 



guests were treated to the Christmas cake, which had been most 
carefully prepared. They joined in a hymn about the hearthstone, 
and passed on their way to gladden and receive from other homes. 

ENTRE LE BCEUF ET L'ANE GRIS 




Bn - tre le boe • of "^ et I'ane gria 



Dort, dort 




le pe - tit fils. Mille an -ges di - vi - na, Mille 86 - ra - phins, 



'yi/'jj'j uniJ \nn^i,fjiL i i 




Volent k Pen-tonr De ce Dien d'amonr, De ce Dien d'a • monr. 



All the morning the hand-work done by the pupils throughout 
the quarter was on exhibition in the art, textile, and Itmch-rooms. 
It presented a great variety and showed the individual tastes of 
the children. Of course, much of it centered about the Qiristmas 
work, as gifts for the parents. The kindergarten had as a group 
made thirteen scrapbooks and a number of colored clay-balls, 



344 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

and individually had made napkin-rings, tea-rests, penwipers, 
match-scratchers, blotters with calendars pasted on, and scrap- 
books of madonna pictures. The older children made these laist 
two in larger sizes, and the average number of articles made by 
the younger pupils was four ; of the older, six. 

The work of the children beyond the kindergarten, was even 
more varied. The clay-modeling was of necessity confined to two 
grades for the autumn quarter. These were the third and the 
fourth. They made jars, candlesticks, pin-trajrs, bowls, tiles, 
vases, statues, inkstands, dishes, collar-button trajrs, match-boxes, 
a Dutch shoe, and a squirrel. Each child chose his coloring, and 
in short did all the work except the actual firing. The results of 
their labors were good in form and color, and often a thing of 
beauty as well as utility. The ingenuities of the third-grade chil- 
dren, however, were not confined to clay. They found expression 
in more than creditable articles, such as portfolios, handkerchief 
holders, a chair picture-frame, ash-tray, needle- and spool-holder, 
needle-case, paper- and envelope-holders, and hat- and hairpin- 
holders, all of which testified to a close connection between the 
school and the home in the thought of the child. The work which 
the fourth-grade children did in wood showed that they loved 
their work and found it an interesting and adequate mode of 
expression. The polished fern-stands of hard wood, and many 
another piece fashioned with loving care, bore evidence of good 
work on the part of both pupil and teacher. 

With the fifth grade a more pronounced difference between 
the tastes of boys and girls appeared, for some reason or other, 
although there were overlappings which would eliminate any hard 
and fast lines. A doll's chair and bed were in close proximity to 
an electric switch and a bread-board. Handbags of linen with 
decorations of original designs, turn-over collars, and center- 
pieces, were testimonials to \ht neat sewing of the girls. A 
pin-tray and a table stood in antithesis, both good. Fem- 
and music-stands, book-racks, waste-baskets, ink-stands, blotters, 
paper-knives, footstools, picture-frame, and card-trays again be- 
tokened individuality. 

Difference in material was a feature of the sixth-grade 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate IX 




Fic, 2— Clay and Wood Woik. College and ElcmeaUry School. 



The Elementary School Teacher, V 




FiQ. 3.— Work in Texliies. College and Elementary Schoo 




Fig 4. — Work in Design and in Wood. Elementary School. 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 345 

manual training: articles in gum wood, mahogany, pine, and 
oak, on the one hand, and linen and leather table and tabouret 
covers, lamp mats, doilies, and centerpieces, on the other. As 
small a thing as a penholder, and as large a one as a window-box, 
received the same care. An oak plank for fish and a rocking- 
chair vied with each other in homelikeness, while many of the 
articles enumerated in the other grades had a showing. 

With the seventh grade the work naturally showed more skill 
and ability. The girls tried their hands at sewing aprons and 
lace-trimmed handkerchiefs, pin-cushions, and bags. There were 
the same articles in wood, while a tea-table, letter-box, and stamp- 
box lent additional variety. 

In the portion devoted to the eighth grade the sewing on 
aprons, imderclothes, bags, and scarfs stood in even stronger con- 
trast to the tables, picture-frames, stools, inkstands, pen-trays, 
and plate- and bookracks of the sloyd-room. 

It is impossible to enumerate all the hand-work of the exhibit. 
The accompanying illustrations will give a fair idea of portions 
of it. The work was certainly very creditable, and the results of 
the advantages of hand-training self-evident. The most skeptical 
critic of this phase of modem elementary education would have 
been quite converted. 

The concluding festivities of the day were in the hands of the 
eighth grade. Throughout the building they had spread the 
Christmas decorations, with emphasis on the entrance hall. Down 
the corridors, from east to west, toward this point came groups, 
resplendent in color, all who had worn costumes in the various 
exercises of the day — French peasants, German children, the 
high prelates of the church of the Middle Ages, and the gnomes 
of the forest. They, together with many guests, gathered about 
the hearthstone. Then up rose a lad who cried : 

England was merry England when 

Old Christmas brought his sports again. 

'Twas Christmas broached the mightiest ale ; 

Twas Christmas told the merriest tale. 

A Christmas carol oft could cheer 

The poor man's heart through half the year. 

On Christmas Eve the bells were rung ; 



34^ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

On Christinas Eve the mass was sung — 

That only night in all the year 

Saw the stoled priest the chalice rear. 

The damsel donned her kirtle sheen ; 

The hall was dressed in holly green ; 

Forth to the wood did merry men go 

To gather in the mistletoe ; 

Then opened wide the baron's hall 

To vassal, tenant, serf and all. 

Power laid his rod of rule aside. 

And ceremony doffed his pride. 

The heir, with roses in his shoes. 

That night might village partner choose; 

The lord, underogating, share 

The vulgar game of " Post and pair." 

All hailed with uncontrolled delight 

And general voice the happy night, 

That to the cottage, as the crown. 

Brought tidings of salvation down. 

— 5»r Walter Seott. 

As he finished speaking, the host and hostess of the jmle-log 
festivities entered. Following them strode the butler, with all- 
important air, bearing the hot drinks. Into the wassail bowl, 
trimmed with holly and ivy, upon the roasted apples, was poured 
the steaming cider, made fragrant with spices. Then arrived the 
guests, with cordial greetings from host and hostess, and were 
treated to cakes and cider. The host then cried : 

Come, bring with a noise. 
My merry, merry boys. 

The Christmas log to the firing. 
While my good dame, she 
Bids ye all be free. 

And drink to your heart's desiring. 

Whereupon entered the servants bearing the jrule-log, which 
was lighted with last year's brand to the words : 

With the last year's brand 
Light the new block, and 

For good success in his spending, 
On your psalteries play. 
That sweet luck may 

Come while the log is a-tending. 



CHRISTMAS AT THE UNIVERSITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 347 

The hostess heaped on more wood, saying : 

Heap on more wood ! — the wind is chill ; 
But let it whistle as it will, 
We'll keep our Christmas merry still. 
Each age has deem'd the new-bom year 
The fittest time for festal cheer ; 
Even, heathen yet, the savage Dane 
At lol more deep the mead did drain ; 
High on his beach his galleys drew. 
And feasted all his pirate crew. 

She then treated the servants to a drink from the Christmas 
bowl, and had barely finished when the waites came caroling: 
" God rest ye, merry gentlemen ! " As they finished, they stood 
back to admit Father Christmas, clad in a long, flowing gown of 
beautiful green and ermine. All joined in singing, "Now he 
who knows old Christmas." The host greeted Father Christmas 
who threw favors from his sack to the guests. Three boys then 
recited : 

OLD CHRISTMAS RETURNED 

All you that to feasting and mirth are inclined. 
Come, here is good news for to pleasure your mind. 
Old Christmas is come to keep open house, 
He scorns to be guilty of starving a mouse : 
Then come, bo3rs, and welcome for diet the chief, 
Plum-pudding, goose, capon, minced pies, and roast beel 

The holly and ivy about the walls wind 

And show that we ought to our neighbors be kind. 

Inviting each other for pastime and sport. 

And where we best fare, there we most do resort; 

We fail not of victuals, and that of the chief. 

Plum-pudding, goose, capon, minced pies, and roast beef. 

All travelers, as they do pass on their way. 

At gentlemen's halls are invited to stay, 

Themselves to refresh, and their horses to rest, 

Since that he must be old Christmas' guest ; 

Nay, the poor shall not want, but have for relief. 

Plum-pudding, goose, capon, minced pies, and roast beef. 

— Old Carol. 
And all were bidden to dinner. 



348 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

So ended a happy day of revels, in which the Christmas spirit 
loomed large and sweet, and the parents went home to wish that 
they had lived in the school days of the present instead of those of 
long ago. By dividing the school into groups of older and 
yoimger children, and by moving from place to place, the exer- 
cises had a simplicity and a freedom from that stiffness and striv- 
ing for effect which render harmful many "closing exercises." 
The sweetness and thoughtfulness of the older chlidren toward 
the yoimger, the absence of the "I am bigger and wiser than 
you " atmosphere, and the lack of self-consciousness on the part 
of those who contributed to the entertainment were most notice- 
able. Above all shone out the spirit of good-will and of helpful- 
ness. The German play was given twice, and the French carolers 
went to four different places, showing the same interest and 
earnestness the last even as the first time. 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW 

EDUCATION 



MRS. CARRIE R. SQUIRE 
Professor of Education and Supervisor of Training, Montana State Normal G>llege 



A well-known German educator, speaking recently in high 
terms of American contributions to educational theory ^d prac- 
tice, regretted that it consisted of fragmentary, isolated, and often 
unsystematic studies. " There is one man in America," said he, 
'' who could organize this material ; and that man is G. Stanley 
Hall." 

Adolescence is Dr. Hall's reply to the wish of his German 
friend. But is it a systematic treatise ? Would Dr. Hall attempt 
to organize his material, if he could? In the light of his 
expressed scorn for the " cartographer and tabulator of the fields 
of knowledge," we are inclined to think not. The book is in 
perfect accord with Dr. Hall's usual method. A wealth of mate- 
rial drawn from child-study, anthropology, criminology, physiol- 
ogy, sociology, and numerous other "ologies" has been worked 
over, digested, and — sifted. There we are not so certain. One 
is amazed at the extent of knowledge in all fields, at the audacity 
and suggestiveness of the ideas and theories presented ; but they 
are hurled at us with little regard to system. Many of these 
studies were made by students of Dr. Hall, and consequently 
reflect his own preconceptions. He is the blazer of a new trail 
in psychology; too much of a genius to be disturbed by lack of 
method, content, we may well believe, to allow someone of less 
original power and insight the privilege of working over his 
contributions into more systematic form. The first discoverer 
of a new land is never able to give us a complete map of the 
country. Just as little ought we to expect a thoroughly organ- 
ized and balanced treatise from one who has made extended 
origfinal contributions to a science. Nevertheless, there is a 

349 



350 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

unifying idea, a thread of continuity running through the entire 
book. We have the outlines of a new psychology and a new 
education. 

While the theory of psychogenesis presented in the book is 
meant to serve as a basis for a new education, it is the portion 
which is by far the most clearly defined and most originally con- 
ceived. " The new psychology," lately the name used to desig- 
nate the experimentalist school, receives another connotation when 
applied to Dr. Hall's theory. He departs radically from ortho- 
dox psychology, first in point of view, secondly in method, thirdly 
in the material which he admits as data, and finally, and neces- 
sarily, in his conclusions. 

The point of view is that of genesis. But " genesis " is here 
used in a larger *than its accustomed significance. It is not 
restricted, as in most genetic psychology, to an order of the devel- 
opment of an individual mind. Still less does it harmonize with 
those epistemological pseudo-genetic accounts of mind which 
admit the adult consciousness as their only data and find their 
method in speculation and introspection. ''Mind is almost 
coextensive with life — at least, animal life." With such a view 
of mind, its genesis is naturally presented in biological and evolu- 
tionary terms. Dr. Hall says in his preface that "the genetic 
ideas of the soul which pervade this book are new both in matter 
and method. If they are true, they mark an extension of evolu- 
tion into the psychic field of the utmost importance." While 
agreeing in general with the author that his view-point is origi- 
nal, we must, however, take exception to the calm way in which 
he ignores the contributions of the English school of evolu- 
tionists to a biological psychology. We are certainly not obliged 
to revert to the time of Aristotle, as he intimates, to find a 
psychology based upon biology. Had Darwin, Spencer, and 
Romanes not prepared the way, it is doubtful whether we should 
have been favored with Dr. Hall's illuminating treatment of a 
biological psychology. The oversight can be explained only on 
the ground of excess of enthusiasm for his own presentation of 
the subject. 

The chief articles in Dr. Hall's creed — his attitude is rather 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 35 1 

that of a man who presents a creed than of one who presents a 
theory — sifted and selected seem to be: 

1 . " There are as many types of mind as of body, and vice 
versa, and we can truly know soul only through body, and con- 
versely can know body only through soul." As a corollary to the 
above would follow a statement, often reiterated, that " much, if 
not most, soul is lost. With extinction of every animal type a 
soul-type vanishes from the world." 

2. " Each character-type is thus a fulfilled possibility of devel- 
opment in some specific direction, and in man is based on uncon- 
scious, instinctive, prehuman, or animal traits, the elements of 
which are combined into aggregates of greater or less cohesion 
according to age or persistence in time." He speaks here of a 
'' general psychonomic law which assumes that we are influenced 
in our deeper, more temperamental dispositions by the life-habits 
and codes of conduct of we know not what unnumbered hosts 
of ancestors, which, like a cloud of witnesses, are present through- 
out our lives." This may be called a statement of the recapitu- 
lation theory, if you will, but it is expressed in general terms. 
There are no passages in the book which uphold the view of a 
direct, unvarying parallelism between ontogenetic and phylo- 
genetic development. Direct parallelism is the objectionable 
feature in the usual statement of a recapitulation theory. No 
one who accepts the theory of evolution can object to Dr. Hall's 
formulation of the theory of recapitulation. 

3. " As physical nature could hardly be really taught before 
the development hypothesis, so psychic natures, now so misrep- 
resented, cannot be properly taught, or will at least then be far 
more effectively taught, and not only without the present mental 
wreckage, but with vast moral and intellectual economies." 
Genetic psychology is to be the handmaid of education. 

The method, — Dr. Hall has been severely criticised for his 
large use of the questionnaire method. In Adolescence he turns 
the tables upon his critics, attacking the method of introspection 
on the ground of its inadequacy. The mental processes of the 
child, the animal, and the savage — all rich mines for the genetic 
psychologist — cannot be studied by the method of introspection. 



35^ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The mind of primitive man, now extinct, can be known only 
tiirough the interpretation of the relics he has left. " The con- 
scious adult person is not a monad reflecting the universe, but 
a fragment brc^en off and detached from the great world of soul 
.... well fitted to illustrate some aspects, and hopelessly tmable 
to exemplify or even know other regions in the cosmos of soul." 
But introspection can take us no farther than the conscious mental 
processes of the individual adult. The present attentive state, flit- 
ting though intense, does not inform us of the past history of even 
the individual mind, for much that was once present to con- 
sciousness has now lapsed, and can be known and studied, accord- 
ing to Dr. Hall, only in its effects upon the organism which 
appear in " motor responses " and " subconscious psychoses." In 
conclusion he states that " we must collect states of mind, senti- 
ments, phenomena long since elapsed, psychic facts that appear 
faintiy and perhaps but once in a lifetime, and that in only a 
few and rare individuals; impulses that, it may be, never any- 
where rise above the threshold, but manifest themselves in au- 
tomatisms, acts, behavior, things neglected." 

While we do not deny the value of these materials, the method 
has not yet been devised which can be trusted to give us a true 
report upon them. Questionnaires, multiplied observations, 
must rest upon a securer basis, if inductions from them are to be 
accepted as trustworthy. Dr. Hall recognizes the fact that much 
of this collected material is in a crude and unorganized state; 
that scHne of it is worthless. But he claims most justly that this 
is necessary in) a new science. He does not, however, notice the 
difficulty which every conservative student of mind will see at 
once — that data of this nature may be easily juggled with. Like 
statistics, they may be made to prove any theory which one 
wishes to read into them. The method advocated by Dr. Hall 
will not be largely adopted, we hope, until it has evolved a chedc 
by which to test and verify its results. Otherwise we shall be led 
into the wildest romances upon mental life and behavior. Much 
that Dr. Hall has given us in these volumes will be relegated 
by the majority of psychologists to the field of psychological 
romance. Much of it must certainly remain unproven ; although 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 353 

the illumination which it throws upon mental phenomena may at 
least be accepted as a provisional argument for its truth. In 
time these theories of President Hall may be considered as neces- 
sary to the explanation of mind as the theory of ether to the 
interpretation of certain facts in the physical world. 

Yet what Dr. Hall can do with impunity because of his mental 
grasp and clear insight, every tyro will consider his right and 
privilege. Where, then, shall we end ? The careful psychologist 
may well exclaim before the possibility of a universal application 
of this method : " Give us pause ! " 

The £eld of genetic psychology, as Dr. Hall views it, is wide, 
(i) It builds upon anthropology, studying not only the races 
that have disappeared, but those that are vanishing. He desires 
to get something like a composite picture of racial development, 
and thus see mind in its stages of evolution. While he holds that 
the child and the race are the key to each other, he still recognizes 
the limitations of the recapitulation theory. (2) It includes the 
study of defectives. By the process of devolution the more com- 
plex processes are the first to disappear, leaving the earlier forms 
intact. We thus get a picture of psychical evolution in its inverse 
order. (3) It includes animal psychology. Here careful obser- 
vation is needed, lest we read into the activities of the lower 
animals mental processes that are not present. " We shall never 
truly know ourselves till we know the mind of animals, especially 
those in our own line of descent," says Hall. This field has been 
largely worked in the last few years. Modem empirical psychol- 
ogy seems disposed to admit reliable data from animal psychology 
as explanatory of the development of the individual mind. (4) 
The most numerous studies in genetic psychology belong to the 
department of child-study. Even those who have decried child- 
study most must confess that, when the crude materials have been 
organized, when the careless and untruthful observations have 
been weeded out, there still remains a residuum extremely rich in 
suggestions as to the process of mental evolution, and of great 
practical value in pointing out effective methods in education. 
Adolescence is a proof of the value of child-study. 

Conclusions. — Hall makes out three main stages in the devel- 



354 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

opment of the individual mind. The first is that of early infancy. 
He touches lightly upon it, as it bears only indirectly upon the 
main problem of adolescence. Now the child gets his ftuida- 
mental psychophysical endowment. Our earliest ancestors, in 
their experiences with light and darkness, cold and heat, sun and 
storm, in their struggle with wild animals, have shaped the 
rhythm of life and bestowed upon their offspring their basal 
mental attitudes. " The feeling-instincts are the bearers of mental 
heredity." Here " we have to deal with the archaeology of mind, 
with zones or strata which precede consciousness as we know it. 
.... These radicals of man's psychic life, while some of them 
are decadent, rudimentary, and superseded, are often important 
just in proportion to the depth of the phylogenetic strata into 
which they strike their roots. Hunger, love, pride, and many 
other instinctive feelings, to say nothing of pleasure and pain, 
can be traced far down through the scale of vertebrate and inver- 
tebrate life." 

Feeling and sensation are confused in this nebulous period of 
the mind's unfolding, as they sometimes are in the nomen- 
clature of certain psychologists. Mental life centers chiefly about 
the metabolic and nutritive functions of the body. "The true 
b^inning for a psychology essentially genetic is hunger, the first 
sentient expression of the will to live." Touch might be called 
a primitive sensation, since all other senses arose by gradual 
differentiation from it. Smell was one of the earliest senses to 
be differentiated from general sensibility. It appears early in 
infancy, and there undoubtedly plays its original role, that is, as 
an aid to prehension. It becomes less and less important as life 
advances. Hearing and vision as organs of the mind become 
progressively finer and better adapted to their functions, up to the 
period of complete maturity. 

The most original contribution in the book is the explanation 
of what is generally known as the drill period, roughly marked off 
by the years from eight to twelve. The child is less liable to 
disease, grows more slowly, and seems mentally and physically 
to have reached a time of greater stability, in marked contrast 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 355 

to the instability of the periods preceding and following. To 
quote Dr. Hall : 

Everything, in short, suggests the cuknination of one stage of life, as if it 
thus represented what was once and for a very protracted and relatively sta- 
tionary period the age of maturity in some remote, perhaps pygmoid, stage of 
human evolution, when in a warm climate the young of our species once 
shifted for themselves independently of further parental aid. The qualities 
now developed are phyletically vastly older than all the neo-atavistic traits of 
hody and soul, later to be superposed like a new and higher story built onto 
our primal nature. The momentum of the paleo-psychic traits is great, and 

they are often clearly distinguishable from those to be later added 

Indeed, there are a few indications of a yet earlier age nodality or meristic 
segmentation, as if amid the increased instabilities of health at the age of 
about six we could still detect the ripple-marks of an ancient pubic beach now 
shifted high above the tides of a receding shore line, as human infancy has 
been prolonged. 

However we may r^;ard Dr. Hall's theory, every observant 
teacher and parent recognizes these changes in child-nature. The 
genetic psychologist has heretofore been content to describe these 
periods of development. Dr. Hall is the first to attempt an 
explanation in other terms than the parallels of bodily changes. 

Adolescence is the new and higher story added by develop- 
ment. 

Development is now less gradual and more saltatory — suggestive of some 
ancient period of storm and stress, when old moorings were broken and a 

higher level attained The cohesions between the elements of personality 

are loosened by the disparities of both somatic and psychic development, and if 
there is a rest at any stage or in any part before the higher unity is achieved, 

there is almost sure to be degeneration on a lower level than before 

Early adolescence is thus the infancy of man's higher nature, when he receives 
from the great All-mother his last capital of energy and evolutionary 
momentum. 

There is a parallel development of the nervous S)rstem along 
the cord, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cerebrum which would 
give us the complete picture of mental evolution, if we could inter- 
pret it correctly. In the earlier stages sense-stimuli tend to pass 
over into reflex action ; with the dawn of adolescence there is an 
increase in the number and complexity of associations, so that 
stimuli pass by the long circuit route, giving rise to deliberative 
action. 



35^ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Dr. Hall pays slight heed to the dictum of the psychologist 
that there can be no psychology of the unconscious. All the 
fundamental activities are on this level; in fact, most of the 
activities of the soul do not give rise to consciousness, a phenome- 
non which represents but one type of mind, a late and partial 
development. In his outline of psychogenesis Dr. Hall is obliged 
to introduce a psychology of the unconscious to make his theory 
consistent ; yet it is not necessary that it play so much of a part 
even in his theory. 

We have attempted to give in brief the chief characteristics of 
Dr. Hairs theory of psychic evolution. But psychology is not to 
be studied for itself; it is not to be regarded as a pure science. 
Education is man's chief problem, and genetic psychology is the 
guide-post which points the way. 

While the different features of the new education have not 
been clearly defined, the suggestions as to general and special 
method scattered throughout the book are perfectly consistent 
with the psychological presuppositions. In general, before the 
value of subject-matter or method can be decided upon, we must 
determine what instincts are desirable either for their own sake 
or for where they lead, and what are undesirable and to be checked 
and left to " progressive atrophy." This would lead to nothing 
particularly novel or revolutionary in school practice. Since 
school systems have . existed, educational thinkers have asked 
themselves the question : What instincts shall we foster and what 
frown upon? answering it, to be sure, in various ways, yet recog- 
nizing the necessity of first determining this problem before 
sketching a system of education. 

Next comes the study of the individual child, his possibilities 
and budding talents. Perhaps Dr. Hall lays unusual emphasis 
upon the needs of the individual child. It would certainly be 
desirable if the school could more often take the individual into 
consideration rather than the class. 

Having determined upon our ends in the light of the child's 
past and his future, it then remains to be determined what mental 
pabulum will further this end, and in what manner it can be most 
economically and effectively presented. Dr. Hall recommends in 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 357 

brief and general terms a course of study which has akeady been 
worked out in a few schools. Dr. Dopp in her " Industrial and 
Social History " series is presenting the material so that it can be 
utilized in the ordinary school. Her books are a practical applica- 
tion of Dr. Hall's theory of psychogenesis. Why all this empha- 
sis upon primitive life ? Is it not wasteful ? Is it desirable ? Dr. 
Hall has met some of the objections which we might naturally 
expect to arise. " We shall save the child from the omnipresent 
dangers of precocity." We may thus also foster the impulses 
through which the child will be able to realize his complete inheri- 
tance and '' make it possible to utilize for further psychic growth 
the results of the higher heredity which are the most precious and 
potential things on earth. There are other argtunents which Dr. 
Hall might well have used; one is especially important The 
modem child is bom into a very complex society — too complex 
to be understood even in mature life. Yet a clearer insight into 
the meaning and possibilities of this society may be gained 
through the study of the simpler forms, with their gradual 
development into the more complex. We are inclined to believe 
that this material, rightly presented, furnishes us with the most 
economical means of fitting the child to become an efficient mem- 
ber of modem society. 

Dr. Hall does not overlook the necessity of formal work or of 
drill methods. He sa)rs : 

Even if it be prematurely [the child], must be subjected to special dis- 
ciplines and be apprenticed to the higher qualities of adulthood, for he is not 
only a product of nature, but a candidate for a highly developed humanity. 
.... To many, if not most, of the influences here there can be at first but 

little inner response These necessities may be hard for the health of the 

body, sense, and mind. Pedagogic art consists in breaking the child into them 
betimes as intensively and as quickly as possible, with minimal strain and with 
least amount of explanation and coquetting for natural interest. 

This is in perfect harmony with Dr. Hall's theory of psycho- 
genesis. The years from about eight to twelve, as has been noted 
previously, seem to reflect a period of great stability in the race, 
when presumably in some post-simian age they reached an early 
maturity. Whatever our view of the meaning of this stage may 
be, we can but adopt Dr. Hall's suggestions as to method. Drill 



35^ THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

in arithmetic, and in reading, writing, and spelling; the study of 
foreign languages, if they are to be thoroughly mastered; arbi- 
trary memorization — these should be the instruments of the 
school at this period. It has become almost universal in school 
administration to give these grades, if any, into the hands of the 
new and unskilled teacher. Experience has taught us that less 
harm can be done to child-nature at this period than either before 
or after. As Dr. Hall says, this is the " age of little method and 
of much matter." The teacher is but a " pedotrieb.'* 

Drill methods, however, are not applicable either to the periods 
preceding or to those following. The period of infancy is the 
period of play, when attention must be held by strong appeals to 
interest. The period of adolescence also calls for freedom and 
opportunity for individual expression. "Over accuracy is 
atrophy." 

The new education sketched in Adolescence includes all that 
is good in the old ; gives it a psychological basis ; finds for drill 
methods a fitting time ; but it also demands that the needs pecu- 
liar to the infant and adolescent shall also be recognized. If an 
extract here and there in tlie book would seem to indicate that Dr. 
Hall is an extremist, a careful survey of the whole book convinces 
one that the methods recommended are perfectly sane. So sane 
are they, in fact, that the school has already recognized the valid- 
ity of the greater portion and incorporated them in its practice. 

When we come to the discussion of special methods, we strike 
the weak place in the book. Science has been treated with defer- 
ence, and a special chapter assigned it. Evidently Dr. Hall con- 
siders this " the knowledge of most worth." English, history, and 
drawing are discussed in the same chapter with superstitions, 
association, and memory. To this same chapter is also relegated 
the consideration of the normal school, the high school, the college, 
and the university. As the schools of the adolescent period they 
deserve a special chapter for their discussion. No part of the 
book is so poorly digested, so little organized, and so replete with 
illustrations of the deficiencies of the questionnaire method. 

Although somewhat startling in his originality, we are inclined 
to believe that Dr. Hall has by a series of mental leaps impossible 



GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY THE BASIS OF A NEW EDUCATION 359 

to most of his readers arrived at conclusions that will later be 
received in the most conservative of scientific circles. Adolescence 
bears marks of genius in the fire and poetical fervor of its lan- 
guage. Seldom does one have the pleasure of reading a scientific 
book which rises above the cold and exact phraseology that 
properly clothes close and careful reasoning. This book fre- 
quently leaves the realm of proved fact, and its imaginative diction 
is in perfect keeping with its thought A stylistic peculiarity 
which we cannot so readily overlook is the coinage of new words. 
This may have been necessitated in a measure by the novelty of 
the thought ; yet an old and familiar word and phrase might often 
have been substituted with g^eat gain in clearness of expression. 
In spite of its failings, which are on the mechanical side, 
Adolescence is unquestionably an epoch-making book in education. 



TEXTILE WORK IN LINEN 



EDWARD F. WORST 
Principal of the Yale School, dicago 



The line of work described in the following article is a prob- 
lem which was given to the pupils of the sixth grade of the Yale 
Practice School, Chicago, under the supervision of the principal 
of the school. Enough flax was grown to permit the spinning of 
hundreds of yards of thread and the weaving of many yards of 
cloth. All the apparatus necessary was made by the pupils in the 
shop. 

One of the most interesting features of the textile work is the 
preparation, so far as possible, of the raw materials for weaving. 
Flax is perhaps one of the most simple illustrations we have. The 
fact that it will grow in almost any kind of soil and in almost any 
part of the United States makes the various processes necessary 
for its preparation for the spinning-wheel, and finally for the 
loom, easy problems which may be worked out in any grammar 
school. 

Flax is sown at any time from the first to the middle of May, 
and is harvested about the last of July or the first of August. 
After the seed is sown, it requires no care whatever. The plant 
is from two to three feet in height, with small, pointed leaves and 
blue flowers. A field of it in bloom presents a most beautiful 
appearance. The stems are very peculiar, being hollow and 
covered with fibrous material. The flowers grow in clusters at 
the top of the stalks, and, when they fall off, are succeeded by 
round seed-vessels, the size of a pea. When the harvest-time 
comes, it is not cut like wheat and oats, but is pulled. As fast as 
the stalks are pulled, they are made up into sheaves, with all the 
stalks laid parallel and all the root-ends even. It is then left for a 
few days to dry in the sun. The seed is then separated from the 
stem, as illustrated in Fig. i . 

360 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate XI 




Fig. 1.— Removing ihe Seed, 




Fig. 2.— PoundinR, Breaking, and Hackling. 



TEXTILE WORK IN LINEN 



EDWARD F. WORST 
Principal of the Yale School, Chicago 



The line of work described in the following article is a prob- 
lem which was given to tlie pupils of the sixth grade of the Yale 
Practice School, Chicago, under the supervision of the principal 
of the school. Enough flax was grown to permit the spinning of 
hundreds of yards of thread and the weaving of many yards of 
cloth. All the apparatus necessary was made by the pupils in the 
shop. 

One of the most interesting features of the textile work is the 
preparation, so far as possible, of the raw matefials for weaving. 
Flax is perhaps one of the most simple illustrations we have. The 
fact that it will grow in almost any kind of soil and in almost any 
part of the United States makes the various processes necessary 
for its preparation for the spinning-wheel, and finally for the 
loom, easy problems which may be worked out in any grammar 
school. 

Flax is sown at any time from the first to the middle of May, 
and is harvested about the last of July or the first of August 
After the seed is sown, it requires no care whatever. The plant 
is from two to three feet in height, with small, pointed leaves and 
blue flowers. A field of it in bloom presents a most beautiful 
appearance. The stems are very peculiar, being hollow and 
covered with fibrous material. The flowers grow in clusters at 
the top of the stalks, and, when they fall off, are succeeded by 
round seed-vessels, the size of a pea. When the harvest-time 
comes, it is not cut like wheat and oats, but is pulled. As fast as 
the stalks are pulled, they are made up into sheaves, with all the 
stalks laid parallel and all the root-ends even. It is then left for a 
few days to dry in the sun. The seed is then separated from the 
stem, as illustrated in Fig. i. 

360 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate XI 




Fig. I.— Removing Ihe Seed. 




Fig. 1. — Pounding, Breaking, and Hackling. 



TEXTILE WORK IN LINEN 361 

This apparatus is easily made by the pupils in manual train- 
ing, and consists of only a bench and a comb made of quarter-inch 
iron rods, the ends being ground to a point on the emery wheel or 
grinding-stone, and set in a piece of hard wood i2"X2"Xi''. 
The comb is held to the bench by means of small clamps, or is 
screwed down. The process of removing the seed is rather a 
particular one, as great care must be taken not to injure nor break 
the upper stems. 

After the seed has been separated from the stalk, the stalks are 
tied up in small bundles and placed in water to soak. Care should 
be taken that it is completely immersed. Standing water, a pond 
or slough, is preferable. It must be remembered that a wagon- 
load of flax is not needed with which to experiment. The 
quantity which it is possible to grow in a flower-bed or even a 
window-box, if properly cared for, will answer for experimental 
purposes. A small amount may be soaked in almost any kind of 
receptacle. The time for soaking varies according to the tem- 
perature of the water. Usually three of four days is sufficient in 
the vicinity of Chicago. When the fibers begin to separate from 
the stem, and the woody core of the stalk snaps readily, it should 
be removed from the water. If allowed to remain there too long, 
the fibers as well as the stem rot. This process is called retting 
the flax. After it is removed from the water, it is spread upon the 
grass to dry and bleach. 

The retting process may be carried on without placing the flax 
in water. It is accomplished by spreading the flax on the grass, 
allowing it to remain until the dew and rain have done the retting. 
This method requires a longer time. With the inexperienced per- 
son the results might be more satisfactory if the two methods were 
combined. Soak in water for about two days, and then spread 
upon the grass, allowing the dew and rain to complete the process. 

We are now ready to begin the breaking. Before this process 
is begim, the stalks are thoroughly dried. With us the sheaves of 
flax were placed upon the register. This causes them to become 
very brittle. Before the flax is placed in the brake, it is put on a 
block of wood and thoroughly pounded, as shown in the right of 



362 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

Fig. 2. This really begins the breaking. It is then placed in the 
regular brake, as shown in the center of Fig. 2. This brake is a 
simple piece of apparatus, also made by the boys. We have three 
brakes, of varying sizes, the smallest being made in such a way as 
to break such parts of the woody core as are not brdcen by the 
largest. This breaking is done to get the fibers free from the 
woody cores of the stalk and thus make them ready for use. 

After the breaking has been thoroughly done, what remains is 
hackled. The hackling consists in passing the flax through a 
series of combs, as represented in the left of Fig. 2. The hackle 
is not a difficult piece of apparatus to make. It consists of wire 
nails ground into long, sharp points. These are driven through 
a circular or rectangular piece of wood, banded with an iron strip, 
and glued and screwed to a support, as shown to the left of 
Fig. 2. The process of hackling removes many of the pieces of 
stalk not removed by the brake, and it also splits the fibers. Even 
after this process is completed, there are still bits of the stalk left 
To remove the last of it, the flax is brushed, as is shown in 

Fig. 3- 

The flax is now ready for the distaff, and is spun into thread, 
as shown in Fig. 4. If linen cloth of the natural color is 
desired, it is woven into cloth at once ; but if the white effect is 
wanted, the thread is sometimes boiled and bleached before 
weaving. Oftener, however, the thread is woven and the cloth 
bleached. The quickest way to accomplish this is to use chloride 
of lime. The part of the thread to be used as woof is taken from 
the spool of the spinning-wheel and placed on the bobbins of the 
shuttles to be used in weaving. That part of the thread to be 
used as warp is measured off on a large reel. From the warping- 
mill it is taken to the warp-beam of the loom. The ends of the 
thread are threaded through the harnesses and reed, and fastened 
to the cloth-beam just beneath the harnesses. The loom is now 
ready for the woof. 

This line of work might readily be carried out in schools where 
space for planting purposes is not so valuable as in Chicago and 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate XII 








Fig. z — Brushing the Fla> 




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TEXTILE WORK IN UNEN 363 

vicinity. It is especially adapted to the sixth grade, because of its 
close relation to the history work of that grade and the linen 
industries of Ireland. So far as possible, all the hand-work in the 
Yale School is related to other lines of school work as outlined in 
the course of study. 



THE MAKING OF BEET SUGAR 

SEVENTH GRADE — FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL 



HENRY T. MORTENSEN 
Teacher 



Experiments in the growing of sugar beets, and the manu- 
facture of sugar from them, have been carried on by the children 
of the sixth and seventh grades at intervals, through a period of 
three years. During this time the children have studied the vari- 
ous industries of the United States, and the manufacture of sugar 
was chosen as a typical industry, offering opportunities for study 
and experiment adapted to the comprehension and ability of die 
children. 

Each attempt has contributed some improvement in method* 
and the results each time have been more satisfactory than those 
of the preceding year. Though sugar has not been obtained, the 
results have been sufficiently encouraging to the class to warrant 
the continuation of the work. 

In the spring of 1904 two plots, each four by sixteen feet, were 
set aside for the growing of sugar beets. The sixth and seventh 
grades planted seeds of "Vilmorin's Imperial" variety. The 
seventh grade mixed one and one-third poimds of fertilizer wiA 
the soil of its plot, while the sixth grade used double that amount. 
Before the seeds were planted the classes estimated the total 
expense of planting the beets to be $34. This included the hauling 
and spreading of loam, the plowing under, the price of seed, and 
the price of the fertilizer. The seeds were planted in May, 1904. 
At the proper time the plants were thinned, and by the end of die 
school year were in condition to be left until harvesting time. 

When the school opened in October, the beets had attained a 
considerable size, but showed no signs of ripening. The approach 
of the heavy frosts of November, however, made it necessary to 
prepare for harvesting. 

364 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate XIII 



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THE MAKING OF BEET SUGAR 3^5 

For supplementary reading the seventh grade used the follow- 
ing articles, entitled " Sugar Beets," " Maturing of the Beet," and 
"Manufacture of Sugar." These were adapted from Ham- 
burger's Beet Grawe/s Manual and given to the children in type- 
written form. 

SUGAR BEETS 

A good sugar beet should be regularly shaped (cone-, pear-, or olive- 
shape). Many side roots are disadvantageous, because they make cleaning 
difficult and increase waste. The side roots and poor shape of beets are often 
due to shallow plowing or a too impervious subsoil. Small beets are, as a rule, 
richer in sugar than large ones. The ideal weight is considered to be about 
one and a half to two pounds, and the beets should not be more than fourteen 
inches in length. The head should be small. 

The leaves of the plant should be thick, and those which lie fiat are to be 
preferred, as protecting the beet against frost 

It is important not only that a sugar beet should be of the proper shape 
and size, but also that it should be grown in such a maimer as to secure the 
protection of the soil for all of its parts except the neck and foliage. This 
position can be secured for the beet only by growing it in a soil sufficiently 
pervious to permit the penetration of the tap root to a great depth. 

If the beet in its growth should meet a practially impervious soil at a 
depth of eight or ten inches, the tap root will be deflected from its natural 
course, lateral roots will be developed, the^beet will become disfigured and 
disturbed in shape, and the upper portion of it will be pushed out of the 
ground. Experience has shown that the content of sugar in the portions of a 
beet which are pushed above the soil is very greatly diminished. 



MATURING OF THE BEET — HARVESTING 

A sure sign of the ripening of the beet is the change of the dark green 
color of the beet fields into a light yellowish-green. All of the large outside 
leaves will be found to have withered away, leaving only the " heart " with its 
yellowish-green leaves to stand. Of course, it is only by chemical analysis that 
the ripeness can be accurately established, and the beets should not be con- 
sidered fully matured until the sugar content is found to increase no more. 

It requires about four and one-half to five months after planting to procure 
ripe beets. The time of our Indian summer is the main period of the forma- 
tion of the sugar in the beet. The beet does not grow larger, but its weight 
and sugar content materially increase. Simple freezing of the beet would not 
cause any change in the sugar content, but alternate freezing and thawing 
would cause it to turn black and reduce its content. A sudden change of 
temperature unfavorably affects a slightly frozen beet 



366 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

After the beets have been loosened with a thin bladed plow which splits 
the earth between the rows, or a puller which loosens without removing them, 
the beets must be topped. The topper grasps the leaves in the left hand, and 
with the right removes the crown or top of the beet by one blow, cutting just 
at the base of the bottom leaf. 

It is important that the top of the beet be cut off down to the neck so as 
to include with the top all that portion of the beet to which the stems of the 
leaves have been attached. The object of removing this portion of the beet is 
to prevent the mineral salts, which have accumulated in large quantities 
therein, from entering the factory. These mineral salts exercise a very 
deleterious influence on the crystallization of sugar, and therefore should be 
removed. They are well fitted for fertilization purposes, and are of more 
value when left upon the soil than when removed to the factory. 



MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR 

Internally the beet root is built up of a large number of concentric rings, 
formed of a much larger number of small cells or cylinders, each of which is 
filled with a watery solution of several substances other than sugar. 

The first process through which the beets are put after being washed and 
weighed is that of slicing. The slicing is done by a machine which does it in 
such a way that the slices will not lie too closely together when the diffusing 
liquid is passed through. 

As explained above, the cells contain impurities. Only crystallizable 
material — i. e., the sugar in this instance — is able to pass through the cell 
walls. It is desirable, therefore, that the slicer rupture as few of the cells as 
possible, and at the same time expose as large a surface as possible, thus keep- 
ing the sugar free from impurities and making the cell membranes accessible 
to the diffusing liquid. 

By the methods formerly used the beets were ground into a fine pulp. 
Thus the cells were torn, and their entire contents, sugar as well as salts, and 
other impurities, were carried into the juice which was obtained from the pulp 
by pressing, maceration, or centrifugal force. Thus a great deal of foreign 
matter was present in the juice and made its purification very difficult. At 
present, however, what is known as the diffusion process is universally used. 
It differs from the old one in that the juice is no longer separated by pressure, 
but by diffusion. The hot water acting upon the cell membranes of the sliced 
beets allows the sugar in the cell to diffuse with the water on the outside until 
it contains the same percentage of sugar as that on the inside. 

By means of a revolving chute, the fresh beet slices, called cossettes, are 
conveyed into large, cylindrical, closed tanks or cells of a diffusion battery on 
the floor below. These cells (each holding about two to two and a half tons) 
are arranged in a circle or in straight rows, connected by piping and valves to 
facilitate filling with fresh sliced beets, and discharging the pulp or slices from 



THE MAKING OF BEET SUGAR 367 

which the sugar has been exhausted. It is in the difiFusion battery that the 
sugar held in solution in the cells of the beets is extracted. 

The operation proceeds as follows : First one cell is filled with cossettes, 
and hot water (80° C.) is admitted until the cell is filled. Assuming now that 
the beets contain 12 per cent, of sugar, an interchange takes place, and the 
cossettes give up their sugar until only 6 per cent, remains, the other 6 per 
cent, having been taken up by the water. Meanwhile the next cell has been 
filled with cossettes, and the water containing 6 per cent of the sugar is forced 
into it, having been heated to 80® C. in transit. In this second cell again an 
interchange takes place, but the water, containing already 6 per cent sugar, 
will extract but half the difference between' the sugar in it and in the cossettes ; 
this water will now contain 9 per cent, of sugar, and is forced into the third 
cell, where it will again absorb half the difference between its own sugar and 
the cossettes. The same process is continued until the water has become suffi- 
ciently rich in sugar for evaporation. In the meantime fresh water has again 
been forced into the first cell, and passes through the number of filled cells in 
regular order. When the cossettes in the first cell have become exhausted of 
their sugar by continued passage of fresh water, the contents are discharged 
through a trap door and replaced by a fresh charge, and cell No. i now 
becomes the last in the series. The second cell is next to be exhausted and 
recharged in its turn, and thus every following cell continuously. 

After the juice has been taken from the diffusion battery, milk of lime is 
added, which combines with the non-saccharine substances. To remove these, 
carbonic-acid gas is passed through the juice, and the precipitate is removed 
by filtering. The juice is treated with sulphuric-acid gas, and passed on into 
evaporators, where it is boiled down to a syrup. When this stage has been 
reached, it is boiled to a grain in a vacuum pan. The large crystals are 
separated from the smaller ones and the molasses by centrifugals. These are 
then bleached, dried, and packed ready for the market. 

After reading the first article, the class examined the stand of 
beets in the garden and made written reports on its condition, of 
which the following is among the best : 

OUR BEET CROP 
HELEN CONNOR 

We found our sugar beets in fairly good condition, and pulled 
up several that had grown above the groimd a great deal. These 
beets showed us that they had grown a few inches (seven or 
eight) into the soil, but had come to impervious soil, through 
which their roots could not penetrate, so they had turned to one 
side and also had forced the beet far out of the ground. 



368 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

The part that remains above the ground has to be cut off 
before the rest of the beet can be made into sugar, because that top 
has minerals in it that would prevent the sugar from crystallizing. 
(Corrected paper.) 

No differences in the crops of the two plots due to the fertilizer 
were discovered. , 

The severity of the frosts necessitated the removal of the 
beets from the ground November 15, 1904. The beets, topped, 
trimmed, and washed, weighed 160 pounds, averaging about one 
and one-half poimds each. Sample beets which were tested by 
Mr. W. W. Wolfe, chief chemist of the Rock County Sugar Q>., 
showed a sugar content of about 12 per cent., which is very low. 
A good beet should contain over 20 per cent, of sugar. 

The following description of the process used by the class was 
written by one of its members : 

MAKING OF BEET SUGAR 
CLAUDINE v. STURM 

As the beets were pulled up from the garden, the tops were 
chopped off with a hatchet. It was necessary to use a hatchet, 
because none of the knives at the school were heavy enough to cut 
through the beets. After this they were brought to the laboratory, 
where we washed and weighed them. The next process was the 
shredding. This we did with a simple kind of grater. See Fig. 2. 

After the shredding we put the cossettes (shredded beets) in 
a large canvas. This canvas we folded and put into a large press, 
which squeezed all the juice out of the cossettes. Into this juice 
we put lime, which combined with the impurities, and kept the 
juice from fermenting. 

The carbon dioxide which we passed through the juice made 
all the impurities settle to the bottom of the jar. This gas we made 
by putting marble chips into a generator. On this marble we 
poured hydrochloric acid, and the gas formed passed from the 
generator through a glass tube into the jar with the juice in it 

To get this purified juice from the jar without disturbing the 
sediment, we siphoned it from one jar to another. This juice we 



The Elementary School Teacher, V Plate XIV 





Fio. S. — Preparing the Beets. 



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THE MAKING OF BEET SUGAR 369 

put through filter paper, which further purified it. The last pro- 
cess was the boiling down of the juice. This was done in a 
granite-ware pan, which was placed over several Bunsen burners. 
It required about fourteen or fifteen hours of boiling to reduce 
it to the stage at which crystallization should take place. (Cor- 
rected paper.) 

The product resulting from these experiments is a thick, dark- 
brown substance, which, according to sugar experts, contains a 
considerable percentage of sugar. The cause of its failure to 
crystallize is probably twofold : first, that at some time during the 
various stages it became acid ; second, that after the final boiling 
down it was allowed to cool too rapidly. 

Such apparatus as could be devised and used in the school was 
employed in the work. The shredders were such as are used in 
kitchens for shredding vegetables (see picture. Fig. 2). The 
press was designed as a book-press, but it was fairly well adapted 
for squeezing the juice from the beets. 

It was necessary to incline it so that the juice might run into 
the pan below. A press was needed to obtain the juice from the 
beets, because the diffusion process previously explained gives 
too dilute a product to be practical with the facilities for handling 
it which are available in the school. 

During the winter term the grade will attempt to obtain 
sugar from the product of the experiments, by a process suggested 
by Mr. Alfred Musy, sugar expert, of Detroit, Mich. The process 
consists of dissolving the product in water and precipitating the 
sugar by means of barium hydrate. This precipitate must be 
washed, dissolved in hot water, and carbonated. After filtration, 
it must be evaporated again, allowed to cool slowly, and very 
thoroughly washed. 

Note. — This work with beet sugar has been only a part of the science 
work of the sixth and seventh grades. For a complete outline see the 
Catalogue of the Francis W. Parker School. 



370 THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER 

A MORNING EXERCISE 

SUGAR-BEET MAKING 

As an outcome of the work in the making of sugar from sugar 
beets, the seventh grade gave a " Morning Exercise " to the entire 
school. While a group of children performed all the operations 
involved, except those of topping, washing, and weighing, others 
explained the processes as follows : 

WHAT I TOLD IN MORNING EXERCISES 
MARGARET BENTLEY 

I told the school that we took from the ground the beets which 
we planted last year. We chopped off most of the tap roots and 
all of the beets which had been pushed up above the ground. 
Then we washed them. When we weighed tliem, we found the 
total weight to be 1 60 pounds. 

I showed the children some of our beets, which were almost all 
short and chunky. I also compared them with two beets from a 
sugar factory. One was from French seed, and the other from 
German seed. The French beet was considered the better, because 
it was longer and thinner. (Corrected paper.) 

WHAT I TOLD IN MORNING EXERCISES 
FLORENCE WIEBOLDT 

After the beets were weighed, they were shredded. The 
shreds looked very much like cold slaw. They were wrapped in 
canvas, and the parcel was put into the press and squeezed until 
all the juice was pressed out. (Corrected paper.) 

WHAT I TOLD IN MORNING EXERCISES 

LETITIA FYFFE 

After the juice had been squeezed from the shredded beets 
and put into a jar I tested it with litmus paper and foimd that it 
was neither acid nor alkaline ; so I added enough lime to cause the 
liquid to turn the litmus paper blue. 

Then I used a Florence flask with a quantity of ground marble 
at the bottom of it. From the flask a bent tube reached into the 



THE MAKING OP BEET SUGAR 371 

jar of juice. Through another tube which led into the flask I 
poured hydrochloric acid (see picture, Fig. 3). The acid, acting 
upon the marble, made carbon dioxide. The gas passed through 
the bent tube into the sugar juice, causing all the impurities to 
settle to the bottom. (Corrected paper.) 

WHAT I TOLD IN MORNING EXERQSES 

LAURA DELANO 

After the impurities had settled to the bottom of the jar, I 
siphoned off the upper part of the sugar juice and put it into the 
filter (see picture. Fig. 3). After it had all filtered through, I 
put it into a pan ready to be boiled down into sugar. (Corrected 
paper.) 



NOTES FROM PARENTS' ASSOCIATIONS 



MRS. HELEN MALEY HEFFERAN 
President of Illinois Congress of Mothers, 



At the December meeting of the Parents' Association of the 
Chicago Normal School the subject of " Christmas Giving " was 
discussed. 

Mrs. H. W. Thurston spoke of the opinion that is expressed so 
frequently in these days, that the spirit of Christmas giving is not 
what it should be ; that it is marred by overdoing and overstrain ; 
that a sense of obligation and of paying debts often takes the 
place of free expression of love and good-will. Mrs. Thurston 
maintained that these things are the result of the strenuous method 
of life in American cities ; that something enters into our home for 
its detriment and into our school life to its harm. To quote from 
the speaker's words : 

We give oniselves too little leisure to consider the spirit of anything. We 
are too much absorbed in doing things to consider why we do them or how 
they should be done ; too much absorbed in buying Christmas presents to con- 
sider sufficiently the spirit of giving. The spirit of Christmas giving is lave. 
How this would simplify matters for us, if we were to allow it ! Let us give 
in love — never for any other reason — and teach our children to give in love. 

Mrs. Thurston advised that the children begin with the home 
circ